Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and other probiotics

Chu

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I recently wrote to Nicklebleu and Gaby for some advice. Amongst the things they recommended was Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. It has been mentioned a couple of times on the forum, but I thought it may be good to start a thread about it and collect some research. We've just ordered some, so we can't attest to its benefits yet, but it does look promising.

So, posting a bit in a hurry here, but this is what Gaby sent me, and an article she wrote:

It would be good to experiment with the following one:

http://www.iherb.com/Culturelle-Health-Wellness-Immunity-Support-Formula-Probiotic-30-Capsules/56052#p=1&oos=1&disc=0&lc=en-US&w=culturelle&rc=6&sr=null&ic=4

Culturelle is a patent of lactobacillus rhamnosus gg. There are very good reports with those and the lactobacilli have "pilli" which helps it to attach to the colon lining, promoting a good neighborhood in general. Here is some research about it:
http://www.health-matrix.net/2013/04/16/lactobacillus-gg-and-its-potential-role-in-tolerance-development/

I had the opportunity to listen to a talk given recently by Jon Vanderhoof, a pediatrician from the University of Nebraska. He was talking about the wonders and peculiarities of Lactobacillus GG and its role in digestive health.

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG is a probiotic unlike any other because it has little “hairs”(pili) that helps it stick to the inner lining of the digestive system. It also acts as the good guy which promotes the proliferation of other good bacteria in the neighborhood and it survives stomach acidity, making it likely to reach the intestinal walls where it’s needed the most. Vanderhoof was presenting his clinical experience with the use of Lactobacillus GG in children’s gut problems and he seemed to be very pleased with the results.

It was interesting to see how researchers are approaching the role of food allergens and their role in modern diseases, a damage which doesn’t involve the classically allergic mediated reactions and its diagnostic tools with such things as a prick test. In fact, from a strictly mainstream medicine point of view, Vanderhoof explained that a host of inflammatory conditions along the digestive tube were increasingly associated with food intolerances. He gave the example of proctitis (inflammation of the rectum) as a reaction to gluten intolerance and other “idiopathic” diseases as well. He explained that gut motility issues (i.e. constipation) in small children were a result of gut inflammation due to food sensitivities. This is arguably the case for everybody else I should add! He emphasized that he was seeing children constipated as the only reaction to a milk allergy. Other less fortunate little ones were having blood on their stools and vomiting (among other things) in response to their mother’s awful diet. So of course, mothers are instructed to do an elimination diet when they are breastfeeding their babies.

Gluten also shows up in mother’s milk contributing thus to colics, failure to thrive, acid reflux, diarrhea, eczema, chronic diaper rash, vomiting, seizures and so forth. For more information see glutenfreesociety.org

The classical allergic reaction is IgE mediated (a component of your defense system) and it could send you to the emergency room for a life saving adrenaline shot. It can be that dramatic. But as classical as it may be, it is actually very rare. Most food allergens create great havoc through a non-dramatic but very harmful long-term effect.

The most common food allergens are from agricultural-based foods, either GMO or non-GMO. This is one of the reasons why a paleo or ketogenic diet can be very beneficial for a lot of folks with several different conditions or health problems.

Anyhow, the take home message is that Lactobacillus GG seems to be unique in its capacity to promote gut health and wellness in general, and that foods from the Agricultural revolution are at the root of mankind’s deteriorating health.

Vanderhoof seemed to imply that Lactobacillus GG would increase the chance that a baby would tolerate a certain food allergen better. But if the body reacts to certain foods as it does, it is probably because the food per se is very harmful and was never part of mankind’s natural diet to begin with. Arguably the case for GMOs and the so called Agricultural revolution! For more information see Origins of Agriculture – Did Civilization Arise to Deliver a Fix?

Below are some assorted studies and quotes that are relevant to the topic at hand.

IgE-mediated allergic responses to foods are the most dramatic and perhaps the most easily diagnosed type of food allergy. Non-IgE-mediated food hypersensitivity is more chronic, less acute, less obvious in its clinical presentation, and often more difficult to diagnose. It usually presents in infants between one week and three months of age with vomiting and diarrhea, although irritability, poor feeding, and failure to thrive are not uncommon. A thorough history and physical examination are often key in establishing a diagnosis of food protein hypersensitivity. In non-IgE-mediated disease, skin tests and immunological studies are not helpful. Eliminating the food allergen is the only means of dealing with a food allergy in most patients.[Vanderhoof JA.. Food hypersensitivity in children. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 1998 Sep;1(5):419-22.]

The gut contains a diverse bacterial flora that is acquired at birth and has a number of physiological functions. Administration of prebiotics or probiotics may favourably alter this gut microflora. Prebiotics are poorly digested oligosaccharides that promote the growth of desirable bacteria and may have other beneficial gastrointestinal and systemic effects. Probiotics are “helpful” human bacteria that provide a variety of health benefits when administered exogenously. Probiotics produce beneficial effects in the prevention and treatment of traveller’s diarrhoea, viral diarrhoea, and diarrhoea in day care centres. Moreover, probiotics have been shown to reduce relapses associated with Clostridium difficile, and Lactobacilli are effective in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. Probiotics may also be efficacious in the treatment of gastroenteritis. Clinical studies of probiotics in inflammatory bowel disease have proved disappointing, but beneficial effects in adults with irritable bowel syndrome have been reported with Bifidobacterium infantis 35624. Lactobacilli GG reduces the incidence of gastrointestinal symptoms and gut permeability in patients with atopic dermatitis, and administration of probiotics reduces the frequency and severity of atopic eczema when administered to pregnant women and then to newborn infants. In conclusion, probiotics are effective in the treatment and/or prevention of a number of conditions, including diarrhoea, irritable bowel syndrome and atopic dermatitis, and the product used should be selected based on the particular indication. [Vanderhoof JA.. Probiotics in allergy management. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr.2008 Nov;47 Suppl 2:S38-40.]

“The most extensive studies of the modification of allergic reactions have been reported for atopic eczema with Lactobacillus GG as the probiotic”[…] “Randomized double-blind studies have provided evidence of probiotic effectiveness for the treatment and prevention of acute diarrhea and antibiotic-induced diarrhea, as well as for the prevention of cow milk–induced food allergy in infants and young children. Research studies have also provided evidence of effectiveness for the prevention of traveler’s diarrhea, relapsing Clostridium difficile–induced colitis, and urinary tract infections. There are also studies indicating that probiotics may be useful for prevention of respiratory infections in children, dental caries, irritable bowel syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease. Areas of future interest for the application of probiotics include colon and bladder cancers, diabetes, and rheumatoid arthritis. The probiotics with the greatest number of proven benefits are Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG and Saccharomyces boulardii.” [B.R. Goldin, S.L. Gorbach. Clinical Indications for Probiotics: An Overview. Clin Infect Dis. (2008) 46 (Supplement 2): S96-S100.]

