Another Hit for the Cassiopaeans - Smoking

anart

A Disturbance in the Force
Not sure if we've discussed this previously, but this is a hit:

http://www.sott.net/articles/show/229863-It-s-in-the-genes-smoking-linked-to-specific-genetic-profile

article summary: "New studies suggest that genetic backgrounds may be to blame for smokers that have a hard time quitting or cutting down on their habit. Several genes can dictate how prone you are to take up smoking or how easily you can quit, based on the studies." Ignore the 'lung cancer' propaganda in the article!

980627 said:
A: This substance raises hemoglobin levels.
Q: What?! I quit smoking?!
A: Yes.
Q: How can smoking be a balancing mechanism?
A: Speeds up metabolism, thus allowing greater food intake.
Q: Well, all it did for me was allow me to eat at all! I guess
that now I will have to quit eating completely forever!
A: Or bring nicotine back.
Q: Well, that's not gonna happen! Isn't there something else
that would work?
A: No.
Q: So, you are saying that nicotine is actually good for me?
A: Yes. Without it, you will remain with weight problems,
because you will not be able to lower food intake enough to
compensate. Why do you think you had the inkling to start
smoking in the first place?
Q: Well, I just was going along with my friends, I thought.
A: No.
Q: What other things does nicotine do?
A: Raises defenses.
Q: What kind?
A: Immunological.
Q: Anything else?
A: Excites neurotransmitters. You require less sleep.
Q: Is this true for everyone?
A: No.
Q: (A) How much nicotine is necessary?
A: 100 mg per day.
Q: (A) Can it be in pill form?
A: Cigarettes infuse it to brain tissues most effectively.
Q: Well, I am certainly relieved! Now I know that I do not
have a 'smoking demon' possessing me! I was really getting
worried!
A: Those who fit this profile find it nearly impossible to "quit"
completely.
Q: So, there are people who are actually benefited by
smoking?
A: Genetics will offer proof of this.
 

Kaigen

The Living Force
FOTCM Member
Wow that's amazing, now I understand why grandfather was never sick, as he stopped smoking, it was like world is going to end for him. After he came back from hospital he started again, even it was against what the doc says, and he fills better.
:)
 

Niall

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I've been looking forward to this coming to light :)

Here's some more info regarding the genetic profiles of smokers vs non-smokers:

Genetics May Determine How Smokers Metabolize Nicotine

In a study funded by the American Lung Association researchers studied several hundred metabolites of 19 patients divided into groups of smokers and non-smokers. They found a significant difference in the metabolites in smokers and non-smokers.

"This gives us an idea of how people produce metabolites differently when smoking cigarettes, which is based on their particular genetic profile and other biological and environmental factors," says researcher Ping-Ching Hsu, who is a doctorial student and lead investigator in the study.

The ultimate goal of the research is to define the metabolomic profile or “metabolome” that might predict who may be most likely to develop disease from smoking, as well as more clearly define how smoking causes that disease. "Metabolomics provides a broad picture of what is happening in the body of smokers," Hsu says. In further research Hsu studied how heavy smoking affects the metabolome verses light smoking and found several biological pathways could be changed.

Source: ScienceDaily
 

Niall

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FOTCM Member
Wait, there's more!

The Genetics of Nicotine Addiction: Fundamental Biological Differences Revealed Between Smokers and Non-Smokers

Researchers at the University of Iowa have identified certain genetic profiles that may be linked to a person's risk for developing nicotine addiction and other psychological behaviors. Using a genome-wide scan, scientists analyzed blood samples from smokers versus nonsmokers and found similar genetic patterns among smokers that may one day be used as a genetic test to determine who may be more vulnerable to nicotine addiction.

"When you look at substance-abuse disorders and antisocial behavior, these are the last vestiges of the belief that mental impairments are related to moral will," says Tracy Gunter, director of forensic psychiatry at the University of Iowa and a coauthor of the study. "And one of the exciting things in this work is [that] it's beginning to form ideas that folks with these disorders are biologically different."

Nevermind the propaganda about "disorders" and "addictions" - the point to take home is that there's an undeniable biological difference.

In the past few years, researchers around the world have zeroed in on various genetic regions believed to be involved in one's vulnerability to addiction. Some have studied genes that control certain neurotransmitters in the brain, while others have looked at genes related to addictive traits like risk taking and impulsivity. Gunter and her colleagues chose to look at the genome as a whole and observe which genes are turned on and which turned off in people with a long history of smoking.

