Chemical Hallucinations, Mind Control,
Dr. Jose Delgado pt II

Laura Knight-Jadczyk

October 30, 1999 Update!

"Dr. Delgado" - an internet handle - has posted information regarding the use of Melatonin which seems to indicate that it may be the means by which alleged aliens induce "paralysis" in order to abduct their victims, and that taking DHEA might be a good means of counteracting alien abductions as well as the "dreaded Melatonin Abduction!".

... Alien abductions happen. They are real. Whether they are real in the physical sense or only real in the minds of the victims is inconsequential. Tell an abductee it didn't happen! The experience, the trauma, the emotional and mental scarring are very real.
The forgotten periods of time are real. And the scraps of memories that do linger are nightmarish.
[... ...]
I have always believed that the aliens have discovered a way to shut off the motor functions in a human at the nervous system level. An article on sleep paralysis sent to the Bluewave list by Joseph Polanik (which we have included in our S - Files Papers section) and an announcement by Max Oleson that he was conducting a study on Fibromayalgia because he believed there might be a higher rate of this amongst abductees were the germs of our idea. The beginnings of our understanding. As I read through the article on sleep paralysis it became uncanny how closely this natural operation of the human body paralleled what happens to abductees upon first awakening to discover that there were beings around their bed. The paralysis described by abductees is identical to descriptions of sleep paralysis down to being able to only move the eyes. A natural body function. I began to wonder whether this could be the instrument the aliens used to make their victims so helpless. If they had discovered a method in bringing about the onset of sleep paralysis when they wanted it would explain a lot. The article went on to describe that two chemicals produced naturally in the body were responsible for our sleep/awake cycle, Melatonin and DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone)' and the more I read the more it became clear that not only would it be feasible to bring on sleep paralysis unnaturally in a person, if it were the method used by the aliens it would lend credence to the work that Max Oleson is undertaking in finding a reason for the apparent higher levels of Fibromayalgia victims among abductees.
The article presented by Joseph Polanik included a link to the DHEA homepage which I went to after reading his article. This homepage is a collection of the studies and work of Dr. James Michael Howard on Melatonin and DHEA.
Here is Howard's brief theory of the sleep mechanism:
"In daytime concentrations, DHEA, when acting with specific proteins, is the molecule of consciousness, i.e., activation of the nervous system. During deep sleep, concentrations of DHEA are reduced; only enough DHEA is produced to maintain autonomic functions. Melatonin is the molecule of sleep. Melatonin causes sleep, because it reduces production of DHEA."
--Sleep, Melatonin, DHEA, AIDS and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, James Michael Howard, 1995
and this:
"...As sleep occurs, Melatonin is 'used up,' and DHEA increases. During consciousness, DHEA is used; Melatonin increases, but is not released till DHEA levels decline to a low level prior to sleep."
--Sleep, Melatonin, DHEA, AIDS and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, James Michael Howard, 1995
and to explain how Melatonin and DHEA interact:
"I suggest Melatonin reduces DHEA at night. This reduction in DHEA is achieved by inhibitory actions of Melatonin on production of the hormone, prolactin. Prolactin (PRL) secretion may be shown to
specifically stimulate production of DHEA. That is, when Melatonin release is high, prolactin is reduced, which reduces DHEA production."
--Sleep, Melatonin, DHEA, AIDS and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, James Michael Howard, 1995
Melatonin is the molecule responsible for sleep paralysis by reducing levels of DHEA so that areas of the brain except for the autonomic functions are shut down. The brain holds high densities of receptors for DHEA. The densities are sparse in the lower brainstem areas controlling cardiovascular and respiratory functions. This means that these most important functions require little DHEA to remain active. By this theory, you should be able to introduce Melatonin into a human being which will reduce prolactin production which will reduce DHEA which will shut down the nervous system except for the autonomic functions. In other words, you can bring on sleep paralysis in a human being, rendering them helpless without killing them.  For a person just being awakened from sleep it would make sense that you would require a smaller amount of Melatonin to return them to sleep or sleep paralysis. (This would account for the grogginess that many people feel upon waking up. They have not used up their levels of Melatonin).
It is our suggestion that this is how the aliens are accomplishing the paralysis that abductees experience at the point of being abducted. But how would the aliens introduce a level of Melatonin into the body to cause sleep paralysis? A powder? A gas? Direct absorption through the skin? Melatonin is available as an over the counter pill, but we highly doubt the aliens would introduce it to an abductee orally. Or are the implants that some abductees say have been put in them a mechanical means of triggering the production of Melatonin to render an abductee helpless? These are questions still to be answered. I lean towards the idea that the implants (or one use for them) is the triggering of Melatonin release into the blood stream. The aliens would remotely (from where they stood) be able to set the implant off which would render the victim paralyzed.
There is something else, if Melatonin is the method used to cause paralysis in abduction victims it may also be the key to the aliens' ability to calm abductees when they become excited. Exercise or getting excited has been shown to increase levels of DHEA. If Melatonin were then increased would the person become calmer and fatigued? I think so. Howard describes Melatonin as "our natural narcotic." A study done to test melatonin's ability to induce sleep reported this: "These data indicate that orally administered Melatonin can be a highly potent hypnotic agent."
---Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 1994; 91:1824
A possible reason for the aliens' powerful suggestive and hypnotic powers may lie with increased Melatonin levels in the brain.
There is also one other link with abduction reports that we'd like to examine, and those are the reports of women and men who have been abducted, taken aboard a ship, taken into a nursery, and made to go through a bonding exercise with hybrid infants and children. This bonding routinely requires them to hold them and caress them and the abductees are often told by the aliens that it is because they are giving the babies something they need to thrive. Many who have seen these hybrid children describe them as sickly looking, and unhealthy. Dr. Howard explains one effect of DHEA in the development of children and I have extended this explanation, which takes into account the positive effect of routine stimulation of premature babies, to explain a possible reason for this.
" "....In premature babies, a sensoral stimulation schedule applied during waking accelerates the appearance of sleep patterns similar to those of infants born at normal term age, and especially leads an increase in REM density during activated sleep" (Physiology & Behavior 1990; 47: 1273) It is common knowledge in Departments of Pediatrics and Children's Hospitals that "failure to thrive" infants respond readily to holding. That is, frequent holding and attention to these babies brings about dramatic changes in many of them.
I suggest the handling and attention stimulate prolactin and,
therefor, DHEA production in these infants."
--Sleep, Melatonin, DHEA, AIDS and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, James Michael Howard, 1995
This fits perfectly with what the abductees experiencing this
particular part of the event describe. These hybrids are "failure to thrive" infants and certainly might be considered premature being removed from the womb at the end of three months in many cases. The aliens are using these abductees to stimulate the growth and development of these hybrid babies. Though, why they cannot do it themselves I have no answer for.
If Melatonin is the weapon of choice for the aliens perhaps DHEA is our defense. We will continue to look into this. In the meantime we eagerly invite your thoughts on any of the ideas presented above.
Melatonin, if it is the method the aliens are using to render their victims helpless while they go about their business, may also explain the link that some researchers are finding between Fibromayalgia, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, and abductees. Dr. Howard's thoughts on this: "People with CFS exhibit lingering tiredness after exercise. they burn their small supply of DHEA during exercise, but do not replenish it in sufficient quantities to produce the sense of well-being, I attribute to DHEA. I suggest chronic fatigue syndrome results from a disruption of this cycle that increases Melatonin, while DHEA declines.....DHEA taken orally in the morning may alleviate these symptoms."
--Sleep, Melatonin, DHEA, AIDS and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, James Michael Howard, 1995
CFS and Fibromayalgia are similar in that sufferers of both are extremely tired and without energy through the daytime. If it is correct that the aliens are conducting their abductions by using increased levels of Melatonin to bring on sleep paralysis, then
this could certainly lead to these effects described by CFS or
Fibromayalgia. And again, DHEA would seem to be an answer.
Kevin Dickinson
We want to learn the truth, not force our beliefs on others.
Everyone has an opinion and that's ours right now.
                                        ----Kevin Dickinson