It is estimated that ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) complicates the care of up to 30% of patients receiving mechanical ventilation. Patients with VAP have increased morbidity, mortality, and hospital costs as well as prolonged intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital lengths of stay and increased costs […] Probiotic prophylaxis of VAP using Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG appears safe and efficacious in a select population of patients who are at very high risk for contracting VAP. This therapy may also offer an opportunity to prevent related ICU complications, such as C. difficile and ICU-associated diarrhea. Ultimately, probiotics may fulfill a role in antimicrobial stewardship programs given the reductions in antibiotic consumption[Morrow LE, Kollef MH, Casale TB. Probiotic prophylaxis of ventilator-associated pneumonia: a blinded, randomized, controlled trial. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2010 Oct 15;182(8):1058-64.]
I found a few more articles about it that were interesting (obviously, scratch the idea of taking it via diary products - evil!):

http://www.powerofprobiotics.com/Lactobacillus-rhamnosus-GG.html
Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG - Many Names, Many Health Benefits

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, also known as "L. rhamnosus GG" or "LGG" is a probiotic bacteria with many health benefits. As you learned on the Lactobacillus rhamnosus general page, this species of bacteria has some unique characteristics depending on the strain. LGG stands alone as being one of the most different strains currently known in this probiotic species.
What is LGG ?

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG was isolated from the intestinal tract of a healthy human. Dr. Sherwood Gorbach and Dr. Barry Goldin from Boston, MA filed for a patent in April of 1985, and called it “GG” because of their last names. Therefore, unless a product specifically says that it contains this strain, it does not contain L. rhamnosus GG, and you're not getting what you may hope to be paying for.

LGG® is a registered trademark of Valio Ltd., Finland. In the patent application, it was claimed that Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG can survive in normal human stomach acid at pH of 2.5 for 30 minutes and is bile stable. This means that it can survive passage through the stomach and small intestine. They also claimed that LGG was able to vigorously adhere to human intestinal cells, a claim that is disputed because some studies show that it can adhere only moderately to mucus cells.

The patent for L. rhamnosus GG also stated that it is used for 7 conditions:

Treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea
Prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea when taken prior to or during antibiotic therapy
Treatment or prevention of ulcerative colitis
Constipation
Colonization resistance to pathogenic microbes
Reduction of the amount of cholesterol eliminated in feces, thereby reducing colon cancer risk
Reduction of the amount of estrogen excreted in menstruating women

What Does Other Research On LGG Show ?

Over 400 studies have been conducted on LGG. In addition to the results stated in the patent application for Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, other research has shown that LGG:

Does not adhere to the vaginal interior, but has some vaginal benefit (for more information, see Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 page )
Has been shown to decrease the incidence of eczema in children
Modulates the immune system in allergic-type conditions
Was effective against diarrhea from E. coli, Salmonella and Shigella
Was able to protect the small intestine in mice when exposed to radiation therapy if given before, but not after, the radiation therapy. (Once again, the theme so often echoed in this website is to preserve health by preventing disease, and you'll save money in the process.)
Significantly reduced C-reactive protein, a marker of inflammation, when given 1.6 x 1010 CFU/d to healthy adults

Where to Find Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG

At the time of this writing, Lactobacillus rhamnosus LGG is found in many products all over the world. For example, Aktifit® by Emmi Switzerland is a yogurt drink containing LGG with Streptocucus thermophilus, although the amounts of each in a serving are unknown. Since there are so many products, the best advice is to always, always, read product labels.
http://www.livestrong.com/article/398927-what-is-lactobacillus-rhamnosus-gg/
What Is Lactobacillus Rhamnosus GG?
Last Updated: Jan 28, 2015 | By Charis Grey
What Is Lactobacillus Rhamnosus GG? Fermented foods like yogurt contain probiotics. Photo Credit Yogurt image by Infs from Fotolia.com

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG is the most extensively studied probiotic microorganism available for sale in retail markets, according to USProbiotics.org. Probiotic microbes are good for you. They confer positive health benefits when consumed live, either in fermented foods like yogurt, or as supplements sold in capsules at health food stores. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG has been shown to have numerous positive effects on health.
Probiotics

Your body naturally contains vast numbers of beneficial bacteria that actually protect your gastrointestinal health. These bacteria, called normal flora, live in your intestinal tract, occupying space that could otherwise be overrun by harmful pathogens. Live beneficial bacteria that are found in foods and supplements are called probiotics. By consuming probiotic foods, such as those containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, you transfer beneficial bacteria to your intestinal tract and put them to work for your health.
Strain Specificity

Not all probiotics offer the same effects. The health benefits of probiotics are strain specific, meaning that different types of probiotic microbes affect your body differently. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG is a specific bacterial strain. Lactobacillus is the name of the genus to which it belongs. Rhamnosus is the name of the species. GG denotes the strain. Even something so slight as a different letter or two in the spelling of its name can mean that your probiotic is a different strain and may not have the same effects. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1, for example, is different from Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, and confers different health benefits.
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Effects of Lactobacillus Rhamnosus GG

Numerous studies have confirmed the effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG on human health. According to a study published in May 2008 in the “World Journal of Gastroenterology,” it can alter the blood lipid profiles and may be helpful in treating diseases associated with inflammation. It has demonstrated effectiveness in treating a condition called pouchitis, which can occur after colon surgery, as noted in a study published in March 2003 in “Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics.” Additionally, a study published in April 2008 in “Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology" suggests it may be helpful in preventing and treating atopic eczema.
http://weightlossleaders.com/lactobacillus-rhamnosus-weight-loss-review
Lactobacillus Rhamnosus Probiotic

Is Lactobacillus Rhamnosus one of the perfect probiotics to help people lose weight faster and easier?

This is a question Dr. Oz asked in his article, The Good Life of March/April 2014 issue. This was a text especially designated to help people choose a probiotic that will address their digestive issues.

More than this, studies on Lactobacillus Rhamnosus were meant to show overweight people how to lose their belly fat.

It seems this probiotic showed great weight loss results in animals. While things went great for mince, results were not so sure about humans. Another new British Journal of Nutrition study showed this probiotic leads to significant weight loss just in women.
Lactobacillus Rhamnosus Probiotic Overview

Have a look over the next few paragraphs. You will discover how this Lactobacillus Rhamnosus improved many women’s weight, causing them to drop many pounds.

The studies went further, at the Laval University in Québec. Here, scientists searched to determine how consuming a certain strain of bacteria or probiotics could improve the intestinal flora. This thing was used to favor weight loss management.

The previous studies performed at this University proved bacteria in those who are obese is different from the one that develops in thin individuals.
What is Lactobacillus Rhamnosus?

Lactobacillus Rhamnosus is one of the most broadly studied bacterial strain. This is all due to the fact that this probiotic doesn’t present any pathogenicity. It exists in the human body by natural means.

It is primarily existent in the digestive tract, but the urinary and genital tracks also contain it. Its most important use is to keep up a balanced quantity of bacteria in the digestive system. It looks like it prevents harmful bacteria to develop.

It seems there are no other bacteria to have more health benefits. Lactobacillus Rhamnosus features only healthiness and digestive improvement. Besides the amazing weight loss effects, Lactobacillus Rhamnosus has also anti-inflammatory characteristics.
Lactobacillus Rhamnosus Weight Loss

Since this form of bacteria preserves a healthy digestive system, the weight loss process gets to be activated and inevitable. The human body needs a healthy and constant flow. As soon as the stomach and intestines get to digest and process foods at much higher speeds, the weight loss begins to accelerate and take place without too many efforts.

