23andme - DNA Sequencing Services...

Cyre2067

The Living Force
Hey all, recently I had a friend mention this company, 23andme to me and the services they provide. It's kinda cool, you spit in a jar and mail it to them and they sequence your DNA for virtually every known marker of disease susceptibility and resistance. Carrier status on some crazy number of disease genes, ancestory via haplogroups, even percentage of neanderthal genes you retain.

It sounds like an interesting way to acquire some self-knowledge, but I'm a bit hesitant to have my DNA on file and the data owned by some company. It's not terribly expensive, $99 is the one-time fee and they keep updating it as new genes are marked. Apparently if you're distantly related to someone else in their database of like 150,000 people then they'll let you know.

I thought I'd bring it up here and see what everyone thought before going forward.

_https://www.23andme.com/

Edit: Here's their investors:
_https://www.23andme.com/about/corporate/


Investors

The company has received Series A, B, and C funding from several prominent technology and health science companies, strategic angel investors and venture capital firms, including Johnson & Johnson Development Corporation (NYSE: JNJ); MPM Capital, The Roche Venture Fund (Swiss: RO.SW ), Google Ventures (NASDAQ: GOOG), and New Enterprise Associates, among others.
Google Ventures seeks to discover and help develop great companies — we believe in the power of entrepreneurs to do amazing things. Our investments range from seed to late stage, across a broad range of industries, including consumer Internet, software, hardware, clean tech, biotechnology and health care. We embrace the challenge of helping young companies grow from the proverbial garage to global relevance. The Google Ventures team includes entrepreneurs, investors and innovators, along with some 23,000+ exceptional Googlers whose breadth of knowledge, experience and creativity constitute perhaps our most valuable resource. For more information, visit www.google.com/ventures.

New Enterprise Associates (NEA) is a leading venture capital firm focused on helping entrepreneurs create and build major new enterprises that use technology to improve the way we live, work and play. Since its founding in 1978, the firm has adhered to the same core principles: supporting its entrepreneurs, providing an excellent return to its limited partners, and operating in accordance with the highest standards of integrity and respect. NEA focuses on investments at all stages of a company's development, from seed stage through IPO. With approximately $8.5 billion in committed capital, NEA's experienced management team has invested in more than 550 companies, of which more than 160 have gone public and more than 230 have been acquired. NEA has U.S.-based offices in Baltimore, Maryland; Chevy Chase, Maryland; and Menlo Park, California. In addition, New Enterprise Associates (India) Pvt. Ltd. has an office in Bangalore, India and New Enterprise Associates (Beijing) Ltd. has offices in Beijing and Shanghai, China. For additional information, visit www.nea.com.

MPM Capital is one of the world's largest life science-dedicated venture investors. With committed capital under management in excess of $2.5 billion, MPM Capital is uniquely structured to invest globally in healthcare innovation. More information is available at www.mpmcapital.com.

They say the right things on Privacy:

Privacy

Privacy has become a subject of debate in today's information age. We recognize that genetic information is sensitive for many people. We believe all efforts must be made to guarantee individuals complete control over access to their genetic information.

We believe the potential benefits of sharing genetic information outweigh the privacy risks. 23andMe believes that by enabling its members to share their data, we are providing them a beneficial feature they want and are entitled to have as custodians of their own genetic information.

23andMe employs robust, multi-layered encryption and authentication methods and conducts regular audits of our methods to protect against unauthorized access to our systems. We also employ software, hardware and physical security measures to prevent unauthorized access to the computers where we store customer data.
Genetic Nondiscrimination

We believe that individuals should be protected against genetic discrimination. As part of the Genetic Alliance, we supported passage of the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (GINA), which President Bush signed into law on May 21, 2008. However, genetic anti-discrimination laws vary from state to state and from country to country. Some, but not all, jurisdictions have laws that protect individuals with regard to their genetic information. We encourage our customers to understand the extent of legal protection for their genetic information before they share it with anyone.

and this lady seems to be the head honcho:

Anne Wojcicki
CEO and Co-Founder

Anne co-founded 23andMe in 2006 after a decade spent in healthcare investing, focused primarily on biotechnology companies. Her hope was to empower consumers with access to their own genetic information and to create a way to generate more personalized information so that commercial and academic researchers could better understand and develop new drugs and diagnostics. Presently, 23andMe has built one of the world's largest databases of individual genetic information. Its novel, web-based research approach allows for the rapid recruitment of participants to many genome-wide association studies at once, reducing the time and money needed to make new discoveries, and the company has created a proven and standardized resource for finding new genetic association and confirming genetic loci discovered by others. Under Anne's leadership 23andMe has made significant advances in bringing personalized medicine directly to the public. Anne graduated from Yale University with a BS in Biology. Getting access to and understanding her own genetic information had always been one of her ambitions.
 