However, when we search the references for Melatonin and DHEA, we find quite a medly of research! There are a number of links that can be accessed to get a much broader perspective than the information provided above!

What exactly is Melatonin?

"Melatonin is the all-natural nightcap. It's secreted by the pineal gland, a pea-size structure at the center of the brain, as our eyes register the fall of darkness." At night melatonin is produced to help our bodies regulate our sleep-wake cycles. The amount of melatonin produced by our body seems to lessen as we get older. Scientists believe this may be why young people have less problem sleeping than older people.

Why take it?

"Studies suggest that low-dose supplements can hasten sleep and ease jet lag, without the hazards or side effects of prescription sleeping pills." Melatonin may have many other uses and has been reported to make people feel better, strengthen the immune system, and reduce free radicals in the body. Current research is underway to determine melatonin's effect as an anti-oxidant, immno-modulator in cancer, delayed sleep-phase disorders, and jet lag. Tests are still under way so there is much to still be learned about melatonin and its effects on the human body.

Who benefits the most?

Travelers and people suffering from mild sleep disorders. According to Newsweek, a typical comment from discussion groups on the Internet is, "'Folks, I've tried melatonin and it's great. It has ...restored my sleep cycle, given me lots of energy.'"

Are there any side-effects?

According to one report, "10 percent of the users said the hormone did nothing for them, and another 10 percent complained of side effects such as nightmares, headaches, morning groginess, mild depression, and low sex drive. In past studies, researchers have given people up to 600 to 3,000 times the usual doses - without causing any toxicity."

What additional benefits are there and how reliable are these claims?

"In test-tube and animal experiments, researchers have found that it protects cells, strengthens the immune system and slows the growth of some tumors." Tests with laboratory mice suggest that melatonin might also reduce the effects of aging - but remember, these results are very preliminary. "...Some experts are appalled to see so many people toying with such a potent hormone. One concern is that high doses, while causing no immediate harm, could have unknown long-term effects. 'Even one milligram, the smallest commercially available dose, is at least three times higher than the normal amount in the body.'"

Should certain people avoid it?

