Author Topic: Histrionic Personality Disorder  (Read 6400 times)

Offline Harold

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Histrionic Personality Disorder
« on: January 12, 2012, 07:32:03 PM »
*Note to Mods: I did not know where to put this thread... so I have put it in this section. Please move it to a more appropriate section if there is one.

Histrionic personality disorder
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Caution
   This article may conflate the histrionic Personality Type, which is not clinical, with the histrionic personality disorder, which is. More, and clearer, explanations and sources from exclusively psychiatrically-verifiable origins, should be provided by editors to this page, to lessen and/or eliminate this alleged conflation.

Histrionic personality disorder (HPD) is defined by the American Psychiatric Association as a personality disorder characterized by a pattern of excessive emotionality and attention-seeking, including an excessive need for approval and inappropriately seductive behavior, usually beginning in early adulthood. These individuals are lively, dramatic, vivacious, enthusiastic, and flirtatious.

They may be inappropriately sexually provocative, express strong emotions with an impressionistic style, and be easily influenced by others. Associated features may include egocentrism, self-indulgence, continuous longing for appreciation, and persistent manipulative behavior to achieve their own needs.

Characteristics
People with this disorder are usually able to function at a high level and can be successful socially and professionally. People with histrionic personality disorder usually have good social skills, but they tend to use these skills to manipulate other people and become the center of attention.[1] Furthermore, histrionic personality disorder may affect a person's social or romantic relationships or their ability to cope with losses or failures. They may seek treatment for depression when romantic relationships end, although this is by no means a feature exclusive to this disorder.

They often fail to see their own personal situation realistically, instead tending to dramatize and exaggerate their difficulties. They may go through frequent job changes, as they become easily bored and have trouble dealing with frustration. Because they tend to crave novelty and excitement, they may place themselves in risky situations. All of these factors may lead to greater risk of developing depression.

Additional symptoms may include:

    Exhibitionist behavior.
    Constant seeking of reassurance or approval.
    Excessive dramatics with exaggerated displays of emotions, such as hugging someone they have just met or crying uncontrollably during a sad movie (Svrakie & Cloninger, 2005).
    Excessive sensitivity to criticism or disapproval.
    Proud of own personality, unwillingness to change and any change is viewed as a threat.
    Inappropriately seductive appearance or behavior.
    Somatic symptoms, and using these symptoms as a means of garnering attention.
    A need to be the center of attention.
    Low tolerance for frustration or delayed gratification.
    Rapidly shifting emotional states that may appear superficial or exaggerated to others.
    Tendency to believe that relationships are more intimate than they actually are.
    Making rash decisions.[1]

Causes
The cause of this disorder is unknown, but childhood events such as deaths in the immediate family, illnesses within the immediate family which present constant anxiety, divorce of parents and genetics may be involved. Histrionic Personality Disorder is more often diagnosed in women than men; men with some quite similar symptoms are often diagnosed with narcissistic personality disorder.[2]

Little research has been conducted to determine the biological sources, if any, of this disorder. Psychoanalytic theories incriminate authoritarian or distant attitudes by one (mainly mother) or both of the parents of these patients, or love based on expectations from the child that can never be fully met.[3]

Diagnosis
The person's appearance, behavior, and history, along with a psychological evaluation, are usually sufficient to establish the diagnosis. There is no test to confirm this diagnosis. Because the criteria are subjective, some people may be wrongly diagnosed as having the disorder while others with the disorder may not be diagnosed. Treatment is often prompted by depression associated with dissolved romantic relationships. Medication does little to affect this personality disorder, but may be helpful with symptoms such as depression. Psychotherapy may also be of benefit.[4]
[edit]

DSM-IV-TR 301.50
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fourth edition, DSM IV-TR, a widely used manual for diagnosing mental disorders, defines histrionic personality disorder (in Axis II Cluster B) as:[5]

    A pervasive pattern of excessive emotionality and attention seeking, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts, as indicated by five (or more) of the following:

        is uncomfortable in situations in which he or she is not the center of attention
        interaction with others is often characterized by inappropriate sexually seductive or provocative behavior
        displays rapidly shifting and shallow expression of emotions
        consistently uses physical appearance to draw attention to self
        has a style of speech that is excessively impressionistic and lacking in detail
        shows self-dramatization, theatricality, and exaggerated expression of emotion
        is suggestible, i.e., easily influenced by others or circumstances
        considers relationships to be more intimate than they actually are.