Josi

The Living Force
FOTCM Member
As interesting as it would be to know those things, I would not want my DNA in a data base at some company. The list of investors puts up a pretty big red flags for me, " Johnson & Johnson Development Corporation (NYSE: JNJ); MPM Capital, The Roche Venture Fund (Swiss: RO.SW ), Google Ventures (NASDAQ: GOOG), and New Enterprise Associates".

The $99 one time fee is not very expensive. Makes it more affordable for many, and gets them more data.

Would be interesting, but no thanks!
 

Nawd

Dagobah Resident
Rhiannon said:
As interesting as it would be to know those things, I would not want my DNA in a data base at some company. The list of investors puts up a pretty big red flags for me, " Johnson & Johnson Development Corporation (NYSE: JNJ); MPM Capital, The Roche Venture Fund (Swiss: RO.SW ), Google Ventures (NASDAQ: GOOG), and New Enterprise Associates".

The $99 one time fee is not very expensive. Makes it more affordable for many, and gets them more data.

Would be interesting, but no thanks!

They have been storing DNA for awhile now:

_http://www.telegraph.co.uk/health/7756320/DNA-database-created-from-babies-blood-samples.html
 

Nook

Dagobah Resident
Thanks, Puck for sharing this.

I've been thinking about doing this in the past also not sure why..maybe because I'm a 'mut' and partially because of my biological father who's Bipolar (among other things) ..
But I might actually go through with it this time. It's nice to have a clearer picture of our genetic make-up.

Especially if they probably already have our DNA in some data base somewhere..as the article by Dawn says.
 

Zadius Sky

The Living Force
At some point this past April, I've decided to give my saliva to 23andMe to have my DNA tested (while learning about Hemochromatosis and the genetic aspects at the time). Even though it'll be added to a global DNA database, I figured that I am already known and "tracked" anyway (as Dawn pointed out), so why not use it to get more information about my DNA and all that self-knowledge growth (it's all very "double-edge sword" thing). They also can detect any disease carriers (including Hemochromatosis) and other interesting information. So, I just got my results.

As I've mentioned in the past, I have done a lot of research into my family history on my own (my own mother won't help me in this regard due to her belief in "past must be forgotten" doctrine and my own father having disowned me) and figuring out where my ancestors came from - I even had a map of each generation as they moved from one place to another over time, which I thought was kinda cool. Recently, I've done a hard research on my father's side and better understanding the family atmosphere and nasty dynamic.

For a long while, I had thought about going to "AncestryDNA" which is another one of those genetics companies/genealogy database which is a part of Ancestry website (with over 2.7 million paying subscribers). The DNA test only costs like $99 but the results focus only on one's family origins (no health data). It is partnered with Family Tree DNA company, which they shared the DNA data. While the company does not carry out the actual DNA testing, the tests are done on a contract-basis with Sorenson Genomics Laboratories (according to isogg wiki: _http://www.isogg.org/wiki/AncestryDNA). The press release of 2012 on the Ancestry website said that they acquired access to the collection database from Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Foundation, and recently teamed up with TLC and other medias for their new show called Who Do You Think You Are? that explores the family roots of celebrities as we watches them embarking on a "personal journey" to discover their past. I personally have issues with the Ancestry website over the years because they had a habit of luring you in with some new "features" and you ended up paying for them, which fueled my bias for not choosing this company for my family research and eventually forgotten about the DNA testing.

23andMe company is different from Ancestry as the latter is funded by million subscribers (and other sources) while the former is funded by investors, including Google Ventures (AKA "Big Brother") as they just invested $12 million, which is interesting because Google's co-founder Sergey Brin is married to Anne Wojcicki, who is co-founder of 23andMe. The former includes both health and ancestry data while Ancestry focuses on the family origins only - both at the same price. As for the former, an interesting thing about their product being $99 price was due to reaching a "million customer" goal this year (the price used to be $299 or more). If they decided to charge me for anything else in the future, I am so outta there but not before I'd save all of the results thus far.

First off, this is not a complete "genetic sequencing" DNA test but rather a "genotyping" test known as SNP DNA test (SNP stands for single nucleotide polymorphisms), which they determines which genetic variants one possesses based on current studies. These tests are done at "LabCorp's CLIA-certified laboratory." They do update each information that one had with new scientific studies over time, which I thought was interesting.