Yes. "Those include women who are pregnant or nursing (since no one knows how excessive exposure to the hormone might affect a fetus or infant); people with severe allergies or autoimmune diseases (melatonin could exacerbate such conditions by stimulating the immune system); people with immune-system cancers such as lymphoma or leukemia (for the same reason), and healthy children (who already produce it in abundance). Women trying to conceive should also think twice about taking the hormone, since high doses can act as a contraceptive." As with any substance introduced into your body, if you have a medical condition you should always consult your physician first before taking melatonin.

Will melatonin extend my lifespan?

There are no human studies to support this contention. In tests on both rats and mice melatonin caused a significant 20% increase in their lifespan. If melatonin does allow you to live longer and healthier it could do so because melatonin may reduce free radical damage; stimulate an aging immune system; protect the cardiovascular system; preserve a youthful circadian rhythm; stimulate the production of growth hormone.

Will melatonin enhance my sex life?

There is no evidence to support this claim as it relates to humans. However, a 1995 rodent study suggests that taking small amounts of melatonin on a regular basis may prevent the age-related decline in testosterone levels, allowing men to be more active sexually in their later years.

Is melatonin safe?

Melatonin is one of the least toxic substances known. People have taken as much as 6 grams (600 to 3000 times the normal dosage) of the substance in carefully monitored studies with no sign of toxicity. Only four complaints regarding melatonin have been report to the FDA (USA's Food and Drug Administration). The only consistent side effect of high doses has been drowsiness and a slower reaction time. In the most extensive clinical trial to date a high dose of 75 milligrams of melatonin per day was given to 1400 women in the Netherlands for up to four years with no ill effects. The FDA reports that in the more than two years melatonin has been available for sale over-the-counter in the United States, no alarming side effects have been reported.

When should the dosage be administered?

Melatonin should only be taken at nighttime, usually about thirty minutes prior to going to bed. If you are traveling on a long trip you may want to take a low dosage 300mcg tablet prior to getting on your flight and a 1.5mg pill prior to going to bed. If you commonly sleep during the night, melatonin should not normally be taken during the day - and vice versa - because melatonin plays a role in setting the body's daily clock.

Does melatonin have that morning-after hangover effect of sleeping pills?

No. You should normally wake up well refreshed and full of energy. If you wake up feeling a little tired you should reduce your dosage until you wake up feeling well refreshed. You will not have the hangover effect you may experience with over the counter or prescription sleeping pills.

Aids and the auto-immune system...

"Studies performed at the Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Biologic Chemistry at Northwestern Medical School, found that melatonin activated monocytes... and enhance their ability to destroy nonself cells. The same study also showed that melatonin influenced the release of IL-1 proteins that control aspects of blood-cell production and the immune response. "One animal study of particular interest showed that melatonin could restore the function of T-helper cells in mice whose immune systems had been compomised. The results of this study may someday lead to improved treatment for humans with AIDS. "However, it should be noted that melatonin's immune-boosting capacity may exacerbate autoimmune diseases and allergies, since these conditions involve an already overstimulated immune system. This possible connection remains the subject of investigation for several researchers." (MAAH, page 85 [The entire 5th chapter deals with the immune system.])

Estrogen... "While Estrogen and Melatonin have not extensivly been studied in humans, animal research and research on breast cancer have been studied. Research has shown that Melatonin has reduced tumor size in breast cancer and is the focus of new studies on the subject. I would suggest you always consult your doctor before using Melatonin replacement therapy with any other hormone. A study conducted with animals given estrogen stated that Iron reduced Melatonin levels. Inversely a study with Melatonin administration reduced estrogen levels. So caution should be taken when taking these two together." - Albert N. Milliron (His e-mail address is His home page is at

Melatonin vs. Antioxidants

"Melatonin is said to be the best antioxidant according to RJ Reiter author of the book on the subject. It is 500 times more effective on free radicals than DMSO. It would be a suppliment to your usual antioxidant vitamins. I would however, use melatonin as you main sourse of antioxident since melatonin has effects on attaking free radicals in the brain, protects against radiation, destroys toxins, helps prevent or help cataracts. Melatonin has no known LD50 at this writing which means it is nearly non-toxic." "Please further note that taking melatonin along with other antioxidants only helps. No evidence has ever been found that says that taking more than one antioxident is harmful." - Albert N. Milliron

Melatonin and depression...

"If you have a history of winter depression, cyclic depression speak with your doctor prior to taking melatonin." - Albert N. Milliron Alcoholism...

"If you have a history of alcoholism in yourself or family, melatonin is probably low. You may suppliment melatonin. Children need no melatonin unless it has been shown individually that the child has low melatonin." - Albert N. Milliron

Regarding the possiblity that Melatonin production is increased by aliens to effect their abductions, I would like to point out that, for the most part, individuals who claim such interaction have very seriously disturbed sleep cycles and many suffer from chronic insomnia. The Cassiopaeans DID comment on the means of inducing the "paralysis" of abduction:


Q: (L) Okay, in the experience I felt a paralysis of my body, what caused this paralysis.

A: Yes. Separation of awareness. Which is defined as any point along the pathway where one's awareness becomes so totally focused on one thought sector that all other levels of awareness are temporarily receded, thereby making it impossible to become aware of one's physical reality along with one's mental reality. This gives the impression of what is referred to as paralysis. Do you understand?

