I thought it would be helpful to do a summary/list with obstacles we can find and so must be taken into account in exercising Critical Thinking, so far this what I found, if someone remember or find more please feel free to add:
The lack of essential background knowledge or information on a subject .
Taking into the mind information that, though memorized, we do not understand-despite the fact that we think we do. It leads us to think we understand what something means, though most of us do not translate it into any practical criteria.
Personal Biases and Prejudices
Preformed opinions, resulting from our own unique life experiences and worldview.
Confirmation Bias and Selective Thinking
A tendency to favor information that confirms one’s beliefs, and to ignore, not look for, or undervalue the relevance of what contradicts one’s beliefs.
The tendency to cherish and defend those beliefs most closely associated with an individual's identity.
The tendency to take the side of your own ethnic group rather than objectively thinking about the situation.
The desire to just go along with what everyone else says regardless of what you might say if you actually thought about it.
Not being aware of our own perception limitations that can lead to misconceptions about reality.
Physical and Emotional
Stress, fatigue, drugs, and related hindrances can severely affect our ability to think clearly and critically.
Language that deliberately disguises, distorts, or reverses the meaning of words.
The use of inoffensive words or expressions to mislead, disarm, or deceive us about unpleasant realities.
The use of technical language to make the simple seem complex, the trivial seem profound, or the insignificant seem important, all done intentionally to impress others.
Intentionally using words to arouse feelings about a subject to bias others positively or negatively, in order to gain influence or power.
Language that is psychologically persuasive but does not have extra logical force.
Occurs when a statement, which may be clear and even true, implies that something else is true or false when it isn't.
Language which is less precise than the context requires, its meaning is fuzzy or inexact.
Making a comparison that is irrelevant or inappropriate.
Argument from Ignorance
A logical fallacy claiming something is true because it has not been proven false.
Making illogical analogies to support the validity of a particular claim.
A type of illusion or misperception involving a vague or obscure stimulus being perceived as something clear and distinct
The process by which a claim, independent of its validity, becomes a strong belief through repeated assertion by members of a community.
Evading the Issue
If one has been accused of wrongdoing, diverting attention to an issue irrelevant to the one at hand.
Fallacy of False Dilemma
Intentionally restricting the number of alternatives, thereby omitting relevant alternatives from consideration.
Wishful Thinking & Self Deception
The process of misinterpreting facts, reports, events, perceptions, etc, because we want them to be true.
The view that truth is a matter of opinion.