Here are two recent articles by authors sharing their experiences with this company:

My Experience With Personal Genetic Testing Through 23andMe (01 June 2013):
_http://geekdad.com/2013/06/23andme/

The Quantified Self: Exploring your genome with 23andMe (03 June 2013):
_http://www.zdnet.com/the-quantified-self-exploring-your-genome-with-23andme-7000016225/

A health result will be shown first after the saliva sample been received and analyzed before "DNA Relatives and Ancestry Composition results" becomes available. So I'll share what I have.

The Health results are grouped into four areas: Health Risks, Carrier Status, Traits and Drug Response - all based on current genetic studies information on specific markers.

Health Risks show a list of health conditions with "established research" for one's calculated risk ranged from "Elevated Risk" (above average) to "Decreased Risk" (below average) to "Typical Risk" (within 20% of average) of the diseases as reported by the "established research" (meaning "based on current scientific studies"). So, my first five "elevated risk" conditions are Prostate Cancer (26.1%), Psoriasis (22.4%), Parkinson's Disease (2.2%), Ulcerative Colitis (1.7%), and ESCC (0.43%). There are a lot more, of course, and each one has a more detailed information about the disease and how it connects to a specific genotype, based on a particular study (they gave citations/sources for those studies - the more studies that support the particular disease, the more "confidence" that they have on the established risk).

Carrier Status or "Inherited Conditions" show one's status regarding the genetic variations that "could have been" linked to particular diseases - again, based on the studies. They do test for any mutation for any genetic disorders or disease, including Hemochromatosis (which, in my case, revealed no mutation). The only thing that I am a carrier of is Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency to which they detected "MZ" allele in my SERPINA1 gene. A1AT can lead to COPD, emphysema, and liver disease. They even gave what it means: "MZ: Has one M and one Z form of the SERPINA1 gene. People with this combination may be at increased risk for liver disease, and may experience decreased lung function if they smoke."

That's a very bad thing about this whole thing: they included the scientific studies that are fueled by a smoking propaganda. :mad:

Traits list reveals physical attributes that are determined and/or influenced by genetics while others could be non-genetic factors. It's kind of a boring stuff here, but it has very interesting information that includes which attributes belong to which gene/chromosome (e.g., eye color = HERC2 gene). There's one odd thing that they included: "Measures of Intelligence" which is based on one Dutch family-based study that found this trait on SNAP25 gene. My result came to AA genotype, which means that I averaged three points higher on non-verbal IQ. I think it's all very "Myers-Briggs" approach here.

Drug Response displays one's status with regard to "genetic variations that have been linked to differences in how people respond to drugs." The only thing that they detected for me is Warfarin (Coumadin®) Sensitivity (being sensitive to a blood thinner).

Of course, they keeps reminding us not to use these health information as a final diagnosis and asked us to consult with a physician for any reasons (it's all policy here). If there's anything in my reports that I would want tested, I'll do it somewhere else as one cannot trust the results there completely.

The Ancestry results are grouped into: Ancestry Composition, Maternal Line, Paternal Line, Neanderthal Ancestry, and other cool things like DNA Melody (where they craft a melody based on your genotype). They still have not finished with the calculation on my ancestry composition yet. Keep in mind that they are using "out-of-Africa" ancestry theory here.

My maternal line (mtDNA) is haplogroup V3, a subgroup of V, which is said to have been originated in Iberia over 12,000 years ago. The locations of this haplogroup over time is consistent with my research on my mother's side of the tree locations.

My paternal line (y-DNA) is haplogroup I1, a subgroup of I, which is situated in most of Europe (almost non-existent outside of Europe) - again, consistent with my father's side of the tree (my great-grandfather immigrated to America from Poland); of Viking/Germanic origin. This suggests that I am not of a Celtic origin, which adds to the result of not having any mutation in my HFE gene (doesn't mean that I won't get an iron overload) as were being discussed in Hemochromatosis and Bloodline threads.

They even included a section called "Neanderthal Ancestry," which is a bit odd. My results put me at 93rd percentile: 3.0% out of 4% of my DNA is from the Neanderthals. :rolleyes:

They also have other features using my haplogroups, including a "Haplogroup Tree Mutation Mapper" that shows us which particular mutations are found in my mtDNA or Y-DNA and which versions (i.e., "A" or "G"). They even let you browse and/or download a raw data, which I thought is very useful when I do my own research on DNA and genetic history.

They also show you which famous people that you'd be related to and who your cousins are, but frankly, I don't care about that. There are some information there that I can use to better understand myself and to learn more about DNA and genetic make-ups, even if it's partly.

For what it's worth.
 

sitting

Dagobah Resident
Zadius Sky said:
At some point this past April, I've decided to give my saliva to 23andMe to have my DNA tested (while learning about Hemochromatosis and the genetic aspects at the time). Even though it'll be added to a global DNA database, I figured that I am already known and "tracked" anyway (as Dawn pointed out), so why not use it to get more information about my DNA and all that self-knowledge growth (it's all very "double-edge sword" thing). They also can detect any disease carriers (including Hemochromatosis) and other interesting information. So, I just got my results.