It is very important to feature a decent amount of Lactobacillus Rhamnosus in the digestive tract. The balance of bacteria will sustain a healthy system that doesn’t add any more fat.
Where To Find Lactobacillus Rhamnosus?

What foods contain the most Lactobacillus Rhamnosus?

This for of bacteria is naturally present in whole foods and dairy products. Try consuming yogurts, cheese and fermented milk. Some strains of Lactobacillus Rhamnosus can be found in fermented meats and dry sausages.

If you are allergic or you happen to not be a fan of such products, try health supplements developed with this bacterium.

Make sure your body contains enough bacteria to balance and sustain proper digestion. You will lose weight without any efforts or diets that limit your neurons from enjoying a good meal.
http://www.probioticscenter.org/best-probiotics-for-weight-loss-women/
Best probiotics for Weight Loss in Women • Study Reveals

February 28, 2014 By Ken Silvers Leave a Comment

Talking about the best probiotics for weight loss in women might sound as an obvious scam. However, it might be the real thing. We know that probiotic bacteria in your gut are essential to enjoy good health. But is are some bacteria in control of our weight? And could there even be specific bacteria strains that promote weight loss in women and not in men?

Several recent studies reveal that, among the hundreds of bacteria species colonizing your digestive tract, a few specific bacteria are involved in weight control. Some bacteria as Akkermansia muciniphila even have the unique ability to determine the rate of weight loss of both women and men. In addition to Akkermansia muciniphila, researchers has now found another probiotic bacteria that seems best for weight loss in women only.
Best probiotics for Weight Loss in Women, no scam
best probiotics for weight loss

Consuming probiotics promotes weight loss. However, cerains bacteria are better for women than for men. (Image courtesy of luigi diamanti at FreeDigitalPhotos.net)

But a recent study published in the British Journal of Nutrition showed some surprising results, that there might actually exist probiotics for weight loss in women.

Previous studies have already demonstrated that the intestinal flora of obese individuals differs from that of thin people. This difference is likely due to a person’s diet. An unhealthy diet high in sugar, processed foods, low quality fat and low in fiber will promote growth of bacteria species promoting weight gain at the expense of other beneficial bacteria supporting weight loss. Therefore researchers tried to determine if the consumption of certain probiotics could help reset the balance of the gut in favor of bacteria that promote a healthy weight.

Researchers tested this on 125 obese men and women that during 12 weeks were put on a weight-loss diet. After this followed 12 weeks trying to maintain body weight. During this time half of the subjects took 2 pills daily containing the probiotics Lactobacillus rhamnosus. The other half of the group received a placebo—a pill without any effect.

Remarkable weight loss results after 12 weeks

On the average, there was a weight loss of 4.4 kg (almost 10 pounds) in women in the group taking probiotics and 2.6 kg (just under 6 pounds) in the placebo group not taking a probiotic supplement. However, there was no different in weight loss among males in the two groups.

“We don’t know why the probiotics didn’t have any effect on men. It may be a question of dosage, or the study period may have been too short,” says Professor Tremblay, who is also the Canada Research Chair in Environment and Energy Balance.

After an additional 12-weeks period trying to maintain their weight, the women in the placebo group had remained stable but the probiotic group had continued to lose weight; in total these women lost 5.2 kg (11.5 pounds) per person. This is twice as much as the control group.

Overweight women consuming Lactobacillus rhamnosus lost 5.2 kg (11.5 pounds) over a 24-week period

Researchers also noted a drop in the appetite-regulating hormone leptin in this group, as well as a lower overall concentration of the intestinal bacteria related to weight gain and obesity. This indicates that certain probiotic gut bacteria influence a person’s weight. How is this possible?

It is likely that probiotic bacteria affect the permeability of the intestinal wall. By keeping certain pro-inflammatory substances from entering the bloodstream, beneficial bacteria help preventing the chain reaction that leads to glucose intolerance, type 2 diabetes, and weight gain.

Probiotic bacteria also communicates with the brain and can thereby increase or decrease appetite which is a powerful factor in weight control.
Lactobacillus rhamnosus, were can you find it?

The Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain used in this study is found in some yogurts. But researchers believe other probiotics bacteria found in dairy products in North America could have a similar effect on weight. However, the benefits of these probiotic bacteria increase with an adequate fiber intake. Most people eat too little fiber.

L. rhamnosus has been shown to affect certain brain regions and lowers the stress hormone corticosterone. Thus this bacteria has the ability to reduce anxiety and depression.

L. rhamnosus also promote destruction of harmful bacteria and absorption of minerals by aiding in the digestion of lactose. It causes the body to manufacture natural antibiotic substances to fight disease, increasing your resistance to viral infections.

Lactobacillus rhamnosus can be found in probiotic supplements as…

Dr. Mercola Complete Probiotics
Bio-Kult

This weight loss promoting bacteria species are included in some fermented foods. For example, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG is included in some yogurt brands.

One of the best sources is preparing fermented food at home using a starter culture containing L. rhamnosus. Dr. Mercola Complete Probiotic contains L. rhamnosus and nine other highly beneficial bacteria. This works fine as a starter culture for preparing yogurt, kefir or fermented vegetables. You can also get the excellent starter culture Kinetic Culture from Dr. Mercola.

Gut bacteria communicate with your brain

Research on probiotic bacteria indicates that beneficial bacteria in your gut communicate with your brain through the vagus nerve. This is why some gut bacteria can control your appetite. For example, there’s a feedback loop between the foods you crave and the microorganisms in your gut. These microorganisms depend on certain nutrients to survive.

For example, microbes that feed on sugar can signal your brain to consume more sweets. People who suffer from Candida overgrowth often have severe sugar cravings because Candida feed on sugar for their survival.

Changing diet can alter your gut bacteria composition very fast, even during a few days!

This illustrates how you are ultimately the one who controls the composition of your intestinal microflora. How is that? The foods you eat will affect the composition of bacteria in your digestive tract. Therefore your diet directly impacts the community of microorganisms colonizing your gut—for better or worse.
Akkermansia muciniphila promotes weight loss in both overweight men and women

Akkermansia muciniphila has been shown to promote weight loss in all obese people. Akkermansia muciniphila has unique properties and promotes the repair of a disturbed metabolism that is often associated with obesity, inflammation and type-2 diabetes. This beneficial bacteria is naturally present in a healthy gut. However, the concentration of Akkermansia muciniphila is lower in humans with intestinal disorders like Crohn’s disease and also in obese people.

Can you consume Akkermansia muciniphila and loose weight?

At the time of writing this post, I’m not aware of any probiotic supplement containing Akkermansia muciniphila. But since this bacteria is found naturally in all humans, a good option is to promote the growth and well-being of these and other beneficial bacteria already colonizing your gut. What you consume will to a great extent effect the growth of Akkermansia muciniphila in your gut.