It is a requirement of DSM-IV that a diagnosis of any specific personality disorder also satisfies a set of general personality disorder criteria.

ICD-10
The World Health Organization's ICD-10 lists histrionic personality disorder as (F60.4) Histrionic personality disorder.[6]

    It is characterized by at least 3 of the following:

        self-dramatization, theatricality, exaggerated expression of emotions;
        suggestibility, easily influenced by others or by circumstances;
        shallow and labile affectivity;
        continual seeking for excitement and activities in which the patient is the center of attention;
        inappropriate seductiveness in appearance or behavior;
        over-concern with physical attractiveness.

It is a requirement of ICD-10 that a diagnosis of any specific personality disorder also satisfies a set of general personality disorder criteria.
 

Millon's subtypes
Theodore Millon identified six subtypes of histrionic.[7][8] Any individual histrionic may exhibit none or one of the following:

    Theatrical histrionic - especially dramatic, romantic and attention seeking.
    Infantile histrionic - including borderline features.
    Vivacious histrionic - synthesizes the seductiveness of the histrionic with the energy level typical of hypomania.
    Appeasing histrionic - including dependent and compulsive features.
    Tempestuous histrionic - including negativistic (passive-aggressive) features.
    Disingenuous histrionic - antisocial features.

Mnemonic
A mnemonic that can be used to remember the criteria for histrionic personality disorder is PRAISE ME:[9][10]

    P - provocative (or seductive) behavior
    R - relationships, considered more intimate than they are
    A - attention, must be at center of
    I - influenced easily
    S - speech (style) - wants to impress, lacks detail
    E - emotional lability, shallowness
    M - make-up - physical appearance used to draw attention to self
    E - exaggerated emotions - theatrical

Differential diagnosis
    Clinical depression
    Anxiety disorders
    Panic disorder
    Somatoform disorders

Treatment
Because of the lack of research support for work on personality disorders and long-term treatment with psychotherapy, the empirical findings on the treatment of these disorders remain based on the case report method and not on clinical trials. On the basis of case presentations, the treatment of choice is psychotherapy and/or cognitive-behavioral therapy, aimed at self-development through resolution of conflict and advancement of inhibited developmental lines. Group therapy can assist individuals with HPD to learn to decrease the display of excessively dramatic behaviors, but must be closely monitored because it may provide the person with an audience to play to (perform for), thus giving opportunity to perpetuate histrionic behavior.[11]

    Psychoanalytic psychotherapy
    Family therapy
    Medications
    Alternative therapies
    Cognitive behavioral therapy [12]

Epidemiology
This section requires expansion.

Major character traits may be inherited. Other character traits due to a phenotypical combination of genetics and environment, including childhood experiences[13]

History
   This section needs attention from an expert on the subject. See the talk page for details. WikiProject Psychology or the Psychology Portal may be able to help recruit an expert. (October 2009)
   This section contains information which may be of unclear or questionable importance or relevance to the article's subject matter. Please help improve this article by clarifying or removing superfluous information. (October 2009)

Histrionic personality disorder shares a divergent history with conversion disorder and somatization disorder. Historically, they are linked to the ancient notion of hysteria, or "wandering womb."[14] (Note, however, that according to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word "histrionic" derives not from the Greek hystera, but from the Latin histrionicus, "pertaining to an actor.") Ancient Greeks thought that excessive emotionality in women was caused by a displaced uterus and sexual discontent.