Q: (L) Yes. And what stimulates this total focus of awareness?

A: An event which sidetracks, temporarily, the mental processes.

Q: (L) And what event can sidetrack the mental processes to this extent?

A: Any number.

Q: (L) In this particular case, what was it?

A: It was an eclipsing of energies caused by conflicting thought centers.

Q: (L) What energies were being eclipsed?

A: Whenever two opposing units of reality intersect, this causes what can be referred to as friction, which, for an immeasurable amount of what you would refer to as time, which is, of course, non-existent, creates a non- existence, or a stopping of the movements of all functions. This is what we would know as conflict. In between, or through any intersecting, opposite entities, we always find zero time, zero movement, zero transference, zero exchange. Now think about this. Think about this carefully.

Q: (L) Does this mean that I was, essentially, in a condition of non-existence?

A: Well, non-existence is not really the proper term, but non-fluid existence would be more to the point. Do you understand?

Q: (L) Yes. Frozen, as it were?

A: Frozen, as it were.


Q: (L) Is the paralysis and amnesia related to UFO abductions deliberately induced or is it a product of the mind's inability to deal with the event?

A: It is an equal commingling of both.

Q: (L) The part that is deliberately induced, how is that accomplished?

A: By using a cosmic energy flow to influence memory function through a combination of spiritual and chemical interaction.

Q: (L) Can you be more specific?

A: Being more specific would be in another way less specific, but a good way to put it is altering the flow of electromagnetic energy in the brain. Electromagnetic energy, electromagnetism, is the life force that exists within all that evolves through long wave or short wave cycles.

What exactly is DHEA? "DHEA is the abbreviation for Dehydroepiandrosterone. It is produced by the adrenal glands. In the body, it is converted to testosterone and estrogen. Production peaks at about age 25, declining steadily after that. By age 85, it's down about 95%.

Why take it? Advocates claim that DHEA supplements can improve mood, increase energy and libido, counteract stress hormones, preserve muscle, strengthen the immune system, and prevent cancer and heart disease.

Are there any side-effects? USA Today says, "When [a moderate dose] is exceeded there can be oiliness of skin, pimples can come. Women may notice fine facial hair. There can be irritabliity or mood changes and aggressiveness. Many of these are androgenic or testosterone-type effects, male-like effects. They are quickly reversed upon stopping or reducing the dose.'" It is also possible that high levels of DHEA may be related to hair loss in men.

Will DHEA boost my sex drive? "There is no doubt that DHEA does boost sex drive, especially in those who have low DHEAS levels to start with." (DHEA: A Practicle Guide, p. 8 )

Will DHEA enhance my energy, mood and memory? "Again, there is little doubt that this hormone can increase energy and improve well-being. As to memory, this is still not clear, although some users notice clearer thinking." (ibid, p.107)

Can DHEA help with autoimmune disorders? "DHEA has been found to be useful in lupus and early studies indicate that it has a role to play in other autoimmune conditions." (ibid, p.108)

It all sounds pretty innocuous, doesn't it? But, as we continue searching and reading, we begin to find some disturbing things as well as possible clues as to why the Dear Doctor would wish to promote DHEA and cast doubt upon the benefits of Melatonin. Do read all the way to the end because the most interesting information on this subejct is the last article!

Findings Show Cortisol's Major Role in AIDS and Other Diseases

PARIS, June 21, 1996 -- Researchers from Europe and the US gathered here today to launch the International Association of Researchers in Cortisol and Anti-Cortisols (IARCA) and present new findings showing the negative causal effect of cortisol in diseases for which current treatments still remain unsatisfactory. The founding of the new association constitutes the group's first initiative and marks the beginning of IARCA's contribution to improving the understanding of the mechanisms of cortisol and its effect on human behavior and health.

Cortisol -- a powerful hormone produced by the adrenal gland -- is found at a higher than normal level in many diseases and conditions such as depression, alcoholism, substance abuse, anorexia nervosa, heavy smoking, cancer, ulcers, myocardial infarction, diabetes, chronic painful conditions (organic, i.e. arthritis and psychological), strokes/cardiovascular accidents, Parkinson's, Multiple Sclerosis, skin diseases (psoriasis, acne, eczema), stress, aging/Alzheimer's, AIDS and even Space Adaptation Syndrome.

During the meeting, international researchers presented evidence in support of high cortisol as a cause or major cause of such diseases. "There has been a dramatic change in our understanding of how cortisol affects the human body, and how 'high cortisol' precedes diseases rather than being the result thereof. For example, the side effects induced by cortisol when used in the treatment of certain diseases are identical to symptoms and opportunistic infections encountered in AIDS," said Dr. Alfred Sapse (Director of Research, Steroidogenesis Inhibitors, Las Vegas USA). "This new concept opens the possibility to view anti- cortisol drugs as a new and beneficial therapy for diseases which are still poorly understood and thus inadequately treated."

