The Living Force
http://mmsmiracle.com/about/MMS said:About MMS - The Miracle Mineral Solution
Miracle Mineral Solution is a 28% solution of sodium chlorite in distilled water. Miracle Mineral Solution is a water purification product. It is not a mineral supplement nor is it sold as a mineral supplement of any kind. Though often referred to in acronym (i.e. "MMS"), an important distinction must be made between Miracle Mineral Solution and the "MMS Protocol" established by chemist and metallurgist Jim Humble and detailed exhaustively in his book, "Breakthrough, the Miracle Mineral Supplement of the 21st Century".
When Miracle Mineral Solution is activated as detailed in Jim Humble's protocol (1:5 drop solution using vinegar with 5% acetic acid or greater, lemon or lime juice, or a 10% solution of citric acid), the chemical compound chlorine dioxide is produced. What is Chlorine Dioxide?
Chlorine dioxide is a chemical compound with the formula ClO2. Prominent uses include water purification, oral hygiene, and more recently, oral supplementation. According to third party sources:
Chlorine dioxide is used in many industrial water treatment applications as a biocide including cooling towers, process water and food processing.
Chlorine dioxide was the principal agent used in the decontamination of buildings in the United States after the 2001 anthrax attacks.
Chlorine dioxide was also used after Hurricane Katrina (2005) to eradicate dangerous mold from houses inundated by water from massive flooding.
Chlorine dioxide is less corrosive than chlorine and superior for the control of legionella bacteria.
Chlorine dioxide is more effective than chlorine against viruses, bacteria and protozoa � including the cysts of Giardia and the oocysts of Cryptosporidium (parasites).
Chlorine dioxide is the topic of author, scientist, chemist and humanitarian, Jim Humble's book entitled, "Breakthrough, The Miracle Mineral Supplement of the 21st Century". In Breakthrough, Humble describes how he discovered the use of chlorine dioxide as an alternative treatment for Malaria, which has since led to over 75,000 documented successful treatments of the disease in Africa. Humble's research aims to establish MMS as a powerful alternative treatment to many pathogen-borne diseases.
* Chlorine dioxide can be used to kill "disease-bearing bacteria, yeasts, molds, fungi and algae", including MRSA and other deadly pathogens.
_http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chlorine_dioxideWiki said:What is Chlorine Dioxide?
Chlorine dioxide is a chemical compound with the formula ClO2. Prominent uses include water purification, oral hygiene, and more recently, oral supplementation. According to third party sources:
• Chlorine dioxide is used in many industrial water treatment applications as a biocide including cooling towers, process water and food processing.
• Chlorine dioxide was the principal agent used in the decontamination of buildings in the United States after the 2001 anthrax attacks.
• Chlorine dioxide was also used after Hurricane Katrina (2005) to eradicate dangerous mold from houses inundated by water from massive flooding.
• Chlorine dioxide is less corrosive than chlorine and superior for the control of legionella bacteria.
• Chlorine dioxide is more effective than chlorine against viruses, bacteria and protozoa � including the cysts of Giardia and the oocysts of Cryptosporidium (parasites).
• Chlorine dioxide is the topic of author, scientist, chemist and humanitarian, Jim Humble's book entitled, "Breakthrough, The Miracle Mineral Supplement of the 21st Century". In Breakthrough, Humble describes how he discovered the use of chlorine dioxide as an alternative treatment for Malaria, which has since led to over 75,000 documented successful treatments of the disease in Africa. Humble's research aims to establish MMS as a powerful alternative treatment to many pathogen-borne diseases.
• Chlorine dioxide can be used to kill "disease-bearing bacteria, yeasts, molds, fungi and algae", including MRSA and other deadly pathogens.
Chlorine dioxide is a chemical compound with the formula ClO2. This reddish-yellow gas crystallizes as orange crystals at −59 °C. As one of several oxides of chlorine, it is a potent and useful oxidizing agent used in water treatment and in bleaching.