How to stimulate the growth Akkermansia muciniphila and other gut bacteria promoting weight loss

Add more fiber to your diet; chances are that you are not eating enough. Psyllium husk is one of the best sources of soluble and insoluble dietary fiber. They are commonly used to relieve constipation, irritable bowel syndrome, and diarrhea. Research show that psyllium husk promote growth of probiotic bacteria in your gut. Good bacteria feed on fiber, keep your gut colony well fed.
Lower you intake of sugar. Excess sugar from processed foods, soda and candy disturbs the delicate gut balance causing growth of unwanted bacteria responsible for weight gain.
Eat fermented foods like yogurt, kefir, fermented vegetables and natto.
Stress has a bad effect on your digestive tract and can cause severe imbalances. Find ways to calm down. A soothing walk in a park, by the sea or a lake, listen to soothing music, sing or play an instrument. Doing something for others is great way to feel joy and relax.
Take antibiotics only when you absolutely have to.

The above recommendations work well for both men, women and children but especially those who are overweight or suffer from inflammatory bowel diseases and type-2 diabetes.
Best strategies for weight loss

The latest research all point in one direction: The best way to enjoy a natural and permanent weight loss is to support your gut bacteria responsible for controlling your weight.

Consume fermented foods. Yogurt, kefir, and fermented vegetables on a daily basis can have a tremendous effect on your gut and help balance your gut and control appetite. Homemade cultured foods are packed with probiotic bacteria and you can even control which beneficial bacteria are included.

L. rhamnosus. As a woman you will maximize weight loss benefits if you consume Lactobacillus rhamnosus daily; you do not need very high doses. Men will benefit also but in other ways than weight loss.

High quality probiotic supplement. A simple, fast way to get going in the right direction. However, choose a probiotic supplement carefully as the market is full of scams.

Add extra fiber. Simple but highly effective way to stimulate growth of beneficial bacteria already colonizing your gut. Fiber promotes bowel movement. Psyllium husk is a natural and excellent source of fiber that probiotic bacteria love and consume. This promotes weight loss.

Lower sugar intake. A high sugar intake can cause bacteria responsible for weight gain and obesity to dominate your digestive tract. People with such imbalances have very difficult loosing weight as they have battle on several fronts—a strong appetite and gut bacteria promoting weight gain. However, simple changes to your diet can have a big, fast, positive impact.

Learn to control stress. Stress can disrupt the delicate balance in your digestive tract.

Avoid Antibiotics. Very rarely a person will be in real need of antibiotics. But if you are, be sure to add a probiotic supplement daily and continue taking a supplement long after you completed your antibiotics course. The onslaught of antibiotics on you gut is severe and can cause imbalances that can take a long time to repair.

Exercise. A great way to maximize your weight loss efforts. High intensity training has proven very beneficial. If you run, jump, or use a bicycle—go 30 seconds in full speed the 1.5 minutes very slow, again 30 full speed and 1.5 minutes slow. Do 6-8 such intervals. This training stimulates your body to release human growth hormones (HGH) and promotes insulin sensitivity. This is all highly beneficial for weight loss.

Intermittent fasting. There are many variations but it means to have periods of fasting for 12-24 hours. Some do this two days per week, others (like me) fast daily. This basically means eating you last meal at 6 PM, skipping breakfast the next morning and then have your first meal at noon. This way your body has been in a fasting state for 10-12 hours. Intermittent fasting requires that you eat healthy first otherwise it will not work. Do some reading on the subject to learn the benefits for optimal health and losing weight.
Anyway, just FWIW, in case anyone is interested. Their ideas about diet are not always right, as we know, but perhaps it can be an extra support for the keto diet, and to those who struggle a bit with it or who have auto-immune conditions, chronic damage of the gut, etc.? What I found to be the most interesting stuff about it is the link with inflammation.
 

Keyhole

The Living Force
FOTCM Member
Re: Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG

Thanks Chu, it seems from the 2008 study in the article below that especially when taken in conjunction with Bifidobacteria, LLG can really work wonders :

New Research Reveals Probiotic’s Anti-Toxin, Anti-Inflammatory, Immune Boosting Properties - http://www.clinicaleducation.org/resources/reviews/lactobacillus-gg-a-potent-immune-regulator-effective-in-many-disorders/

Lactobacillus GG is the most prolifically researched probiotic in the world—over 400 studies have been published that document its remarkable immune-modulating properties.This unique immunobiotic was isolated from a healthy human in 1985 by a team of two Tufts University researchers,Barry Goldin, M.S., Ph.D. and Sherwood L. Gorbach, M.D. They spent nearly a decade testing organisms until they discovered one that was a potent antimicrobial, survived stomach and bile acid, and was very, very sticky—it adhered well to the gut mucosa.

Naming the organism Lactobacillus GG, after the first initials of their last names, Goldin reports that the organism was unique in the “white, almost milky creamy colonies it would form, probably because of a polysaccharide in the cell wall.” LGG continues to be studied around the world—from Florida to China, Korea to Germany, Finland to Australia, Boston to Italy. In the last two years alone researchers have uncovered new benefits of this probiotic strain far beyond digestive health, as well as deciphering the mechanisms by which this hardy organism inhibits pathogens and their toxins, and helps restore and re-set immune function. Like the Vitamin C of probiotics, Lactobacillus GG is both the most researched and most trusted, safe, effective immune-boosting probiotic we know of.

New Research on Preventing Diarrhea
In 1987, Goldin, Gorbach and their colleague Chang published a study in The Lancet entitled “Successful treatment of relapsing Clostridium difficile colitis with Lactobacillus GG.” Chang, a virologist at Tufts who had recently isolated the infamously destructive toxin of C. difficile—the bacteria that causes a devastating and often recurrent diarrhea—gave the super probiotic strain to suffering patients after a course of antibiotics, and relapses were prevented.

That study was the first proof that this unique organism could benefit human health. The work on this unique immunobiotic and E. coli continues, and in 2008 a study of a strain of E. coli that triggers acute diarrhea, gut hemorrhages and hemolytic uremia, found that the probiotic prevents E. coli from causing destructive changes to tissue. The study showed that pretreatment with LGG diminished the number of lesions and reduced the permeability of the gut mucosal cells. Only the live organism worked; heat-inactivated organisms were not effective.

LGG CAM ad

LGG has also proven effective in combating many other troubling gut pathogens. This probiotic inhibits Clostridium, Bacteroides, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus and Entereobacteria—yet does not inhibit other beneficial Lactobacilli.

A 2008 study of 559 children showed that this strain of Lactobacillus significantly lowered the frequency and duration of acute infectious diarrhea, as well as the requirement for intravenous therapy and hospital stays. A 2009 Taiwan study found that the organism inhibits the shedding of rotavirus in fecal samples from infected children.

Adults with gut infections fare well with LGG also. LGG proved effective in five meta-analyses of probiotic trials analysed at Tufts-New England Medical Medical Center in 2008; the largest analysis looked at 2810 subjects in 25 randomised, controlled trials. Tufts researchers found that this particular strain of Lactobacillus—as well as Saccharomyces boulardii—helped prevent antibiotic-associated diarrhea. And a 2007 study from Poland looked at eight randomised, controlled trials involving nearly 1000 individuals. LGG was associated with a significant reduction in the duration of diarrhea. In addition this probiotic reduced diarrhea associated with chemotherapy for colorectal cancer, according to a 2007 study from Helsinki University Department of Oncology.