"Hysteria" differentiated into conversion hysteria (later to become conversion disorder) and hysterical personality (later to become histrionic personality disorder) in the psychoanalytic literature as well as with the writings of Kraepelin, Schneider, and others. Sigmund Freud wrote primarily about conversion hysteria. Wilhelm Reich wrote about hysteria as a set of personality characteristics and differentiated conversion hysteria as a transient disorder from hysterical character. These early conceptualizations of both kinds of hysteria carried notions of women's deficiency due to penis envy and feelings of castration. Paul Chodoff has written about the ways in which these diagnoses paralleled the misogynistic sentiment of the times.

The concept of hysterical personality was well developed by the mid-20th century and strongly resembled the current definition of histrionic personality disorder.[citation needed] The first DSM featured a symptom-based category, "hysteria" (conversion) and a personality-based category, "emotionally unstable personality." DSM-II distinguished between hysterical neurosis (conversion reaction and dissociative reaction) and hysterical (histrionic) personality.

In DSM-III, the term hysterical personality changed to histrionic personality disorder to emphasize the histrionic (derived from the Latin word histrio, or actor) behavior pattern and to reduce the confusion caused by the historical links of hysteria to conversion symptoms. The landmark case of Ruth E.[citation needed] helped to fully define and emphasize the characteristics of the current DSM-IV diagnostic. DSM-III-R attempted to reduce the overlap between Histrionic Personality Disorder and borderline personality disorder by dropping three overlapping criteria and adding two criteria that emphasized histrionicity. DSM-IV dropped two more criteria that did not appear to contribute to the consistency of the diagnosis, according to research done by Bruce Pfohl.

See also
    Femme fatale
    Making a mountain out of a molehill

References
    ^ a b "Histrionic Personality Disorder". Histrionic Personality Disorder. The Cleveland Clinic. Retrieved 2011-11-23.
    ^ Seligman, Martin E.P (1984). "11". Abnormal Psychology. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 039394459X.
    ^ "Histrionic Personality Disorder". Personality Disorders. WebMD. 2006. Retrieved 2007-01-10.
    ^ Psych Central: Histrionic Personality Disorder Treatment
    ^ Histrionic personality disorder - Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth edition Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) American Psychiatric Association (2000)
    ^ Histrionic personality disorder - International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10)
    ^ Millon, Theodore, Personality Disorders in Modern Life, 2004
    ^ Millon, Theodore - Personality Subtypes
    ^ Pinkofsky HB. Mnemonics for DSM-IV personality disorders. Psychiatr Serv. 1997 Sep;48(9):1197-8. PMID 9285984.
    ^ Personality Disorders. www.personalityresearch.org. URL: http://www.personalityresearch.org/pd.html. Accessed May 2, 2006.
    ^ "Histrionic Personality Disorder". Histrionic Personality Disorder - Choice of Treatment. Armenian Medical Network. 2006. Retrieved 2007-01-10.
    ^ "Histrionic Personality Disorder". Histrionic Personality Disorder - Choice of Treatment. Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders - Thomson Gale, a part of the Thomson Corporation. Retrieved 2007-01-10.
    ^ "Histrionic Personality Disorder". Histrionic Personality Disorder: Description, Incidence, Prevalence, Risk Factors, Causes, Associated Conditions, Diagnosis, Signs and symptoms and treatment. Armenian Medical Network. 2006. Retrieved 2007-01-10.
    ^ Prochaska, J. & Norcross, J. (2007). Systems of Psychotherapy: A Transtheoretical Analysis.Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole.

External links
    Histrionic personality disorder - Causes, Diagnosis, Demographics, Treatment - well-referenced.
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Taken from this site:  http://my.clevelandclinic.org/disorders/personality_disorders/hic_histrionic_personality_disorder.aspx


Histrionic Personality Disorder

What is histrionic personality disorder?


Histrionic personality disorder is one of a group of conditions called dramatic personality disorders. People with these disorders have intense, unstable emotions and distorted self-images. For people with histrionic personality disorder, their self-esteem depends on the approval of others and does not arise from a true feeling of self-worth. They have an overwhelming desire to be noticed, and often behave dramatically or inappropriately to get attention. The word histrionic means “dramatic or theatrical.”