Results presented during the meeting by French researchers confirm this new approach to cortisol. In five retrospective and prospective studies(1) (2)conducted by Prof. Emmanuel A. Nunez and Dr. Nevena Christeff (Dept. of Endocrine Biochemistry, Bichat Hospital, Paris), results indicated that serum cortisol is elevated at all stages of HIV-infection (+20 to 60%) particularly in AIDS patients (stage IVC as defined by the Center for Disease Control criteria). "These significant cortisol differences from HIV-negative and AIDS patients could represent not only a good index of diagnosis and prognosis, but also indicate new therapeutic approaches to the disease," said Professor Emmanuel Nunez.

In contrast, serum DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone) is higher during the early stages of the disease (asymptomatic, stages II and III) than during advanced stages (IVC) or control groups, and below the normal level during advanced stages of AIDS (IVC). The results presented showing elevated cortisol during all stages of HIV-infection and high serum DHEA only during the early asymptomatic stages, suggest that the cortisol/DHEA ratio might be used as a possible early sign of HIV-positive switch towards AIDS.

Researchers have already started to explore the therapeutic benefits of such an approach through the use of anti-cortisol drugs, such as RU-486, DHEA, Ketaconazole, Anticort and Tianeptine. In 'in vitro' studies conducted recently (Weiner, 1995), results obtained showed that by blocking cortisol, not only the infectivity of HIV was blunted, but also the production of HIV by the already infected cells which dropped by 70%. Anticort, a high dose form of stabilized procaine HCL, is being successfully tested in pilot clinical studies in Brazil and the U.S., in HIV+ and AIDS populations.

To further the understanding of cortisol and potential benefits of anti-cortisols, the members of IARCA intend to hold a second conference on the topic which will tentatively take place in Las Vegas, Nevada in September 1997.

(1) Christeff N, Michon C, Goertz G, Hassid J, Matheron S, Girard PM, Coulaud JP, Nunez E, Abnormal free fatty acids and cortisol concentrations in the serum of AIDS patients, Eur J Cancer Clin Oncol 1988; 24:1179-83.

(2) Christeff N, Gharakhanian S, Thobie N, Rozenbaum W, Nunez E. Evidence for changes in adrenal and testicular steroids during HIV infection, Jour of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 1992; 5:841-846.

There is considerable evidence that DHEA exerts its anti-proliferative and tumor-preventive action through the inhibition of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and the pentose phosphate pathway, "Brain tissue naturally contains 6.5 times more DHEA than is found in other tissues." (Total Health, Feb. 1994, page 42, E.R. Braverman, M.D.) hypothesis is that DHEA is necessary for duplication and transcription of DNA. Therefore, all growth, development, maintenance, activation, and aging are dependent upon production, antagonism, or loss of production of DHEA. -James Michael Howard

Additionally, DHEA should affect all cellular DNA, hence, it should affect mitochondrial DNA, as well as nuclear DNA. Mitochondria are the seat of metabolic activity in cells. The following quotations support my hypotheses. In the second quotation, "protein synthesis" indicates transcription has occurred. -James Michael Howard

"Brain is characterized by high metabolic activity and exhibits two to three times the transcriptional activity of other tissues." (Journal of Neurochemistry 1991; 56: 812) -James Michael Howard

"These findings indicate that mitochondrial respiration is the earliest factor affected by DHEA and may be associated with protein synthesis." (Journal of Nutrition 1991; 121: 240) -James Michael Howard

In vitro, extremely small amounts of DHEA increase neuron differentiation and survival (Journal of Neuroscience Research 1987; 17: 225.) DHEA increases resting metabolism; more heat from dietary intake. Therefore, increased DHEA allows migration into colder environments.

"There is growing clinical and experimental evidence that dehydroepiandrosterone ...plays an important regulatory role in intermediary metabolism by inhibiting the storage of dietary energy as fat. For instance, one of the predominant features associated with a DHEA deficiency in humans is obesity. ...Recently it has been reported that these inhibitory effects of DHEA on adiposity can be attributed to an increase in resting metabolism." (Journal of Nutrition 1987; 117: 1287)

"Some difference in estimated brain size is apparent between the Javanese and the Chou-K'ou-tien (Peking Chinese) populations of Homo erectus. Thus, for seven Javanese crania, the average is 833 cc, with a range from 750 to 1,030 cc; while for five Chou-K'ou-tien crania, the capacity ranges from 915 to 1,225 cc and averages about 1,043 cc. That is, the mean capacity in the Peking fossils of H. erectus exceeds that of the Javanese by about 160 cc." (Encyclopędia Britannica 1984; 8: 1032)

Human DNA and chimpanzee DNA differ by only 1.2%. This difference has taken six million years to produce. The DNA of archaic Homo sapiens, H. erectus, and even Australopithecus must have been even more similar to ours. Hominid evolution is a pattern change more than a genetic change. I suggest it results from changes in hormone production and their effects on gene regulation. Some genes have increased activity, while others have decreased activity. These have produced significant physical and behavioral changes over time. Prior to puberty, the brain grows more rapidly than the body; it is a competition which the brain wins in infancy and early childhood. Because of this brain-body competition, puberty is delayed until the brain is almost finished in development. Near puberty, however, testosterone increases the body's competitive edge for growth and development which continues into adulthood.