LGG Prevents Many Infections And Autoimmune Conditions
Lactobacillus rhamnosus heals more than the gut in infants and young children. It helps prevent eczema. When pregnant mothers take LGG, their newborns have less eczema. LGG can reduce atopic dermatitis in those newborns, as well as reduce the risk of allergy by half when given to expectant mothers and then to infants in their first six months of life. A 2009 study from Germany found that newborns treated with LGG had half the rate of atopic dermatitis.

This remarkable immunobiotic can also help prevent ear infections in infants. A 2008 Finnish study of infants requiring formula before the age of 2 months were given LGG and Bidifobacterium, or placebo, daily until they were a year old. During the first seven months, 22% of infants receiving probiotics had an ear infection compared to 50% receiving placebo. Antibiotics were prescribed for 31% of infants on probiotics and double that—60%—on placebo. The researchers conclude that LGG and Bifidobacterium “offer a safe means of reducing the risk of early acute otitis media and antibiotic use…during the first year of life.”

Lactobacillus rhamnosus may be able to prevent strep throat. A fascinating 2009 study from Italy found that the invasive capacity of eight strains of group A Streptococci (GAS)—all resistant to Erythromycin—was significantly inhibited by LGG, both live and heat-killed. The researchers studied human respiratory cells and concluded that the probiotic might be able to prevent strep throat infections. It has also cleared nasal passages in guinea pigs with allergic rhinitis.

Lactobacillus rhamnosus reduces arthritis— perhaps because allergic disorders involve perturbed skin and gut mucosa and dysregulation of the immune response, according to researchers at Finland’s University of Turku. In a 2008 report they show that elimination diets and environmental changes are not effective enough in allergy, and perhaps establishing a healthy gut microbiota is equally important.

This Lactobacillus strain, taken orally, along with other probiotics, actually reduces the amount of Staphylococcus aureus and beta-hemolytic streptococci in the nasal passages of humans. Yet the probiotics themselves do not colonise the nose. That suggests that LGG truly does have a body-wide immune-boosting effect.

Lactobacillus GG denatures toxins, decreases the inflammatory response, and produces peptides that balance the immune response while limiting the destructive potential of many pathogens.

Lactobacillus rhamnosus can help a liver damaged by alcohol. Only 30% of alcoholics develop alcoholic liver disease, and research suggests that bacterial endotoxins may be another key factor. In a 2009 study from Rush University Medical Center, animals fed alcohol plus this particular probiotic had significantly less severe liver damage (alcoholic steatohepatitis) than those fed alcohol alone. The probiotic “reduced alcohol induced gut leakiness and significantly blunted alcohol-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in both intestines and the liver” the researchers conclude.

Though these results are impressive, a deeper look at how this remarkable immunobiotic—with its antimicrobial and super adhesion ability—works its mucosal magic gives us profound insight into its other, body-wide health benefits. This immunobiotic denatures toxins, decreases the inflammatory response, and produces peptides that balance the immune response while limiting the destructive potential of many pathogens.

How Does Lactobacillus rhamnosus Work?
Lactobacillus rhamnosus has remarkable effects on inflammation and infection. Research shows that it is able to significantly blunt the amounts of inflammatory cytokines that pathogenic bacteria seem to trigger—such as TNF-alpha, interleukins, and myeloperoxidase. Remarkably, it downregulates inflammation not only in the gut, but in the intestine, liver, lung and blood. It also seems to reduce the invasive capacity of bacteria. As a result, it can be highly beneficial in a variety of inflammatory diseases and infections.

Lactobacillus rhamnosus suppresses inflammatory molecules triggered by E. coli infections. A 2009 study from Japan studied the mechanism by which the probiotic may work. While E. coli triggered inflammatory chemokines (measured by PCR), Lactobacillus rhamnosus “significantly suppressed” them. The researchers suggest that the probiotic does this by suppressing specific inflammatory pathways.

Lactobacillus rhamnosus even seems to be able to remove toxins from solution. A 2008 study of this particular strain of Lactobacillus along with other probiotics looked at the peptide toxins from cyanobacteria. LGG and Bifido bacterium strains were studied. This unique probiotic was able to remove between 60 and 78 percent of three specific toxins. Toxins could be removed simultaneously by the probiotic, and researchers found that a combination of probiotics enhanced their removal ability. This fascinating study suggests that one mechanism by which Lactobacillus rhamnosus heals the gut and the immune system is by actually binding or denaturing bacterial toxins.

Lactobacillus rhamnosus Alters The Immune Response
Pathogens harm by invading tissue, releasing endotoxins, and stimulating a marked immune response which releases a flood of inflammatory molecules. Immunobiotics limit a pathogen’s ability to invade as well as damage our own cells, and they help reduce our inflammatory response, leading to an overall balance that is far healthier. There is much new evidence that this probiotic is a very effective immunobiotic, one that helps regulate our own immune response.

A 2009 animal study found that this unique organism is able to lessen the damaging response of T and B cells to the pathogen Campylobacter jejuni in mice. Another 2008 study found that it can actually restore the liver enzyme alkaline phosphatase in cells damaged by the potent mycotoxin deoxynivalenol.

Lactobacillus rhamnosus helps limit the runaway inflammatory response in our body. NF-Kappa B is a key molecule that regulates the entire inflammatory cascade. Amazingly, Lactobacillus rhamnosus seems to be able to quiet the gene that transcribes and regulates production of NF-Kappa B. This remarkable finding is from a 2008 study from South Korea. Cells in culture were stimulated so that they would release the inflammatory cytokine IL-8. Pretreatment of cells with this immunobiotic significantly inhibited IL-8 production. Even more importantly, the organism actually worked to quiet both the genes that help regulate IL-8 and NF-Kappa B. This means that Lactobacillus rhamnosus may be working at the very deep and fundamental level of gene activity and transcription, in part by inhibiting the NF-Kappa B signaling pathway.

Lactobacillus rhamnosus may help our gut mucosa defend itself by promoting protective responses, according to a 2008 study from Emory University. This research found that Lactobacillus rhamnosus reduced cell death in vitro and when given to live animals. The scientists used DNA microarray analysis to prove the protective effects on cells. This kind of cell death may be a precursor to a potentially deadly condition seen in premature infants, where part of the bowel dies, and sometimes the infant dies as well.

Lactobacillus rhamnosus may augment first-line defense secretory IgA responses. SIgA is a first line of defense for all mucosa in the body. A 2008 study on birch pollen allergy from Finland looked at the oral immune response in individuals with birch pollen allergy. Thirty-eight individuals received either Lactobacillus rhamnosus or placebo for 10 weeks before birch pollen season. SIgA in saliva was measured before, during, and after the pollen season and those who took LGG had increased SIgA levels.

Lactobacillus rhamnosus proteins heal the gut lining. Two proteins produced by LGG promote “epithelial integrity”, according to a 2008 study from the University of Tennessee. Researchers looked at two unique Lactobacillus proteins, p40 and p75, and found that treating cells with these proteins helped prevent oxidative damage and permeability.