A very interesting read! Thank you.


And yes, Anne Wojcicki is Mrs. Sergey Brin. Which makes the funding issue almost academic. And the wider list of investors perhaps put there on purpose to allay privacy fears. Knowing what Google has done with user information, I would say the submission of one's DNA data to this company (Google linked) is indeed a double edge sword.


PS Since you brought it up voluntarily, may I be so bold as to ask what was the reason for that drastic action your father took?
 

Zadius Sky

The Living Force
sitting said:
PS Since you brought it up voluntarily, may I be so bold as to ask what was the reason for that drastic action your father took?

My father has a serious problem for which he demonstrated severe symptoms of Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), but he wasn't diagnosed (as far as I know). For example, when he put down a fork on a dining room table that pointed to a certain direction and if you tap it even slightly, he'll hit you hard, very hard. He and my mother fight a lot (my sister told me that he smashed my mother's head through a window one time). Even my mother have her own OC pattern which conflicted with my father's. Their marriage didn't last long. I haven't seen him that much over the years but he and my half-brother kept in touch and I would get letters from him from time to time. Whatever information that I had on my father's side of the family, I got from my half-brother and I researched on my own from there.

Anyway, a few years ago, when my sister (same mother, different father - that's a different story) had a baby and my half-brother, as excitedly as he was, told our father about it. Of course, he was furious and had a fit. Apparently, he had a certain worldview (supposed to be unbreakable, in his mind) that none of his children would ever have children. He was happy that my half-brother is gay, me being retarded, and my half-sister being "ugly" (his words, unfortunately). It was quite odd that my half-sister, by same mother, not his real daughter, having a baby would affect my father so profoundly. So, he removed his children from his life insurance policies and told us, "I have no children." And, that was it.

I have spent in the last year alone, focusing on my father's side of the family and trying to understand the dynamics. I discovered that a couple of my relatives on that line that were admitted to mental institutions for the insane, which were surprising but not really, considering my father's behavior (and mine). Not only that, a few relatives also were very smart, including my grandfather and my father (while on my mother's side, there was virtually no aptitude for intelligence as the families tend to conform to society and "play nice").

Which has brought me to read this little article: _http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2007-02/niom-cgv020707.php

Where, as according to this study, the same gene that makes you smarter is also likely to make you go insane, which kinda make sense since we are "pattern-making" machines (which makes me wonder if schizophrenics suffer from a plethora of patterns, so to speak). This gene is called DARPP-32 (also known as PPP1R1B) to which I've found four markers in this gene in my genetic data on 23andMe in Chromosome 17.

As I mentioned in my last post, there was a section called "Measures of Intelligence" which is based on only one study that was found a trait on SNAP25 gene. Nothing about the PPP1R1B gene nor was there ever a discussion about it on my "reports," which is interesting, so I had to look into it more.

23andMe also have news articles on their site and one article is found to be of interest:

_http://blog.23andme.com/news/dna-variation-may-help-us-break-free-from-our-routines/

DNA Variation May Help Us Break Free From Our Routines
31 July 2009

"But we always go there!"

And so begins another Friday night. When it comes to choosing where to go to dinner, my husband likes to stick with the tried and true. I like trying out new places.

A new study suggests that the roots of this conflict could spring partly from our genes. It suggests that a DNA variation affecting the neurotransmitter dopamine influence a person's willingness to explore new options instead of sticking with the status quo.

The finding comes from a study by Michael Frank and colleagues from Brown University and the University of Arizona. The researchers focused on how people learn from positive and negative feedback. Subjects were confronted with a clock face that counted down five seconds. Before time was up they had to push a button to receive points. In some trials, the experiment was set up so that the faster they pushed the button, the more points they got. In other trials, waiting longer got more points.

To the researchers' surprise, people showed wide swings in response speed within each type of trial as they adjusted their timing in an attempt to maximize their scores. Computer models showed that a likely reason for these swings is that people change their strategy (pressing the button faster or slower) in proportion to how uncertain they are that a new strategy (speeding up or slowing down from what they've been doing) will yield better results.

It makes sense: If you think a new restaurant might be only marginally better than the one you usually go to (and could be worse), you're probably not that likely to vary from the usual routine. Why risk it?

But if you really have no idea how good a place might be – who knows, it could blow your mind — you’d probably be more inclined to give it a whirl.