Chlorine dioxide is used primarily (>95%) for bleaching of wood pulp, but is also used for the bleaching of flour and for the disinfection of municipal drinking water. The Niagara Falls, New York water treatment plant first used chlorine dioxide for drinking water treatment in 1944 for phenol destruction. Chlorine dioxide was introduced as a drinking water disinfectant on a large scale in 1956, when Brussels, Belgium, changed from chlorine to chlorine dioxide. Its most common use in water treatment is as a pre-oxidant prior to chlorination of drinking water to destroy natural water impurities that produce trihalomethanes on exposure to free chlorine. Trihalomethanes are suspect carcinogenic disinfection by-products associated with chlorination of naturally occurring organics in the raw water. Chlorine dioxide is also superior to chlorine when operating above pH7, in the presence of ammonia and amines and/or for the control of biofilms in water distribution systems. Chlorine dioxide is used in many industrial water treatment applications as a biocide including cooling towers, process water and food processing. Chlorine dioxide is less corrosive than chlorine and superior for the control of legionella bacteria.
It is more effective as a disinfectant in most circumstances than chlorine against water borne pathogenic microbes such as viruses , bacteria and protozoa – including the cysts of Giardia and the oocysts of Cryptosporidium.
The use of chlorine dioxide in water treatment leads to the formation of the by-product chlorite which is currently limited to a maximum of 1 ppm in drinking water in the USA. This EPA standard limits the use of chlorine dioxide in the USA to relatively high quality water or water which is to be treated with iron based coagulants. (Iron can reduce chlorite to chloride.)
It can also be used for air disinfection, and was the principal agent used in the decontamination of buildings in the United States after the 2001 anthrax attacks. Recently, after the disaster of Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans, Louisiana and the surrounding Gulf Coast, chlorine dioxide has been used to eradicate dangerous mold from houses inundated by water from massive flooding.
Chlorine dioxide is used as an oxidant for phenol destruction in waste water streams, control of zebra and quagga mussels in water intakes and for odor control in the air scrubbers of animal byproduct (rendering) plants.
Stabilized chlorine dioxide can also be used in an oral rinse to treat oral disease and malodor, but its adverse side-effects are still being investigated.
Article said:New MRSA Bacteria Killer Registered by EPA
The EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) has recently registered a new product for preventing and eliminating methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), which causes potentially deadly infections commonly known as "staph" infections. The MRSA "super bug" is typically contracted in hospitals, in other healthcare environments, and in health clubs and locker rooms.
The EPA has registered Selectrocide (Chlorine dioxide) (chlorine dioxide) for use as a disinfectant on hard, non-porous surfaces and instruments, including those used within hospitals and other medical settings. As a no-wipe, no-rinse spray, Selectrocide (Chlorine dioxide) chlorine dioxide can also be used on hard, non-porous surfaces in health clubs, spas, public places and swimming facilities as a treatment against MRSA. The EPA has also registered Selectrocide (Chlorine dioxide)� as a disinfectant for vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis, athlete's foot, Mycobacterium bovis (TB) and other pathogens that spread in many environments.
MRSA is usually spread by direct physical contact with those already infected or through indirect contact by touching objects (towels, clothes, sports equipment, etc.) that infected skin has contaminated. Consequently, any heavily trafficked area can be a source of infection.
According to a report by the BBC News, "Staphylococcus aureus is the leading cause of human infections in the skin and soft tissues, bones and joints, abscesses and normal heart valves. It flourishes in the hospital setting, producing bloodstream and surgical wound infections, including MRSA." (news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/4671585.stm)
HOW SELECTROCIDE (CHLORINE DIOXIDE) KILLS MRSA AND OTHER DEADLY PATHOGENS
Selectrocide (Chlorine dioxide) is greater than 99% pure chlorine dioxide, an ideal biocide because of its ability to kill viruses, bacteria, fungi, and algae at low saturation levels (parts per million) in a manner that does not allow pathogens to build resistance to the compound.