This disorder is more common in women than in men and usually is evident by early adulthood.

What are the symptoms of histrionic personality disorder?
In many cases, people with histrionic personality disorder have good social skills; however, they tend to use these skills to manipulate others so that they can be the center of attention.

A person with this disorder might also:

    Be uncomfortable unless he or she is the center of attention
    Dress provocatively and/or exhibit inappropriately seductive or flirtatious behavior
    Shift emotions rapidly
    Act very dramatically as though performing before an audience with exaggerated emotions and expressions, yet appears to lack sincerity
    Be overly concerned with physical appearance
    Constantly seek reassurance or approval
    Be gullible and easily influenced by others
    Be excessively sensitive to criticism or disapproval
    Have a low tolerance for frustration and be easily bored by routine, often beginning projects without finishing them or skipping from one event to another
    Not think before acting
    Make rash decisions
    Be self-centered and rarely show concern for others
    Have difficulty maintaining relationships, often seeming fake or shallow in their dealings with others
    Threaten or attempt suicide to get attention

What causes histrionic personality disorder?
The exact cause of histrionic personality disorder is not known, but many mental health professionals believe that both learned and inherited factors play a role in its development. For example, the tendency for histrionic personality disorder to run in families suggests that a genetic susceptibility for the disorder might be inherited. However, the child of a parent with this disorder might simply be repeating learned behavior. Other environmental factors that might be involved include a lack of criticism or punishment as a child, positive reinforcement that is given only when a child completes certain approved behaviors, and unpredictable attention given to a child by his or her parent(s), all leading to confusion about what types of behavior earn parental approval.

How is histrionic personality disorder diagnosed?
If symptoms are present, the doctor will begin an evaluation by performing a complete medical history and physical examination. Although there are no laboratory tests to specifically diagnose personality disorders, the doctor might use various diagnostic tests to rule out physical illness as the cause of the symptoms.

If the doctor finds no physical reason for the symptoms, he or she might refer the person to a psychiatrist or psychologist, health care professionals who are specially trained to diagnose and treat mental illnesses. Psychiatrists and psychologists use specially designed interview and assessment tools to evaluate a person for a personality disorder.

How is histrionic personality disorder treated?
In general, people with histrionic personality disorder do not believe they need therapy. They also tend to exaggerate their feelings and to dislike routine, which makes following a treatment plan difficult. However, they might seek help if depression — possibly associated with a loss or a failed relationship — or another problem caused by their thinking and behavior causes them distress.

Psychotherapy (a type of counseling) is generally the treatment of choice for histrionic personality disorder. The goal of treatment is to help the individual uncover the motivations and fears associated with his or her thoughts and behavior, and to help the person learn to relate to others in a more positive way.

Medication might be used to treat the distressing symptoms, such as depression and anxiety, that might co-occur with this disorder.

What are the complications of histrionic personality disorder?
Histrionic personality disorder can affect a person's social or romantic relationships and how a person reacts to losses or failures. People with this disorder are also at higher risk than the general population to suffer from depression.

What is the outlook for people with histrionic personality disorder?
Many people with this disorder are able to function well socially and at work. Those with severe cases, however, might experience significant problems in their daily lives.

Can histrionic personality disorder be prevented?
Although prevention of the disorder might not be possible, treatment can allow a person who is prone to this disorder to learn more productive ways of dealing with situations.

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« Last Edit: January 12, 2012, 07:45:48 PM by Harold »
In order to practice controlled folly, since it is not a way to fool or chastise people or feel superior to them, one has to be capable of laughing at oneself. One of the results of a detailed recapitulation is genuine laughter upon coming face to face with the boring repetition of one's self-esteem, which is at the core of all human interactions.
--Don Juan The Eagle's Gift

Offline Harold

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Re: Histrionic Personality Disorder
« Reply #1 on: January 12, 2012, 08:19:48 PM »
Femme fatale
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about a type of dangerous woman. For other uses, see Femme fatale (disambiguation).