"One gene itself doesn't tell you whether you have a disorder," says Robert Philibert, a University of Iowa professor of psychiatry and the study's lead author. "But if you measure 30 or 40, you come up with a good risk. So what we do is spot the biology."

In this latest study, published in the American Journal of Medical Genetics, Philibert and his colleagues analyzed the DNA samples of 94 people, some smokers and some nonsmokers. Using a technique called transcriptional profiling, they looked at all 30,000 genes of the human genome, fluorescently labeling those that were turned on versus those that were turned off in both groups. What they found was both promising and daunting: 579 genes were more activated and 584 other genes were less activated in smokers versus nonsmokers.

"This is sort of like shining a light in a tomb," says Philibert.
"It says there's a lot here, but it doesn't tell you anything about it. In order to really explore the biology, people will have to replicate this."

Gunter adds that few psychological behaviors exist alone. For example, people who smoke may also have panic disorders or depression, each of which may involve a number of different genes. "How do you sort that out?" Gunter asks. "Is a genetic test disorder- specific, or specific to a cluster of disorders? There may be some sites that contribute more to prediction of a disorder than other sites. In the years to come, could we prune that down? Maybe."

There's also a question of whether, once a person starts smoking, increased nicotine consumption causes certain genes to turn on or off. To that end, Philibert plans to run similar genome-wide analyses on younger people who have not yet started smoking but may have a family history of nicotine dependence. He will also analyze DNA samples from patients with single psychological diagnoses to obtain what he calls a "cleaner phenotype."

Anthony Hinrichs, assistant professor of psychiatry at Washington University, in St. Louis, studies genes that code for certain nicotine receptors in the brain. He sees this latest approach as casting a wide net for other potentially related genes.

"Transcriptional profiling in general, and this study in particular, are very promising ways of nominating candidate genes," says Hinrichs. "I'm sure that these genes will now be on the map for other investigators."
 

Gaby

SuperModerator
Moderator
FOTCM Member
There's also a question of whether, once a person starts smoking, increased nicotine consumption causes certain genes to turn on or off.

My exact thoughts as I was reading this article. Thanks for sharing! Other than a genetic profile, nicotine may activate certain genes. I guess we'll have to take a closer look to the study to have an idea of which genes and their potential.
 

RedFox

The Living Force
FOTCM Member
Google turns up loads of results for 'nicotine gene expression'. Here's just two.

Nicotinic modulation of gene expression in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells (PDF) 2006

ABSTRACT
Exposure to nicotine has a broad range of physiological and psychological effects that can be
long lasting and contribute to nicotine dependence. On a time course longer than that
needed to activate nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) function, nicotine exposure
induces functional inactivation of nAChR, upregulation of nAChR radioligand binding sites,
and other alterations of cellular functions. To identify possible mechanisms underlying
nicotine-induced changes in nAChR numbers and function, we defined changes in gene
expression in neuron-like, SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells following 24 h of
continuous exposure to 1 mM nicotine. This treatment condition produces both
functional inactivation and upregulation of nAChR. Repeat and cross-controlled
microarray (∼5000 genes queried) analyses revealed 163 genes whose expression was
consistently altered at the p<0.01 level following nicotine treatment. Quantitative, real-
time, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses confirmed altered
expression of thirteen out of fourteen of these genes chosen for further study, including
contactin 1, myozenin 2, and ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes E2C and E2S. Inhibition or
reversal of these effects by the general nAChR antagonist, D-tubocurarine, indicated that
gene expression changes are dependent on nAChR activation. Studies using other nAChR
subtype-selective antagonists identified gene expression changes that required activation
of both α7- and α3*-nAChR, α7-nAChR alone, or either α7- or α3β4*-nAChR, suggesting some
convergent and some divergent pathways of gene activation coupled to these nAChR
subtypes. These results suggest that longer-term physiological and psychological effects of
nicotine exposure and changes in nAChR expression may be due in part to effects on gene
expression initiated by interactions with nAChR.