Prior to Selectrocide (Chlorine dioxide), healthcare and health club environments were limited to using substances like bleach and quaternary ammonium compounds that can leave residue and require higher concentrations than does chlorine dioxide to achieve the same antimicrobial efficacy.
Selectrocide (Chlorine dioxide)'s chlorine dioxide is produced in water and sprayed, mopped, or sponged onto surfaces that require disinfection. After application, the solution is left on target surfaces and does not require rinsing. Due to the comparatively low application concentrations required to kill pathogens, Selectrocide (Chlorine dioxide) is compatible with most materials.
THE DEVELOPMENT OF MRSA AND ITS INCREASING RESISTANCE TO ANTIBIOTICS
Staphylococcus aureus (SA)-Antibiotic Resistance (General): Throughout history, Staphylococcus aureus (SA) has been a dangerous pathogen once it has successfully breached the normal defense system. The first effective antibiotic against SA, penicillin, became available in the 1940s. Soon after, SA evolved resistance to penicillin, and by the late 1950s, 50 percent of all SA strains were resistant. Today, fewer than 10 percent of SA infections can be cured with penicillin.
The next weapons against SA, methicillin and cephalosporin, became available in the 1960s and 1970s. By the late 1970s, some strains of SA had evolved resistance to these drugs. Today, as many as 50 percent of SA strains isolated from U.S. hospitals are resistant to methicillin. (Source: National Institutes of Health)
GENERAL BACKGROUND INFORMATION ON CHLORINE DIOXIDE AND SELECTROCIDE (CHLORINE DIOXIDE)
Chlorine dioxide is effective at low concentrations across a wide range of pH (roughly 4 to 9), and, because it is a gas in its natural state, dissipates upon exposure to sunlight As a consequence, it is known widely as one of the most effective inhibitors of algae, yeast, mold, fungi and viruses. However, because transporting the gas is prohibited in all but frozen forms, pure chlorine dioxide has heretofore been limited to use in large concerns that employ chemical generators, such as pulp mills (controlling slime) and municipal water systems (water purification applications).
Similarly, in cleaning and antimicrobial knockdown applications, pure chlorine dioxide has been unavailable, and only with "stabilized" solutions or acidified sodium chlorite, which are corrosive and produce significant chemical residues, could any of the advantages of chlorine dioxide be realized.
JUST ADD WATER -- AND WAIT. Now, Selectrocide (Chlorine dioxide) brings the power of greater than 99% pure chlorine dioxide solutions to point-of-use applications. Selectrocide (Chlorine dioxide)� produces chlorine dioxide simply by submersing the product in water. The resulting chlorine dioxide solution can be used to kill disease-bearing bacteria, yeasts, molds, fungi and algae using spraying, washing or "dip" cleaning methods. Selectrocide (Chlorine dioxide) makes it possible-for the first time-to generate specific concentrations of chlorine dioxide at the point of use, at neutral pH and with very low residuals, using only tap water.
SUMMARY OF SELECTROCIDE (CHLORINE DIOXIDE) BENEFITS
* US EPA-registered as a disinfectant against MRSA, and other potentially virulent pathogens.
* Pathogens cannot build up resistance to Selectrocide (Chlorine dioxide)� because it kills harmful organisms by breaking down cell walls.
* Easy to use and does not require HAZMAT or complicated equipment
* Can be made on-site in specific quantities and in concentrations desired. Only tap water is required to generate the chlorine dioxide.
* Because it kills pathogens with such efficacy, Selectrocide (Chlorine dioxide)� may reduce costs because fewer disinfection treatments may be required during a given maintenance and cleaning cycle.