A femme fatale (play /ˌfɛm fəˈtæl/ or /ˌfɛm fəˈtɑːl/; French: [fam fatal], with all [a]'s) is a mysterious and seductive woman[1] whose charms ensnare her lovers in bonds of irresistible desire, often leading them into compromising, dangerous, and deadly situations. She is an archetype of literature and art. Her ability to entrance and hypnotize her victim with a spell was in the earliest stories seen as being literally supernatural; hence, the femme fatale today is still often described as having a power akin to an enchantress, seductress, vampire, witch, or demon.

The phrase is French for "deadly woman". A femme fatale tries to achieve her hidden purpose by using feminine wiles such as beauty, charm, and sexual allure. In some situations, she uses lying or coercion rather than charm. She may also make use of some subduing weapon such as sleeping gas, a modern analog of magical powers in older tales. She may also be (or imply to be) a victim, caught in a situation from which she cannot escape; The Lady from Shanghai (a 1947 film noir) is one such example. A younger version of a femme fatale would be called a fille fatale, or "deadly girl."

Although typically villainous, if not morally ambiguous, femmes fatales have also appeared as antiheroines in some stories, and some even repent and become true heroines by the end of the tale. Some stories even feature benevolent and heroic femmes fatales who use their wiles to snare the villain for the greater good. In social life, a more malevolent femme fatale tends to torture her lover in an asymmetrical relationship, denying confirmation of her affection. She usually drives him to the point of obsession and exhaustion, so that he is incapable of making rational decisions.

History

Ancient archetypes

The femme fatale was a common figure in the European Middle Ages, often portraying the dangers of unbridled female sexuality. The pre-medieval inherited Biblical figure of Eve offers an example, as does the wicked, seductive enchantress typified in Morgan le Fay.

The femme fatale flourished in the Romantic period in the works of John Keats, notably "La Belle Dame sans Merci" and "Lamia". Along with them, there rose the gothic novel, The Monk featuring Matilda, a very powerful femme fatale. This led to her appearing in the work of Edgar Allan Poe, and as the vampire, notably in Carmilla and Brides of Dracula. The Monk was greatly admired by the Marquis de Sade, for whom the femme fatale symbolised not evil, but all the best qualities of Women, with his novel Juliette being perhaps the earliest wherein the femme fatale triumphs. Pre-Raphaelite painters frequently used the classic personifications of the femme fatale as a subject.

In the Western culture of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the femme fatale became a more fashionable trope, and she is found in the paintings of the artists Edvard Munch, Gustav Klimt, Franz von Stuck and Gustave Moreau. The novel À rebours by Joris-Karl Huysmans includes these fevered imaginings about an image of Salome in a Moreau painting:

    No longer was she merely the dancing-girl who extorts a cry of lust and concupiscence from an old man by the lascivious contortions of her body; who breaks the will, masters the mind of a King by the spectacle of her quivering bosoms, heaving belly and tossing thighs; she was now revealed in a sense as the symbolic incarnation of world-old Vice, the goddess of immortal Hysteria, the Curse of Beauty supreme above all other beauties by the cataleptic spasm that stirs her flesh and steels her muscles, – a monstrous Beast of the Apocalypse, indifferent, irresponsible, insensible, poisoning.[4]

She also is seen as a prominent figure in late nineteenth and twentieth century opera, appearing in Richard Wagner's Parsifal (Kundry), George Bizet's "Carmen", Camille Saint-Saëns' "Samson et Delilah" and Alban Berg's "Lulu" (based on the plays "Erdgeist" and "Die Büchse der Pandora" by Frank Wedekind).

In fin-de-siècle decadence, Oscar Wilde reinvented the femme fatale in the play Salome: she manipulates her lust-crazed uncle, King Herod, with her enticing Dance of the Seven Veils (Wilde's invention) to agree to her imperious demand: "bring me the head of John the Baptist". Later, Salome was the subject of an opera by Strauss, was popularized on stage, screen, and peep-show booth in countless reincarnations.[5]

Another enduring icon of glamour, seduction, and moral turpitude is Margaretha Geertruida, 1876–1917. While working as an exotic dancer, she took the stage name Mata Hari. Although she may have been innocent, she was accused of German espionage and was put to death by a French firing squad. After her death she became the subject of many sensational films and books.