Lactobacillus rhamnosus and other immunobiotics may activate specific T-cells (“Peyer’s patch”) according to a review by Robert Clancy of Royal Newcastle Hospital in Australia. This may be how oral consumption of this immunobiotic helps protect against infection and inflammation as far away as the nose, ears, skin, lung or urinary tract. Specific IgE is reduced when consuming immunobiotics, and animal studies have shown protection against bronchial infection with H. influenza and Candida. As Clancy concludes “to continue to use the term ‘probiotic’ for those bacteria which promote health…would appear outmoded and out of step with contemporary thinking and potentially confusing.”

It Actively Restores Immune Balance
Lactobacillus rhamnosus, with its antimicrobial and immune-regulating ability, along with its extremely sticky, adhesive properties, offers an entirely new therapeutic strategy for combating allergic and infectious disease. Our gut microbiota have a powerful ability to prime immune regulation. From the moment we’re born, our immune system is regulated by our flora—which in turn is influenced by everything from our mothers’ microbiota, the mode of delivery (vaginal, which colonizes the baby with Lactobacilli; or caesarean, which does not), whether we are breast or bottle fed, and our diet and environment. Diet directly influences the diversity of the microbiota. Host-microbe cross talk is key to maintaining immune tolerance and effectiveness.
 

Chu

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Re: Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG

Ooh, interesting, thanks Keyhole! We have some LGG. We'll try the combination and report back. Interesting link to arthritis and the immune response too. It's worth a try, I think.

Up until now (ignorance alert :-[), I confess that I had the idea that all probiotics were pretty much the same, but it seems that they are not created equal. What if one or two of them could make a difference?

Some of us are more prone to inflammation and chronic diseases than others, so any tiny extra support may do wonders, who knows? I'm thinking as well about people who have a very sensitive system, can't tolerate ANY carbs at all, or have trouble reducing inflammation in general. Some have been on the diet for a long time, and yet, they still seem to need something extra, or still suffer from auto-immune conditions. Well, genetics plays a role in that, we know, and damage takes a long time to heal. But perhaps something as easy as this can add an extra "punch". You can be eating as healthy as possible, but if your gut is still permeable or not completely healed, you are probably lacking some nutrients and causing a minor damage, but damage nonetheless. I don't know.
 

Chu

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Re: Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG

I'm attaching a paper I found. This one is about LGG. (Again, forget about the yogurt!)

SUMMARY: Probiotic bacteria have beneficial effects in infectious and inflammatory diseases, principally in bowel
disorders. In the case of chronic progressive autoimmune arthritides, a major goal of treatment is to reduce
inflammation. We hypothesized that probiotic bacteria would ameliorate inflammation found in arthritis models. To
assess this effect, Lewis rats were injected with 50 g bovine -tropomyosin (TRM) or complete Freund’s adjuvant
(CFA) to induce tropomyosin arthritis (TA) or adjuvant arthritis (AA), respectively. In both models, the rats were
divided into 6 groups and fed 0.5 mL/d of the following suspensions: 1) heat-killed Lactobacillus GG (LGG) bacteria;
2) live LGG, both 1011 colony-forming units (cfu)/L; 3) sterilized milk; 4) plain yogurt; 5) yogurt containing 1011 cfu/L
LGG; or 6) sterilized water. In the disease-prevention experiments, feeding started 1 wk before or after disease
induction. In the therapeutic experiments, feeding was initiated at the onset of clinical arthritis. In all experiments,
there were significant interactions between time and treatment (P  0.001), except for milk, which had no effect in
the therapeutic experiment. Histologically, rats fed yogurt containing LGG had a milder inflammation in all
experiments (P  0.05), whereas rats fed plain yogurt exhibited a moderate inflammatory score only in the
prevention experiments. Anti-TRM antibody titers were not affected by any of the treatments in any of the
experiments. Ingestion of live or heat-killed human LGG had a clinically beneficial effect on experimental arthritis.
Our observation of the remarkable preventive and curative effect on arthritis using commercial yogurts containing
lactobacilli, especially LGG, suggests the need for investigation of these agents in arthritic patients. J. Nutr. 134:
1964–1969, 2004.
 

Attachments

Chu

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This one is mainly about LGG, but they also mention L. rhamnosus and L. reuteri.

http://probiotics101.probacto.com/can-probiotics-provide-relief-for-inflammation-or-arthritis/
Can Probiotics Provide Relief for Inflammation or Arthritis
Written by Lara Swanson Published on August 12, 2013

According to the Department of Health and Human Services (US), Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) affects nearly 2 million (~1% of the population). Autoimmunity (when antibodies are generated against self antigens of the body) is the reason behind RA. RA causes inflammatory responses with acute pain of the joints, degradation of cartilage and even destruction of the bone and hence is associated with considerable disability and problems in life quality. Available therapeutics like monoclonal antibodies provide only but non-persistent relief from the disease symptoms. There is therefore, a definite need for safer and long term benefit producing therapies that can provide relief from the arthritic pain. The disease gains severity with an imbalance between the levels of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. There were previous data to suggest that the microbes in the GI tract, systemic and mucosal immune responses and the arthritic development share a relationship. The use of probiotics in the treatment and relief of arthritic and unnatural inflammatory responses has a bright future.

Probiotics in the relief of arthritis:

There are existing evidences of the beneficial effects of probiotics in the relief of acute symptoms in RA. The probiotic products can cause its effects-directly or indirectly. The direct effects are exerted within the gastro-intestinal tract locally that involves the alteration of the inhabitant microbiota and the synthesis of compounds like vitamins. The indirect effects on the other hand are caused outside their domain of colonization, viz., lungs, skin, joints which may be brought about by a change in the immunological responses. The group of Marteau proposed that arthritis mediated inflammation may be alleviated with the use of probiotics. Researchers have observed that in juvenile arthritis, the defense mechanism of the gut is severely compromised. In a study by Malin et al. thirty juvenile arthritis patients were administered with Lactobacillus GG for a period of two weeks and the gut defences were observed. The oral dosage of Lactobacillus GG could reinstate barrier processes of the mucosa in the disorder. The gastro-intestinal tract induced inflammation becomes a linkage between inflammatory disorders of the GI tract and arthritis. According to Vanderhoof, decrease in immune response and permeability of the GI tract is caused due to the consumption of probiotics. David R. Mandel, MD Rheumatology & Osteoporosis, Mayfield Village, Ohio suggests adjunctive treatment of the probiotic B. coagulans as safe and effective to be administered to patients with RA. According to the work of Kano et al. L. delbrueckii strain fermented milk intake could sufficiently reduce collagen associated arthritis. The same study demonstrated that RA patients on a diet of uncooked vegetables supplemented with lactobacilli showed signs of decreased arthritic symptoms. While other groups have found suppression in collagen-mediated arthritis with the intake of L. casei concomitantly elucidating a reduction in paw swelling, infiltration of the lymphocyte and cartilage destruction. In a completed clinical trial conducted by the Lawson Health Research Institute in collaboration with St. Joseph's Health Care London, it was hypothesized that administration of selective strains of probiotics like L. rhamnosus and L. reuteri can improve the state of inactivity in RA patients by relieving them of their acute painful symptoms.