Further analysis of the data, which will appear in the August issue of Nature Neuroscience, showed that the extent to which a person tried out new strategies correlated with variations in the COMT gene. People who carried the “Met” version of the gene were more exploratory in the face of uncertainty about what strategy to try next than people with two copies of the “Val” version (“Met” and “Val” refer to particular amino acids encoded by different versions of the gene).

People with two copies of the Met version were the most adventurous, but even those with only one copy were statistically different in their exploration of new strategies from the people with two copies of the Val version.

(The different versions of the COMT gene are determined by rs4680, which is available to 23andMe customers in the Browse Raw Data feature. A=Met, G =Val)

The protein encoded by the COMT gene is involved in dopamine signaling in the prefrontal cortex, an area of the brain involved in planning and decision-making. The Met version of the gene leads to increased dopamine activity in this region and has been linked to more efficient information processing.

So does this explain my date-night drama? Well, there’s undoubtedly more to it than genes alone, but I do have one copy of the more exploratory Met version of the COMT gene. And my husband? Two copies of the stuck-in-a-rut Val version.

Dopamine and Learning

In a region of the brain called the basal ganglia, dopamine helps us internalize positive and negative feedback in order to develop those “gut” feelings of what strategy will work and what won’t.

The effects of dopamine in the basal ganglia have been shown in experiments that use drugs to raise or lower levels of the neurotransmitter in the brain. Higher dopamine levels help people learn to repeat rewarding behaviors, while lower dopamine leads to better learning from bad experiences. In a game where “A” usually yields more points than “B,” people with boosted dopamine levels learn to choose A. People with decreased dopamine levels learn to avoid B.

In non-medicated test subjects, genetic variations that influence dopamine signaling in the basal ganglia also impact so-called “Go” (choose A) and “NoGo” learning (avoid B). People with two copies of the A version of a variant in the DARPP-32 gene, which increases dopamine signaling, tend to be better at Go learning than their G-version-carrying friends. Those with two copies of A at rs6277 in the DRD2 gene, which decreases dopamine signaling, tend to be better NoGo learners than people with one or two copies of the G version of this SNP.

The clock-and-button experiments Frank et al. conducted further tested the association of these two variants with Go and NoGo learning. Trials that rewarded faster responses measured Go learning. Trials that rewarded holding off on the action of button pushing measured NoGo learning. As expected, people with two As at the DARPP-32 variant tended to be better at Go learning than people with one or two Gs, and people with two As at rs6277 in the DRD2 gene were better at NoGo learning than people with AG or GG at this SNP.

Parkinson’s Disease Connection

Understanding the role of dopamine in learning from experience may have important implications for treating people with Parkinson’s disease, which is characterized by a loss of dopamine producing neurons in the brain. Studies have shown that people with Parkinson’s have trouble with Go learning. It’s thought that the lack of dopamine in their brains prevents the dopamine spikes needed to learn from positive feedback.

This fits with evidence that drugs that increase dopamine help people with Parkinson’s improve their performance on tasks that require Go learning. But there is a downside: because they flood the brain with dopamine, the normal dips in signaling that are needed to learn from negative feedback are blocked by these drugs. This might explain why some people with Parkinson’s disease who take dopamine-increasing medications develop gambling problems – they’re overly attuned to winning, but incapable of learning from their losses.

I have two copies of "Val version" in my COMT gene (GG), which basically mean I'm "stuck-in-a-rut," which tends to be true. I am definitely not an adventurous-type, and I think this gene also plays a role in my OC pattern. And, I have two copies of the A version (AA) of a variant in my DARPP-32 gene, which puts me with learning to "repeat rewarding behaviors." Again, true.

There is an useful website called SNPedia (_http://snpedia.com/index.php/SNPedia) with a list of markers and studies being done on them, and in the Rs6277 section (in DRD2 gene), people with CC (GG) allele are associated with higher risk of schizophrenia. Very interesting.

And, there was this Telegraph article about a genetic basis for anger (same gene): _http://www.telegraph.co.uk/science/science-news/5270316/Anger-is-in-the-genes.html

Anger is in the genes

Being able to keep your cool or lose your temper is down to genes, according to a new study.

Isolation of a gene called DARPP-32 helps explain why some people fly into a rage at the slightest provocation, while others can remain calm.

More than 800 people were asked to fill in a questionnaire designed to study how they handle anger.

The German researchers also administered a DNA test to determine which of three versions of the DARPP-32 gene people were carrying.

The gene affects levels of dopamine, a brain chemical linked to anger and aggression.

Those who had the "TT" or "TC" versions of the gene portrayed significantly more anger than those with the "CC" version.

The study, from the University of Bonn, also found that those who display more anger have less grey matter in the amygdala, a part of the brain that helps keep our emotions balanced.