"The weight of the brain [in humans] reaches 90% of adult size by age six and virtually 100% by age 12, yet body growth continues to age 18 and beyond (note that brain growth is nearly finished before reproductive maturity every begins)" (Patterns of Human Growth, Cambridge University Press, 1988, pages 60-61.)

Report On The New York Academy Of Science's Conference On DHEA

June 18-19, 1995, Washington D.C. By Gregory M. Fahy, PhD.

Alex Vermeulen (Dept. of Internal Medicine, University Hospital, Gent, Belgium) and Elizabeth Barrett-Connor (Dept. of Family and Preventive Medicine, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA) reported on factors that change DHEA levels. The only factor that (in the end) appeared to reduce DHEA-S blood concentrations was estrogen (including postmenopausal estrogen replacement). Although cholesterol levels below 200 (only a slight effect in men), exercise (in men only), and obesity (in men) at first appeared to be associated with low DHEA-S levels, these effects were ultimately shown to be due to low alcohol intake. Factors that raise DHEA levels include: drinking alcohol (a very solid relationship), smoking (yes, smoking!), and possibly losing weight and exercising (slight effect in women only). Hypercholesterolemia and HDLs over 40 were associated with higher DHEA-S, but their effects could also be accounted for by ethanol intake. Neither growth hormone nor IGF-1 appear to influence DHEA levels, according to this study.

DHEA's Protection Against Cardiovascular Disease May Be Weaker Than Thought

The bad news is that the protection afforded by DHEA against cardiovascular diseases and overall mortality appears to be weaker than formerly reported. The good news is that early evidence for an increased risk for women with high DHEA-S levels appears to be incorrect. Alex Vermeulen reviewed a recent study in which high DHEA-S was associated with a shorter lifespan in men (though not in women). Another recent study suggested that high DHEA-S is associated with a greater risk of blood clots lodging in the heart in men. A member of the audience stated that DHEA raises glucose levels in women, which may be a problem for women taking DHEA.

The Definitive Study

The definitive study, however, seems to be that of Elizabeth Barrett-Connor, whose original paper in the New England Journal of Medicine in 1986 showed that low DHEA-S levels are correlated with death from any cause. Barrett-Connor has now followed her study population for an additional 7 years and added new subjects to the group, thus increasing the statistical validity of her results. The bottom line is that, except for showing no increased risk for women with high DHEA-S levels, she was able to confirm her old results while uncovering a number of confounding variables that were not taken into account in her original paper.


In complete contradiction to John Nestler's careful studies, D. Jakubowicz and colleagues at the Hospital de Clinicas Caracas, Caracas, Venezuela reported giving 22 men, aged 55-59 years, 300 mg of DHEA nightly for 1 month. They observed a 27% fall in insulin levels. They also found an 89% increase in IGF-1 (which produces growth hormone-like effects), a 14% fall in body fat, and a 7.8% increase in lean body mass. The latter two effects were postulated to be due to the rise in IGF-1.

Bernard Lavellee and colleagues (MRC Group in Molecular Endocrinology, CHUL Research Center, Quebec, and Medical College of Virginia, Richmond) suggested that insulin lowers circulating levels of DHEA by causing DHEA to be linked to fatty acids and then taken up into tissues. The implications of such an effect, if it exists, are unknown. ( I; X-D. Lei and RA. Prough (Dept. Biochem., School of Medicine, Univ. of Louisville, Louisville, KY) found that only massive doses of DHEA cause peroxlsomal proliferation, and that doses much lower than those that produce this feared side effect were capable of "blunting methylnitrosourea-induced mammary cancer" in female rats. J.R Porter and E Svec (Obesity Research Program, Depts. of Medicine and Physiology, LSU Med Center, New Orleans) fasted normal and fat female Zucker rats for 1 day, then gave them 25-200 mg/kg of DHEA by injection. Two hours later, they were allowed to chose cafeteria style from nearly pure selections of protein, carbohydrate, and fat. In comparison to similarly-treated rats who got no DHEA, both normal and fat rats ate about the same amount of carbohydrate, but both dropped their protein and particularly their fat intake. The problem with this study, however, is the high DHEA doses used.

Porter and Svec also gave either fenfluramine (an appetite suppressant), DHEA, or the combination of both compounds, to lean and fat Zucker rats by intraperitoneal injection for three days. They found that the combination of fenfluramine and DHEA had a spectacular effect on food intake: "the fat intake of the lean rat decreased to almost half and the obese rats nearly stopped eating." This effect did not wear off when the treatment was continued for 4 weeks. Doses as low as 6.25 mg/kg/day of DHEA and 0.312 mg/kg/day of fenfluramine were effective. This treatment resembles a new therapy for humans that is currently gaining in popularity in which fenfluramine is combined with serotonin reuptake inhibitors like Prozac, which are antidepressants that block compulsive behaviors such as overeating. DHEA could be more a attractive additive to fenfluramine than Prozac for many overweight individuals.

Should DHEA Be Used Now?