Probiotic mediated immuno-modulation in RA:

The major route of activity of the probiotic bacteria in relieving the situation of acute inflammatory disorders and arthritis is through the alteration of the immune system. Studies have shown that the specific dosage of probiotics bacteria like Lactobacillus GG could induce the proliferation of lymphocytes (both B and T cells) with a resultant decrease to mitogen sensitivity. The probiotics also cause a balance between the inflammatory (pro- and anti-) cytokines. Lactobacillus GG administration could increase the production of the anti-inflammatory interleukin 10 (IL-10) while lactobacilli intake enhanced the Th1 production as also reduced IgE antibody generation. Various preparations (live or heat inactivated) of the bacteria produced similar effect irrespective of the time of treatment. The reason behind such similarity is elusive though. Data indicate that feeding patients with fermented products supplemented with lactobacilli could produce greater beneficial effects than the oral intake of the bacteria alone. This further confirms the earlier reports of probiotic effect well past its colonization and adhesion in the GI tract. L. casei oral administration results in reduced production of interferon-γ and an enhanced level of IL-2. Although, earlier results demonstrated that live L. casei administered infants showed greater IgA serum titers than the one who had taken the heat killed forms of the bacteria. But the results with Lactobacillus GG suggest the form of the microorganism is not important and that any component of the cells might as well be involved in the beneficial effects. Indeed some researchers have shown that the heat inactivated Lactobacillus GG cytoplasmic extracts could inhibit the mononuclear cells in humans. Thus, the probiotic cells have in possession some anti-proliferative factors which are heat stable in nature. There are also possibilities of potential immuno-alteration by secreted bacterial components. This theory is supported by the observation that Lactobacilli degraded casein inhibits the activation of T-cells and downregulates the IL-2 transcript levels and PKC compartmentalization. Lactobacillus strains reduce the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Some of the common members affected being IFN-γ, TNFα and IL-12. But they do not alter the levels of the cytokines like TGF-β or IL-10 which results in anti-inflammatory responses in RA. In a recent report, it was shown that in patients receiving probiotics, IgA and IgM immunoglobulin levels increased significantly as compared to the control group who did not receive it. In a study conducted by the group of Seon So, L. casei inhibits collagen induced arthritis by reducing Th1 effector actions. The intake of the bacteria resulted in the reduction of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-2, IL-12, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, etc) through CD4+ T-cells with a decrease in levels of immunoregulatory IL-10. All these cytokines are Collagen type-II reactive molecules. The administration also prevented the NF-κB translocation into the nucleus.

Therefore, the potential of the probiotic strains to modulate the immune system has provided sufficient basis to use them as effective modes of therapeutic interventions in combating abnormal inflammations such as those observed in arthritis.
 

Carl

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Thanks for posting this Chu. I found another study recently adding to the evidence that gut bacteria influences mood and psychology, which specifically focuses on rhamnosus.

Ingestion of Lactobacillus strain regulates emotional behavior and central GABA receptor expression in a mouse via the vagus nerve:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21876150

There is increasing, but largely indirect, evidence pointing to an effect of commensal gut microbiota on the central nervous system (CNS). However, it is unknown whether lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus rhamnosus could have a direct effect on neurotransmitter receptors in the CNS in normal, healthy animals. GABA is the main CNS inhibitory neurotransmitter and is significantly involved in regulating many physiological and psychological processes. Alterations in central GABA receptor expression are implicated in the pathogenesis of anxiety and depression, which are highly comorbid with functional bowel disorders. In this work, we show that chronic treatment with L. rhamnosus (JB-1) induced region-dependent alterations in GABA(B1b) mRNA in the brain with increases in cortical regions (cingulate and prelimbic) and concomitant reductions in expression in the hippocampus, amygdala, and locus coeruleus, in comparison with control-fed mice. In addition, L. rhamnosus (JB-1) reduced GABA(Aα2) mRNA expression in the prefrontal cortex and amygdala, but increased GABA(Aα2) in the hippocampus. Importantly, L. rhamnosus (JB-1) reduced stress-induced corticosterone and anxiety- and depression-related behavior. Moreover, the neurochemical and behavioral effects were not found in vagotomized mice, identifying the vagus as a major modulatory constitutive communication pathway between the bacteria exposed to the gut and the brain. Together, these findings highlight the important role of bacteria in the bidirectional communication of the gut-brain axis and suggest that certain organisms may prove to be useful therapeutic adjuncts in stress-related disorders such as anxiety and depression.
 

H-KQGE

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Hi Chu. The product in your first link contains maltodextrin, titanium dioxide, (I'd stay away from that as much as possible) & sucrose. I think I read on SOTT recently about HFCS being re-labelled simply as fructose. This makes me distrust sucrose in supplement ingredients too. I know that sometimes "needs must" & we might have to take the best thing available, ("the devil you know" & all that) but with the raft of changes that the industries that provide these products implement (we'll usually find out after the deed has be done) even simple things like sucrose may actually turn out to be "sucrose." The same way as high fructose corn syrup is now... "fructose." That said, I may be way off with those thoughts. I'm one of those still in the gut healing phase & fluctuate with inflammation (external stress mainly) even on the keto diet. Just thought I'd mention it anyway.
 

Gaby

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Up until now, I haven't heard of anyone reacting badly to lactobacillus rhamnosus gg. Folk report better digestion, better bowel movements, less stomach bloating.

Although there could be a Herxheimer reaction, I think lactobacillus rhamnosus gg can really decrease the chances of autoimmune diseases correlated with the use of antibiotics in childhood or later.

It is one thing that is available around the world. There are special brands for children too. It is the one thing to take after antibiotic treatment.

Good stuff :)
 

RedFox

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Interesting. Looks like it mediates some of the effects of histamine too by down regulating mast cells.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3042653/
Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus downregulates FCER1 and HRH4 expression in human mast cells
[..]
The most significant changes in mast-cell gene expression were observed in the regulation of genes related to mast-cell activation and mediator release, including FCER1A, FCER1G and HRH4, and immunological responses such as IL8, TNF, CCL2 and IL10.

In the microarray analysis, lactobacilli affected mast-cell gene expression more than the other bacteria. Stimulation of mast cells with both LGG and Lc705 significantly downregulated the expression of the high-affinity IgE receptor subtype α (FCER1A) and HRH4 (HRH4) genes after 24 h stimulation. In addition, Lc705 stimulation downregulated the gene expression of FCεR1 receptor subtype γ (FCER1G). PJS, Bb12, the combination, or Cpn did not have an effect on FCER1 and HRH4 genes. FCεR1 plays a key role in mediating the allergy-related IgE-dependent activation and degranulation of mast cells[38] as demonstrated in FCεR1-deficient mice that fail to show allergic reactions after sensitization[39]. After FCεR1 aggregation, mast cells release inflammatory mediators, such as histamine. Histamine is the key mediator in causing the symptoms of allergy, and it also has a potent role as a modulator of immune responses[40]. The effects of histamine are mediated through histamine receptors H1-H4 that are expressed on the surface on many cell types, including mast cells and other inflammatory cells as well as epithelial cells[41]. The most recently discovered HRH4 has been shown to have mainly immunomodulatory effects[41]. The expression of histamine receptors is suggested to be influenced by inflammatory stimuli[40]. In addition, modification of histamine receptor gene expression is suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of allergy, atherosclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis[7]. By suppressing the expression of FCER1 and HRH4 genes, probiotic lactobacilli could attenuate mast-cell activation and release of allergy-related mediators.
[..]
The present study is believed to be the first to describe the effects of probiotic bacteria on human mast cells. Our data suggest that especially probiotic L. rhamnosus Lc705 and L. rhamnosus GG could diminish mast-cell activation and the effects of allergy-related mediators by downregulating expression of the high-affinity IgE and HRH4 receptors, and by stimulating mast-cell immune responses. Mast cells are important mediators of allergic responses on host surfaces including the intestine, therefore, we propose that mast cells participate in regulating the beneficial immunological responses to probiotic bacteria.
A few people have found it's helped with psoriasis too.
 