Martin Reuter, one of the researchers, who is a TC, said: "In other words, they are not able to control their feelings as well as those without the mutation.

"I am not an angry person but I can get angry if it is important."

TT and TC versions are much more common in Western populations, with the researchers suggesting that demonstrations of anger can help people get ahead in life.

"High degrees of anger are of course of low social desirability but a certain amount of dominance-related behaviour helps to assert position in a social hierarchy," the researchers added.

Reporting in the journal Behavioural Brain Research, they added that genetics only account for around half of our disposition towards anger, while DARPP-32 is one of several genes involved.

Earlier this year it was reported that showing anger rather than repressing emotions is the key to a successful professional and personal life. The study by the Harvard Study of Adult Development found those who keep a check on their frustrations are at least three times more likely to admit they have disappointing personal lives and have hit a glass ceiling in their career.

The version in my gene showed to be "TT" which is kind of interesting because I do tend to get angry (which drives me sometimes - okay, that's a lie, it's most of the time).

Anyway, I'm finding it interesting to see these genes that are susceptible to certain behaviors and seeing "where I am." It also can help with knowing one's susceptibilities and learning how to "turn it off," so to speak (with all that we do here).

For what it's worth... :)
 

Zadius Sky

The Living Force
Zadius Sky said:
The Ancestry results are grouped into: Ancestry Composition, Maternal Line, Paternal Line, Neanderthal Ancestry, and other cool things like DNA Melody (where they craft a melody based on your genotype). They still have not finished with the calculation on my ancestry composition yet. Keep in mind that they are using "out-of-Africa" ancestry theory here.

I finally got my results for Ancestry Composition, which reflect where all of my ancestors lived 500 years ago (supposedly), which comes to:

99.8% European:

Northern European
31.3% British and Irish
17.3% French and German
2.5% Scandinavian
0.7% Finnish
32.5% Nonspecific Northern European
8.7% Eastern European

Southern European
0.4% Balkan
0.2% Iberian
1.5% Nonspecific Southern European
4.8% Nonspecific European

0.1% South Asian

0.1% Unassigned

So, I'm mainly 70 percent Northern European, which figures.
 

mb

The Living Force
Puck said:
Hey all, recently I had a friend mention this company, 23andme to me and the services they provide. It's kinda cool, you spit in a jar and mail it to them and they sequence your DNA for virtually every known marker of disease susceptibility and resistance. Carrier status on some crazy number of disease genes, ancestory via haplogroups, even percentage of neanderthal genes you retain.

It sounds like an interesting way to acquire some self-knowledge, but I'm a bit hesitant to have my DNA on file and the data owned by some company. It's not terribly expensive, $99 is the one-time fee and they keep updating it as new genes are marked. Apparently if you're distantly related to someone else in their database of like 150,000 people then they'll let you know.

I thought I'd bring it up here and see what everyone thought before going forward.

_https://www.23andme.com/

The privacy aspect is something to think about. Of course this testing is based on a limited sample; it's not like they are sequencing your entire genome. But they take a sizable quantity of saliva (which they may keep for years), and they could sequence the whole thing if they were so inclined. And once you send the sample, it's out of your hands forever.

I think, however, that the privacy risk is pretty small compared to seeing a doctor for a health condition, especially if your records end up in a hospital or HMO EHR (Electronic Health Records) system. These systems tend to be open for staff access, and unscrupulous staff members can make money on the side selling your medical information. So much for privacy. That information (sold illegally) is also out of your hands and available to anybody that might be likely to use it against to you.

I have identified two relatives so far through 23andMe, a 4th cousin and a 9th (maternal)/10th & 11th (paternal) cousin -- both! We suspect there is an even closer match but I can't seem to find it. There can be a lot of work involved in actually finding out who someone is (I am doing it using ancestry.com), and it's not something I want to try too often. The 4th cousin was not particularly hard, though.
 

Nook

Dagobah Resident
Nuke said:
But I might actually go through with it this time. It's nice to have a clearer picture of our genetic make-up.