The tension between the clinicians who want to use DHEA now and those who insist on further studies before using it continued during this wrap-up session. Dr. John Broder asked the physicians whether they would replace DHEA in their patients today. Nestler said no, because "'no strong confirmed benefit of DHEA has been shown in humans" and there is always the possibility of unwanted side effects. For example, Nestler said, growth hormone is now known to have a number of harmful side effects. But, Broder pressed, isn't it logical to assume, as a working hypothesis, that there will be no side effects if all we are doing is restoring DHEA levels to what they were in youth? The answer given was that this would be the expectation, but one has to remember that natural DHEA levels are not attained by ingesting DHEA, and that building up DHEA levels in this way could produce problems in some unknown way.

DHEA advocate Dr. Jorge Flechas stated, from the audience, that there is such a thing as a DHEA deficiency state or syndrome, which involves hair loss, fingernail changes, increased oiliness, and fatigue, and that many people suffer from this syndrome. Nestler objected that Flechas' experience is anecdotal and could be contradicted by other anecdotal evidence, but Flechas replied that you can't get funded for a large study without preliminary results such as his own and reiterated that everyone over 40 has an indication for DHEA replacement. He further stated that most people who take DHEA do not lose weight but do feel better and more vital, and that LDL cholesterol and total cholesterol fall in men who take DHEA. (These lipids may go up or down in women, perhaps depending on their estrogen levels.)

Is DHEA Good Or Bad For Breasts?

DHEA is concentrated ten-fold to 500fold over blood concentrations of the hormone in breast cyst fluid and also accumulates in breast secretions. A long-term Italian study linked DHEA-S accumulation in breast cysts to increased risk of breast cancer. Caution was advised in giving DHEA to postmenopausal women. But another doctor responded that DHEA prevents breast cancer, even human breast cancer transplanted into mice.

Are DHEA/DHEA-S Blood Levels Meaningless?

Another point that was mentioned on and off during the conference is the difference between circulating levels of DHEA/ DHEA-S in the blood and tissue levels of these hormones. DHEA concentrations are highest in liver and brain, with significant concentrations also in the mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, and thymus. When DHEA is added to the diet for 14 days, huge quantities appear in all the organs of the body. As a result, some doctors felt that measuring serum levels may be "a waste of time," though this was far from agreed upon.

The Worst Side Effects Of DHEA

When asked what was the most frightening possible side effects of DHEA, Dr. Yen answered that it was masculine hair growth, acne, and a receding hairline in women, or increased estrogen production in men. He explained that DHEA has a high affinity for (and stimulation of) hair follicles and sebaceous glands, and that the New England Journal of Medicine carried an article linking teenage acne to the rise in DHEA that takes place near puberty. Clearly, much remains to be learned about this exciting anti-aging hormone, which more and more physicians are giving to their middle-aged and older patients. ·


[...] DHEA and Melatonin

I propose melatonin is directly involved in DHEA production. This may be the mechanism of significant increases in brain size found in northern hominids. These two hormones are directly linked to each other in the sleep- wake cycle; one affects production of the other during this cycle. DHEA is used during the day to activate consciousness and is literally "used up." We get tired at the end of the day. This loss of DHEA stimulation allows the pineal gland to release melatonin, synthesized earlier. This large release of melatonin starts the first slow wave sleep of the night. Melatonin triggers this sleep by slowing release of prolactin, which is known to specifically stimulate DHEAS. During the night, melatonin is also used up; then a large release of prolactin triggers the large morning release of DHEAS that triggers awakening. I suggest this cycle is necessary for growth.

(In the case of SIDS, it may be that these children produce too much melatonin. This would reduce DHEA to dangerously low levels during sleep. Melatonin is also low in schizophrenia.)

Sunlight directly affects melatonin production, i.e., decreased sunlight increases melatonin. Migration of hominids northward increases melatonin and its effect on growth. (Migration of hominids southward from the equator would produce the same effect.) I suggest melatonin is directly involved with DHEA in brain growth. ...The time of greatest melatonin production is also the time of greatest use of DHEA for brain growth. [...]

A number of newsgroup posts have connected hair loss and sweat glands in the development of Homo sapiens. Often these explanations deal with temperature. Since I think human evolution is mainly the result of the increased testosterone in us, I must be able to show that hair loss is due to increased testosterone and that sweat glands are a target tissue for testosterone. We have less hair and more sweat glands.[...]

I have explained, just above, that tissues differ in their dependence on DHEA. Testosterone target tissues have their testosterone target genes "turned on" by testosterone. These genes then use DHEA for transcription. Following the finalization of brain growth, DHEA begins to increase in amounts in the blood from late childhood (5-7 years); this is called adrenarche in the textbooks. (The textbooks do not have an explanation for this.) What this means to this discussion is that DHEA begins to increase from late childhood to reach a peak around 20 to twenty-five years. Since sweat gland activity really begins following puberty, I think this means that the rise in testosterone in men and women is the cause. Sweat glands are a phenomenon of testosterone, and this is an affect on gene activity. [...]