Nienna

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Well, I will be trying this. But I have a couple of questions.

First, I'm confused with the two different terms. The link that Chu gave in her first post is for Lactobacillus GG. Then, in a later post, she said that they had some LGG around and would incorporate that with the Lactobacillus rhamnosus. So is there a different link for that that I missed?

Also, iherb is out of stock on the one first linked to, but Amazon has it, but not the clinical dose. Instead of 15 billion active cultures (like the one on iherb) it has only 10 billion active cultures. I would like to get some and start on it so it'd be great if there isn't that big of a difference in the numbers.

The probiotic I'm using has the Lactobacillus rhamnosus in it, but it has many other types, too. Maybe that's why I noticed a difference when I started using it - it had the Lactobacillus rhamnosus in it.

Since the only culture in the Culturelle product is the LGG, is there still a need for other types of cultures? I hope not since I can afford either one or the other.
 

RedFox

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Sorry for the confusion Nienna - from the article above

Human peripheral-blood-derived mast cells were stimulated with Lactobacillus rhamnosus (L. rhamnosus) GG (LGG®), L. rhamnosus Lc705 (Lc705)
 

Laura

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I've decided to give up erythritol for a bit and try this probiotic to see if the final adjustments in my gut can come about. I'm going to give up the sweetener because I understand that they kill candida and probably other gut biota, so maybe it's better to repopulate the gut and not constantly kill stuff off. I think my candida is LOOOONG gone!
 

Nienna

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RedFox said:
Sorry for the confusion Nienna - from the article above

Human peripheral-blood-derived mast cells were stimulated with Lactobacillus rhamnosus (L. rhamnosus) GG (LGG®), L. rhamnosus Lc705 (Lc705)
Thank you.
 

hlat

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My children's doctor recommends Culturelle Kids Probiotic Packets when they have an infection and are prescribed antibiotics. It does have maltodextrin, but does not have titanium dioxide.
_http://www.culturelle.com/kids-probiotic-packets
 

Chu

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Nienna, sorry for the confusion, my bad. The studies I shared are about Lactobacillus rhamosus GG (aka LGG), and the one that keyhole added is about combining that with Bifidobacteria.

http://www.medicinenet.com/probiotics/page3.htm

What are the different types of probiotics?

Probiotic products contain bacteria and/or yeasts that assist in restoring the balance in our gut. Up until the 1960s, the gut microflora that they were able to identify were clostridia, lactobacilli, enterococci, and Escherichia coli. Since then, innovative techniques have discovered many more bacteria.

There are several different kinds of probiotics, and their health benefits are determined by the job that they do in your gut. Probiotics must be identified by their genus, species, and strain level. Here is a list of probiotics and their possible health benefits.

1. Lactobacillus

There are more than 50 species of lactobacilli. They are naturally found in the digestive, urinary, and genital systems. Foods that are fermented, like yogurt, and dietary supplements also contain these bacteria. Lactobacillus has been used for treating and preventing a wide variety of diseases and conditions.

Some of the lactobacilli found in foods and supplements are Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. acidophilus DDS-1, Lactobacillus blugaricus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactobacillus plantarium, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus salivarius, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus johnsonii, and Lactobacillus gasseri.

More research is needed regarding probiotics and their potential health benefits before any definitive claims can be made about their effects. However, studies have shown some benefits linked to Lactobacillus and treating and/or preventing yeast infections, urinary tract infection, irritable bowel syndrome, antibiotic-related diarrhea, traveler's diarrhea, diarrhea resulting from Clostridium difficile, treating lactose intolerance, skin disorders (fever blisters, eczema, acne, and canker sores), and prevention of respiratory infections. More specifically, results from some of the studies are as follows:

Lactobacillus GG was given to children 5 to 14 years of age with irritable bowel syndrome over eight weeks' time. They were given 3 billion cells twice per day. This reduced the frequency and severity of abdominal pain.
Lactobacillus GG was given to children taking antibiotics and there was a decrease in reported diarrhea.
Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus bulgarius, and Streptococcus thermophilus given twice daily during antibiotic treatment and for a week later decreased the risk of diarrhea in hospitalized adults.
Lactobacillus GG-containing milk was given to children 1 to 6 years of age who attended day care. They got fewer or less severe lung infections than those who did not drink it.
Lactobacillus gasseri and Lactobacillus rhamnosus vaginal capsules lengthened the time in between bacterial vaginosis infections.
Lactobacillus GG reduced the risk of traveler's diarrhea by 47% in a study with 245 people who traveled to 14 worldwide geographic regions.

2. Bifidobacteria

There are approximately 30 species of bifidobacteria. The make up most of the healthy bacteria in the colon. They appear in the intestinal tract within days of birth, especially in breastfed infants.

Some of the bifidobacteria used as probiotics are Bifodbacterium bifidum, Bifodbacterium lactis, Bifodbacterium longum, Bifodbacterium breve, Bifodbacterium infantis, Bifodbacterium thermophilum, and Bifodbacterium pseudolongum.

As with all probiotics, more research is needed to prove a definitive benefit, but studies have shown that bifidobacteria can help with IBS, dental cavities, improved blood lipids, and glucose tolerance.

Bifidobacterium infantis 35624 was given to 362 patients with irritable bowel syndrome in a four-week study. They showed improvement in the symptoms of abdominal pain, bloating, bowel dysfunction, incomplete evacuation, straining, and the passage of gas.
Salivary levels of bifidobacteria are associated with dental cavities in adults and children.
Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 is reported to have beneficial effects on metabolism, including lowered serum LDL-cholesterol in people with type 2 diabetes, increased HDL in adult women, and improved glucose tolerance during pregnancy.

3. Saccharomyces boulardii

This is also known as S. boulardii and is the only yeast probiotic. Some studies have shown that it is effective in preventing and treating diarrhea associated with the use of antibiotics and traveler's diarrhea. It has also been reported to prevent the reoccurrence of Clostridium difficile, to treat acne, and to reduce side effects of treatment for Helicobacter pylori.

4. Streptococcus thermophilus

This produces large quantities of the enzyme lactase, making it effective, according to some reports, in the prevention of lactose intolerance.

5. Enterococcus faecium

This is normally found in the intestinal tract of humans and animals.

E. faecium SF68
E . faecium M-74


6. Leuconostoc

This has been used extensively in food processing throughout human history, and ingestion of foods containing live bacteria, dead bacteria, and metabolites of these microorganisms has taken place for a long time.
 
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