Example of Oral Hygiene using Chlorine Dioxide:
MMS said:Jim Humble "MMS Protocol"
The Standard Jim Humble MMS Protocol - by Jim Humble
"Note: When following the instructions below, keep this paragraph in mind. Always activate the MMS drops with one of the food acids, either lemon juice drops, or lime juice drops, or citric acid solution drops (to make citric acid solution add 1 level tablespoon of citric acid and 9 tablespoons of water. Store it in a bottle with a lid). Always use 5 drops of one of these food acids to each one drop of MMS, mix in a empty dry glass and wait at least 3 minutes, then add 1/3 to 2/3 glass of water or juice and drink. (You can expand the 3 minutes out to 10 minutes, and after adding the juice or water you can wait up to an hour before drinking.)
1. All protocol for taking MMS in the Americas starts with one or two drops. Never start with more than one or two drops. People who are very sick and/or sensitive should start with half a drop drop. Activate the drops as given above.
2. If you do OK and do not notice nausea on the first dose, increase by one drop for the second dose. If you notice nausea reduce the amount of MMS for the next dose. Do two doses a day, one in the morning and one in the evening. Continue to increase by one drop each time you take a new dose. When you notice nausea, reduce the dose by one drop, or bad diarrhea reduce by 2 or 3 drops. Usually reduce for one or two times before going back the amount that it took to make you nauseous.
Note: If you notice diarrhea, or even vomiting that is not a bad sign. The body is simply throwing off poisons and cleaning itself out. Everyone says that they feel much better after the diarrhea. You do not have to take any medicine for the diarrhea. It will go away as fast as it came. It will not last. It is not real diarrhea as the body is just cleaning out, and it is not caused by bacteria or virus. When the poison is gone, the diarrhea is gone.
3. Continue to follow the procedure given in 2 above. Until you reach 15 drops twice a day without nausea. At that point increase to 3 times a day. Stay at 3 times a day for at least one week and then reduce the drops to 4 to 6 drops a day for older people and 4 to 6 drops twice a week for younger people.
Once you have completed step 3 above most of the viral, bacteria, mold, and yeast load will be gone from your body. Your body will be clean. You no longer have to worry about feeding the microorganism load. You can base you diet on nutrition, rather than not feeding the load. The diabetes will be gone, thus you no longer need to worry about sugar. You won't have to worry about the pancreas over reacting thus giving you a shock of insulin. Instead it will give you just enough insulin to knock the blood sugar lever to the right level (You won't feel sleepy after eating a candy bar). Your body will then be able to easily adsorb vitamins and minerals and many other nutrients it might have been missing up to this time. You should feel better as time goes by. Do not quit taking the MMS.
Note: For Children: The protocol for children is essentially the same. One should usually start at 1/2 drop. Just make a one drop drink and pour out 1/2 of the drink before giving it to the child. Then increase from 1 to 2 to 3 drops as given above, but do not go beyond 3 drops for each 25 pounds (11.4 kg) of body weight."
_http://cancertutor.com/Cancer02/Chlorine_Dioxide.htmlCancer Tutor said:Vitamin C, Antioxidants and Immune Builders
Vitamin C and other antioxidants can interfere with this treatment!!
They interfere so much so that this treatment should not be taken at the same time as certain other alternative cancer treatments which include vitamin C, other antioxidants or immune builders. The following information from the Bill Henderson Newsletter will clarify these points:
• They had started with just 2 drops of the MMS and worked up to a dose of 15 drops, twice a day. for ten days. There was no noticeable effect -- no nausea, no diarrhea -- nothing. They were aware of the effect of Vitamin C on the MMS, so they had moved the Heart Plus and Daily Advantage to later in the day.
They did some research, though, and found that the Beta 1,3D Glucan immune stimulant is a strong anti-oxidant also. They were taking it at roughly the same time as the MMS. As soon as they stopped taking the Beta Glucan for a couple of days, the MMS had an immediate effect -- diarrhea, cleansing -- the whole thing.