Testosterone is known to increase sex drive in both males and females. This would increase the percentage of higher testosterone hominids with time. Increased testosterone would reduce hair, increase sweat glands and activity and, in the female would reduce labial displays, normally dependent upon increased estrogen to testosterone. The exposed breast, also indicative of sexual maturity, would become the primary sexual display. This combination would eventually lead to bipedalism. Other events, dependent upon the hormones DHEA and melatonin, would, much later, result in an enlarged brain.[...]

So, you see, one does not have to resort to looking for environmental effects to account for all of these characteristics of hominids. The single mechanism of increases in testosterone, alone, will cause all of these changes. That is, increases in testosterone increase the sexual device. The sexual device is one of most important devices created by DNA for duplication. [...]

Current Signs of Increases in Testosterone in the U.S.

Testosterone is the basis of violent behavior. That is, testosterone is the basis of impulsive behavior. The amount of testosterone determines the ability to control, or not, impulses. More men are imprisoned than women. Black men (at the college level) produce more testosterone than white men; more black men are imprisoned than white men. The following is a letter describing this, which has been sent to a number of U.S. congressmen and U.S. senators. You judge for yourself. This is from 1994.

"I am a theoretical biologist; my work contains an explanation of increased violence in our society. I suggest violence results directly from an increase in numbers of individuals of higher testosterone, who arrive at puberty early. increased testosterone and early puberty increase the probability of impulsive actions. [...]

My work suggests a cause of this change. The hormone, testosterone, is rising rapidly in our society. Increased testosterone increases body size, aggression, and sexuality in both sexes. (Testosterone is not "the" male hormone, men simply produce more.) People who produce more testosterone are more aggressive and sexual, therefore, on average, they ultimately make more babies than those who produce less testosterone. (People who produce less testosterone can better control their sexual activity; over a period of time, they will produce fewer children.) Ultimately, the percentage of high testosterone people, of both sexes, increases at the expense of low testosterone people. This changes the averages of everything affected by testosterone. This is why our kids are bigger, more sexual, and more aggressive than in the past. The mechanism is simple: higher testosterone boys and girls reach sexual maturity faster, increase their numbers faster, and their offspring are even earlier and more sexual. People seeking sexual gratification are simply more likely to engage each other. Sexual activity is so common today that no "stigma" is attached; in fact, there appears to be a negative stigma attached to those who do not indulge. Prior to puberty, the brain grows more rapidly than the body; it is a competition which the brain wins in infancy and early childhood. Because of this brain-body competition, puberty is delayed until the brain is almost finished in development. Near puberty, however, testosterone increases the body's competitive edge for growth and development which continues into adulthood.

"The weight of the brain [in humans] reaches 90% of adult size by age six and virtually 100% by age 12, yet body growth continues to age 18 and beyond (note that brain growth is nearly finished before reproductive maturity every begins)" (Patterns of Human Growth, Cambridge University Press, 1988, pages 60-61.) [...]

The advanced frontal lobes of the brain develop last and control formal thinking, i.e., higher math, proper language (syntax), and the ability to form meaningfully predictive ideas (hypotheses). This is Piaget's final stage of human thought development. This stage of brain development is directly dependent on final development of the frontal lobes "from about age 11 to 14," (Science 1987; 236: 1110). I suggest early puberty interferes with this important final development of the frontal lobes. For example, it was reported that standardized test scores of 13- and 17-year-olds of 1986 are lower than those of 1970, whereas the scores of 9-year-old children have remained relatively equal (Science 1988; 241:1751). I suggest this decline is the effect of puberty, which, in this country, on average, is now occurring between age 9 and 13. Our children are, on average, losing the ability to handle math and English. More importantly, our children are losing the ability to form meaningfully predictive ideas that help control their impulses.

"What are the consequences of my actions?" Without the function of the frontal lobes, symbolized by this question, kids cannot predict the consequences of, or control, their behaviors (impulses). Violent acts and sexual activity in children and teenagers are actions of impulse. These impulses are initiated by the primitive part of our brains, which testosterone mainly affects. Children are reaching puberty earlier with each generation, and early puberty arrests final development of the brain. This means that, on average, our advanced brain is increasingly underdeveloped with each generation. This is why so many children cannot control their sexual or aggressive impulses.

"This report gives the results of assays of circulating steroid hormone levels in white and black college students in Los Angeles, CA. Mean testosterone levels in blacks were 19% higher than whites, and free testosterone levels were 21% higher. Both these differences were statistically significant. Adjustment by analysis of covariance for time of sampling, age, weight, alcohol use, cigarette smoking, and use of prescription drugs somewhat reduced the differences. After these adjustments were made, blacks had a 15% higher testosterone level and a 13% higher free testosterone level." (Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1986; 76: 45) [...]

Again, it is my hypothesis that the violence, sexuality, and learning problems of our youth result from increased testosterone and early puberty in those affected. High testosterone and early puberty adversely affects development of the part of the brain which controls impulsive behaviors, i.e., the advanced forebrain. This combination should generate these problems, and they should be exacerbated in areas where high sexuality rapidly brings high testosterone males and females together. The result is an extremely rapid increase in high testosterone, early puberty, and their combined effects on impulse control. As people of lower testosterone are literally driven away, the problem becomes more concentrated."

So, we finally understand why promotion of DHEA is important to "Dr. Delgado."



You are visitor number .