20th century film and theatre
The femme fatale has been portrayed as a sexual vampire; her charms leach the virility and independence of lovers, leaving them shells of themselves. Rudyard Kipling was inspired by a vampire painted by Philip Burne-Jones, an image typical of the era in 1897, to write his poem "The Vampire". Like much of Kipling's verse it was incredibly popular, and its refrain: "A fool there was...", describing a seduced man, became the title of the popular 1915 film A Fool There Was that made Theda Bara a star. The poem was used in the publicity for the film. On this account, in early American slang the femme fatale was called a vamp, short for vampire.[6]

From the American film audience perspective, the femme fatale often was foreign, usually either of an indeterminate Eastern European or Asian ancestry. She was the sexual counterpart to wholesome actresses such as Lillian Gish and Mary Pickford. Notable silent cinema vamps were Theda Bara(emphasis mine), Helen Gardner, Louise Glaum, Valeska Suratt, Musidora, Virginia Pearson, Olga Petrova, Nita Naldi, Pola Negri, Estelle Taylor and in her early appearances, Myrna Loy.

During the film noir era of the 1940s and 1950s, the femme fatale flourished in American cinema. Examples include the overly possessive and narcissistic wife Ellen Brent Harland, portrayed by Gene Tierney, in Leave Her to Heaven (1945), who will stop at nothing to keep her husband's affections. Another is Brigid O'Shaughnessy, portrayed by Mary Astor, who uses her acting skills to murder Sam Spade's partner in The Maltese Falcon (1941). Yet another is the cabaret singer portrayed by Rita Hayworth in Gilda (1946),[7] who sexually manipulates her husband and his best friend. Another noir femme fatale is Phyllis Dietrichson, played by Barbara Stanwyck, who seduces a hapless insurance salesman and persuades him to kill her husband in Double Indemnity (1944). Like "Double Indemnity", based on another novel by James M. Cain , there is Lana Turner as Cora in The Postman Always Rings Twice, in which she manipulates John Garfield to kill her husband.[7] In the Hitchcock film The Paradine Case (1947), the character played by Alida Valli is a poisonous femme fatale who is responsible for the deaths of two men and the near destruction of another. One frequently cited example is the character of Jane in Too Late for Tears (1949), played by Lizabeth Scott. During her quest to keep some dirty money from its rightful recipient and her husband, she uses poison, lies, sexual teasing and a gun to keep men wrapped around her finger. Today, she remains a key character in films such as Body Heat, with Kathleen Turner; The Last Seduction, with Linda Fiorentino; To Die For, with Nicole Kidman; Basic Instinct, with Sharon Stone; Femme Fatale, with Rebecca Romijn; and American Beauty, with Mena Suvari.

In popular culture
In contemporary culture, the femme fatale survives as heroine and anti-heroine, in Nikita and Moulin Rouge! (2001) as well in video games and comic books. Jessica Rabbit (voiced by Kathleen Turner) from Who Framed Roger Rabbit? is a parody of the femme fatale. Æon Flux is the titular femme fatale of MTV's eponymous animation series. Elektra from Marvel Comics, Catwoman and Poison Ivy from the Batman series, Fujiko Mine from Lupin the 3rd, Misa Amane from Death Note, and Mystique from X-Men are all examples. In video games, Bayonetta, titular character of action game, Bayonetta, Ada Wong of the Resident Evil series, Rouge the Bat in Sonic the Hedgehog series, and Mileena from Mortal Kombat are several examples of a femme fatale.