Well, I did. Here's the results:

Health Risks:
Elevated Risk?
Name Your Risk Avg. Risk Compared to Average
Venous Thromboembolism 41.8% 12.3% 3.39x
Prostate Cancer 23.9% 17.8% 1.34x
Psoriasis 22.4% 11.4% 1.98x
Restless Legs Syndrome 2.5% 2.0% 1.25x
Type 1 Diabetes 2.2% 1.0% 2.18x
Exfoliation Glaucoma 2.2% 0.7% 2.90x
Ulcerative Colitis 1.4% 0.8% 1.79x
Crohn's Disease 1.2% 0.5% 2.21x
Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma (ESCC) 0.56% 0.36% 1.57x
Celiac Disease 0.48% 0.12% 4.08x
Stomach Cancer 0.42% 0.23% 1.80x

Decreased Risk?
Name Your Risk Avg. Risk Compared to Average
Type 2 Diabetes 19.6% 25.7% 0.76x
Alzheimer's Disease 4.3% 7.2% 0.60x
Age-related Macular Degeneration 0.92% 6.55% 0.14x
Parkinson's Disease 0.91% 1.61% 0.57x
Rheumatoid Arthritis 0.82% 2.38% 0.34x
Multiple Sclerosis 0.17% 0.34% 0.50x
Primary Biliary Cirrhosis 0.05% 0.08% 0.66x

(and more) Decreased risk:
Atopic Dermatitis, Atrial Fibrillation, Bipolar Disorder, Kidney Cancer, Nicotine Dependence, Osteoarthritis, Peripheral Arterial Disease, Sarcoidosis, Sarcoma, Schizophrenia, Melanoma, Thyroid Cancer, Back Pain

Well, at least I know that my risk is decreased in developing Bipolar Disorder which could actually hold some merit (hopefully?), that took a load off my mind.
There's a lot of BS here otherwise, I wish they could utilize the knowledge on this forum or use real research results that could show them that many of these diseases are diet related...
Perhaps certain genes can increase our sensitivities, so that we'll develop certain conditions faster under the same diet than people who don't have the gene.
Anyway, many things on the list I don't have to worry about, thanks to the KD and the forum.

Drug Response: Warfarin (Coumadin®) Sensitivity
Caffeine Metabolism Slow Metabolizer.

Never even heard of Warfarin but good to know.

Inherited Conditions: None.
Out of almost 50, I have none, now that's good news.

Traits
Lactose Intolerance Likely Intolerant
Male Pattern Baldness Decreased Odds
Muscle Performance Likely Sprinter
Eating Behavior Greater tendency to overeat
Measures of Intelligence Lower Non-Verbal IQ
Memory Increased Episodic Memory

I included these because they seem to be true (based on experience)

They also said my blood type is most likely A+. And I thought I was a negative A..hole. :D

Ancestry Composition

99.2% European

Northern European:
19.3% French and German
1.0% Scandinavian
0.8% British and Irish
10.7% Nonspecific Northern European

23.6% Eastern European

Southern European:
7.7% Balkan
1.2% Italian
10.0% Nonspecific Southern European
10.5% Ashkenazi
14.4% Nonspecific European

East Asian & Native American:
0.7% East Asian
< 0.1% Nonspecific East Asian & Native American
0.2% Unassigned

Even the East Asian part seems to make sense, since the only theory on the Origins of Hungarians that ever made any sense to me is that they originally were from East Asia
(Plus, one of my cousins actually looks Asian with an 'all-Hungarian' background..)

And wait a second, am I 0.2% Alien? :lol:

That actually also seems to make sense, according to Enrico Fermi, an Italian physicist. When asked the question whether extraterrestrial beings exist he said:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Martians_%28group%29 said:
"Of course, they are already here among us: they just call themselves Hungarians."
:P

Maternal Line:
Haplogroup: W, a subgroup of N
Age: 35,000 years
Region: Eastern Europe, Caspian, South-Central Asia
Populations: Sindhi, Kurds, Mazandarani

Paternal Line:
Haplogroup: R1a1a, a subgroup of R1a1
Age: 12,000 years
Region: Eastern Europe, Scandinavia, Southwestern Asia, India
Populations: Ukrainians, Indians, Poles

And this is not even all the results, options and ways to explore our DNA on their website.
There's continuous research going on and new findings will be implemented in our results, so they keep us updated, which is nice.
(if we choose the option that they keep the DNA and update it, there's another option with which after the initial results, they're supposed to discard our samples completely.)
All in all, I'm glad I went through with it!
Maybe I'm being childish by being excited because of my results but that's how I feel. Even now that I know.

And another interesting addition:
An estimated 3.0% of your DNA is from Neanderthals.

The average is 2.7%. Ooga Booga, bam bam imo. :cool2:
Fwiw.
 

mb

The Living Force
Nuke said:
...And another interesting addition:
An estimated 3.0% of your DNA is from Neanderthals.

The average is 2.7%. Ooga Booga, bam bam imo. :cool2:
Fwiw.

You're beyond me (2.9%)!

It must be the Alien in you. :)

Oops, nope, I'm 0.2% unassigned too. 99.8% European. That should count as Alien as well.
 

MakeEmTalk

The Force is Strong With This One
I don't know if the privacy notice in the OP is the entire privacy notice, but I notice that there's nothing in that language that prevents the company from 'sharing' your information. It in fact seems to cleverly skirt any mention of such a concept.