Nicotine and acetylcholine lead to distinct modulation of gene regulation (PDF) 2010

Abstract
Background: Sepsis is well known to lead to the activation of multiple pro-inflammatory mark-
ers, like MCP-1 (Monocyte chemotactic protein 1), TNF-alpha (Tumor necrosis factor alpha),
while the underlying genetic changes still remain poorly studied.
Methods: We used human umbilical vein endothelial cells to test the reactions to nicotine or
acetylcholine/pyridostigmine administration in regards to MCP-1 levels, gene regulation and
RNR expression.
Results: Pyridostigmine and Acetylcholine (Ach) lead to a significant decrease of MCP-1 levels
in TNF-alpha stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells, while nicotine had no effect.
Interestingly nicotine and acetylcholine lead to different gene expression (nicotine up-regulates
epidermal growth factor and down-regulates matrix metalloproteinase-8, while Ach/pyridostig-
mine up-regulates thioredoxin interacting protein and down-regulates insulin like growth factor
1). Furthermore RNA levels and gene activation were similar after nicotine administration,
while changes in RNA levels after Ach/pyridostigmine differed significantly.
Conclusions: Our results suggest that the effects of Ach/pyridostigmine and nicotine are mod-
ulated by different underlying pathways, despite their common activation of nicotinergic recep-
tors.

*edited to add a quick summary*
 

FrankM4326754

Jedi Master
I actually enjoy having a cigar and relaxing occasionally but unfortunately I do not believe that I am part of the proper gene pool since I have felt dizzy afterwards. I'm going to assume that dizziness is probably not a side effect that is conducive nor would it occur for someone who can benefit from the use of tobacco/nicotine, wouldn't you agree?
 

Laura

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FrankM4326754 said:
I actually enjoy having a cigar and relaxing occasionally but unfortunately I do not believe that I am part of the proper gene pool since I have felt dizzy afterwards. I'm going to assume that dizziness is probably not a side effect that is conducive nor would it occur for someone who can benefit from the use of tobacco/nicotine, wouldn't you agree?

No.

Everyone I know felt dizzy when they first started smoking, including myself.
 

Chu

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Laura said:
FrankM4326754 said:
I actually enjoy having a cigar and relaxing occasionally but unfortunately I do not believe that I am part of the proper gene pool since I have felt dizzy afterwards. I'm going to assume that dizziness is probably not a side effect that is conducive nor would it occur for someone who can benefit from the use of tobacco/nicotine, wouldn't you agree?

No.

Everyone I know felt dizzy when they first started smoking, including myself.

Ditto. I used to get dizzy in the beginning too. I think it's got more to do with one's brain getting nicotine when the brain is not used to functioning properly yet ;) , like getting a lot of acetylcholine, as it should, but all of a sudden. Some people simply don't have enough and need to compensate with smoking. But it takes some time getting used to the new levels.
 

Teresa

Jedi
Laura said:
FrankM4326754 said:
I actually enjoy having a cigar and relaxing occasionally but unfortunately I do not believe that I am part of the proper gene pool since I have felt dizzy afterwards. I'm going to assume that dizziness is probably not a side effect that is conducive nor would it occur for someone who can benefit from the use of tobacco/nicotine, wouldn't you agree?

No.

Everyone I know felt dizzy when they first started smoking, including myself.

Same here, and every time I've tried to quick smoking I get physically and mentally sluggish.
 

LQB

The Living Force
FOTCM Member
Teresa said:
Laura said:
FrankM4326754 said:
I actually enjoy having a cigar and relaxing occasionally but unfortunately I do not believe that I am part of the proper gene pool since I have felt dizzy afterwards. I'm going to assume that dizziness is probably not a side effect that is conducive nor would it occur for someone who can benefit from the use of tobacco/nicotine, wouldn't you agree?

No.

Everyone I know felt dizzy when they first started smoking, including myself.

Same here, and every time I've tried to quick smoking I get physically and mentally sluggish.

Yes, years ago when I quit with a friend, we described it as "bouncing off problems" as opposed to solving them.
 

chaps23

Jedi Master
I remember seeing a thread in regards to asking the C's if we should smoke or not? is that still the case? This makes me really wonder whether smoking is beneficial to me or not.
 

anart

A Disturbance in the Force
chaps23 said:
I remember seeing a thread in regards to asking the C's if we should smoke or not? is that still the case? This makes me really wonder whether smoking is beneficial to me or not.

Hi chaps23, no one can tell you that. You have to determine it for yourself since everyone is different. For those genetically predisposed, smoking is quite beneficial.
 

ocean59

Dagobah Resident
chaps23 said:
I remember seeing a thread in regards to asking the C's if we should smoke or not? is that still the case?

This may be the thread you remember, there is a lot of good information about the topic there.
 

FrankM4326754

Jedi Master
Ahhh Ha! I feel much better knowing that it is quite common and I actually did not feel dizzy at all last night while enjoying a cigar so perhaps I may be getting used to it? I hope I am.

Cheers! :cool2:
 
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