Other cultural examples of deadly women occur in espionage thrillers, and adventure comic strips, such as The Spirit, by Will Eisner, Terry and the Pirates, by Milton Caniff, and the sexy superspy The Baroness by Paul Kenyon. Buffy the Vampire Slayer a highly successful American TV show, also presents a beautiful and dangerous heroine in the form of the character Faith. The Velvet Underground song "Femme Fatale", on The Velvet Underground & Nico album, tells of a woman (Edie Sedgwick) who will "play" a man "for a fool." Examples from the science fiction genre are Saffron from the Firefly episodes "Our Mrs. Reynolds" and "Trash", Lady Christina de Souza from the Doctor Who special Planet of the Dead, Alexis LeBlanc from Gallifrey High, Sarah Connor from the Terminator series, as well as Cameron Philips and Catherine Weaver from Terminator: The Sarah Connor Chronicles. Yet others include the Enchantress in Marvel Comics, The shrewd, seductive and lethal Baroness in G.I. Joe: A Real American Hero and Cinnamon Carter in Mission: Impossible. Natasha Fatale, of The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, is a comical version of the trope.

Britney Spears released an album in 2011 which is titled Femme Fatale and because of it she is now widely known as the "Femme Fatale of Pop".[8]<fer>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Honorific_nicknames_in_popular_music</ref>

Sociological views
The femme fatale has generated divergent opinions amongst social scholars. Some relate the concept to misogyny and fear of witchcraft.[9] Others say the femme fatale "remains an example of female independence and a threat to traditional female gender roles,"[10] or "expresses woman's ancient and eternal control of the sexual realm."

See also
    7 Khoon Maaf
    Anatomy of a Murder
    Anna Chapman
    Armida
    Bad girl movies
    Dragon Lady (stereotype)
    Enchantress[disambiguation needed ]
    Film Noir
    Girls with guns
    Gun moll
    Histrionic personality disorder
    Mulholland Drive (film)
    Psychological manipulation
    Something Wicked This Way Comes (film)
    Succubus
    Femme Fatale (Britney Spears album)

References
    ^ the penguin dictionary, femme fatale
    ^ Mario Praz, The Romantic Agony, ch. IV, p. 199: La Belle Dame sans Merci (The Beautiful Lady without Mercy). London/New York, 1933–1951–1970 (Oxford University Press).
    ^ Mario Praz (1970 The Romantic Agony. Oxford University Press: 199, 213–216, 222, 250, 258, 259, 272, 277, 282, 377
    ^ Huysmans À rebours – Toni Bentley (2002) Sisters of Salome: 24
    ^ Toni Bentley (2002) Sisters of Salome
    ^ Per the Oxford English Dictionary, vamp is originally English, used first by G. K. Chesterton, but popularized in the American silent film The Vamp, starring Enid Bennett
    ^ a b Johnston, Sheila (27 February 2009). "Whatever happened to the femme fatale?". The Independent. Retrieved 27 February 2009.
    ^ Knopper, Steve (March 17, 2011). "Britney Spears On Her New Album, Her Favorite Music and Working With will.i.am". Rolling Stone.
    ^ Victorian Sexual Dissidence, By Richard Dellamora, Contributor Richard Dellamora, Published by University of Chicago Press, 1999, ISBN 0226142264, 9780226142265
    ^ The Femme Fatale Throughout History, History Television
    ^ Paglia, Camille (1992). Sex, Art and American Culture : New Essays ISBN 9780679741015, p. 15.

In order to practice controlled folly, since it is not a way to fool or chastise people or feel superior to them, one has to be capable of laughing at oneself. One of the results of a detailed recapitulation is genuine laughter upon coming face to face with the boring repetition of one's self-esteem, which is at the core of all human interactions.
--Don Juan The Eagle's Gift

Offline Laura

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Re: Histrionic Personality Disorder
« Reply #2 on: January 12, 2012, 08:58:45 PM »
Harold, you are un-flippin'-believable.  Just STOP posting if you don't have anything useful to say!
He who learns must suffer
And even in our sleep pain that cannot forget
Falls drop by drop upon the heart,
And in our own despair, against our will,
Comes wisdom to us by the awful grace of God.
Agamemnon, Aeschylus