Who knows what nefarious activities could arise from someone else having your DNA information? Once it's in someone else's hands, you can't take it back.

If you're inclined to use this or any similar service, at least use a fake name, birthdate, and perhaps even have it sent to a friend's address.
 

Alana

SuperModerator
Moderator
FOTCM Member
Hi MakeEmTalk, and welcome to the forum. It is customary for new members to write a little intro in the new members section about who they are (anything about you that you feel comfortable sharing) and how they found this forum. This gives us all a chance to get to know you a bit better and welcome you aboard.
 

Gaby

SuperModerator
Moderator
FOTCM Member
Funny thing, I got the results of my paternal line today. Both maternal and paternal lines were done through the Genographic project of National Geographic. So I got my main haplogroups, although reading the discussions, it seems there is no consensus as for true origins. I think my genes might be Asian from both my mother and father.

Haplogroup M

_http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_M_%28mtDNA%29
There is an ongoing debate concerning geographical origins of Haplogroup M and its sibling haplogroup N.[...]

The hypothesis of Asia as the place of origin of macrohaplogroup M is supported by the following:

The highest frequencies worldwide of macrohaplogroup M are observed in Asia, specifically in Bangladesh, India, Japan, and Tibet, where frequencies range from 60%-80%. The total frequency of M subclades is even higher in some populations of Siberia or the Americas, but these small populations tend to exhibit strong genetic drift effects, and often their geographical neighbors exhibit very different frequencies.

_http://ourorigins.wikia.com/wiki/MtDNA_haplogroup_M

Haplogroup M is mostly found in South and East Asia, as well as Oceania. Its presence in West Eurasia and Africa is much more limited, almost totally restricted to haplogroup M1.

Haplogroup E-M180

There was basically no useful information at the Genographic project about this one. And searching around leaves more questions than answers. Even though it is considered African, it seems it might have originated in the Middle East or Asia.

_http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZWGxW4hd9IQ&feature=c4-overview-vl&list=PL5553F2ADA76417E2
For haplogroup E there has been more divergence of opinions. It is obvious that it has a mostly African distribution overall but it's also directly related with haplogroup D found in Central and East Asia, and Andaman Islands [...]

From the comments: E could have swiped Africa from the middle east onwards to North, South, West, and East Africa.[...]

Asian origin to the haplogroup E:

Haplogroup E: YAP insertion signature in South Asia

_http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2HQ4296jpVs&feature=c4-overview&list=UUMylmdJ5lpDdY-Jxjlia5WQ
_http://dnacommunities.com/cgi-bin/forums/gforum.cgi?post=2039

Eb1b1 probably evolved either in Northeast Africa or the Near East and then expanded to the west--both north and south of the Mediterranean Sea. Eb1b1 clusters are seen today in Western Europe, Southeast Europe, the Near East, Northeast Africa and Northwest Africa.

Identical SNPs that were discovered separately are listed in alphabetical order, not necessarily in the order of discovery, and separated by "/". Examples: M40/SRY4064/SRY8299, P2/PN2, DYS271/M2/SY81, M180/P88, P1/PN1, M191/P86, P253/U247, P252/U174 and M41/P210.

Y-DNA haplogroup E would appear to have arisen in Northeast Africa based on the concentration and variety of E subclades in that area today. But the fact that Haplogroup E is closely linked with Haplogroup D, which is not found in Africa, leaves open the possibility that E first arose in the Near or Middle East and was subsequently carried into Africa by a back migration.E1b1 is by far the lineage of greatest geographical distribution. It has two important sub-lineages, E1b1a and E1b1b. E1b1a is an African lineage that probably expanded from northern African to sub-Saharan and equatorial Africa with the Bantu agricultural expansion. E1b1a is the most common lineage among African Americans. Eb1b1 probably evolved either in Northeast Africa or the Near East and then expanded to the west--both north and south of the Mediterranean Sea. Eb1b1 clusters are seen today in Western Europe, Southeast Europe, the Near East, Northeast Africa and Northwest Africa. The Cruciani articles (references and links belos) are indispensable resources for understanding the structure of this complicated haplogroup, but note that the Cruciani haplogroup labels are now superseded because of the recently discovered new SNPS that lie closer to the root of the E branch of the Y-haplogroup Tree.

A caution on clade labels: Because knowledge of this branch of the Y-chromosome tree has advanced so quickly in the last few years, different clade labels can be found in current use for the same SNP-determined branch of the tree. For example, it is still common to see E3b1 and E3b2 used to distinguish between the M78 and M81 branches of the tree though greater resolution is now possible.
 
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