(Chemist) I am a chemist who bought your (previous edition) book and am receiving your e-newsletter (and I have cancer). I am not surprised to finally read in letter #114 that anti-oxidants 'kill' MMS. They should. And that’s what I have been telling a friend of mine who has lung cancer. However, anti-oxidants stay in the body for more than three hours. Ideally, if you have enough protection, you should have a more or less permanent steady state of them. The beta-glucan instance, where the people waited three DAYS, certainly suggests this also. I am not sure what the solution to the problem is, but if I were taking MMS (and I intend to) I would stop all anti-oxidants for a while to let the MMS work unhindered."
(Bill Henderson) As I mentioned in my last newsletter, the MMS is still in an experimental stage. I would certainly heed Robert Peterson's advice. At least try discontinuing your use of the Beta Glucan, the Heart Plus and the Daily Advantage for a couple of weeks while you take the MMS. You need to be the judge of whether it is working for you. If you experience the normal MMS diarrhea after you stop the anti-oxidants, then it is probably working for you. This should not continue for long (a day or so). Then, you should begin to have normal bowel movements with no constipation.
Bill Henderson Newsletter
In other words, do NOT use the chlorine dixoide protocol at the same time as any substance which has Vitamin C, or any other antioxidant, including immune builders. Wait at least a couple of days after discontinuing these treatments before starting the chlorine dioxide treatment.
MMS Chlorine Dioxide- Dr. Brady Hurst: Short discussion on MMS (Chlorine Dioxide). Chlorine Dioxide can be used as a safe alternative to antibiotics, antivirals, anti fungals and has potential anti-cancer properties. Dr. Brady Hurst is a Functional Medicine practitioner and Chiropractor in Atlanta Georgia. He uses the most advanced diagnostics tools to uncover hidden dysfunctions and uses cutting edge drugless treatment plans to restore those dysfunction. This approach is critical to prevent as well as manage chronic health conditions.
_https://www.msu.edu/~brook/publications/aeis/aeis654.htmarticle said:CHLORINE DIOXIDE DISINFECTION OF PRODUCE WASHWATER
WHAT IS CHLORINE DIOXIDE (ClO2)?
Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) is a gas that can be used for water disinfection. To date, only uncut and unpeeled produce can be contacted with ClO2. Chlorine dioxide has been given a USDA 3-D approval for washing fruits and vegetables to be used as ingredients of meat and poultry products.1 Chlorine dioxide is normally made at the point of use (on-site). Chlorine dioxide can be made by mixing sodium chlorite (NaClO2) with hydrochloric acid (HCl). Bio-Cide International's (BCI) product, PurogeneTM, produces chlorine dioxide when combined with low pH (acidic) water or weak acids.
Some benefits of chlorine dioxide disinfection include longer shelf-life of produce, minimal equipment corrosion, significantly less water use, reduced chemical costs, and reduced packinghouse sanitation costs.
HOW DOES ClO2 WORK?
The sanitation of wastewater with chlorine dioxide is caused by oxidation. It undergoes oxidation to affect the reproduction and metabolism of microorganisms. This results in disinfected water and produce surfaces through a reduction of pathogen populations. Chlorine dioxide has over two and a half times the oxidation power of chlorine.
A microorganism is any yeast, mold, bacteria, protozoa, or virus. A pathogen is a disease or injury causing microorganism. Pathogens of interest in the fresh produce industry include E. coli, Cyclospora, Salmonella, and Hepatitis. A cyst is a protective coating for a dormant microorganism, and an ova is a female germ that is capable of reproducing.
Chlorine dioxide will cause suspended particles in solution to attract each other, allowing them to be easily filtered. Because of this, "cloudy" water is readily cleaned by chlorine dioxide along with a filter.
HOW EFFECTIVE IS ClO2?
Chlorine dioxide is effective against a variety of pathogens, but has limitations. Mold and yeast spores are reduced 80 to 99% by chlorine dioxide concentrations of 0.75 to 5 ppm (parts per million) in water. Bacteria and viruses are also greatly reduced with the use of chlorine dioxide. Chlorine dioxide is effective as a USDA P-1 bactericide.1 One specific pathogen of interest, the cryptosproidium oocyst, is effectively destroyed with chlorine dioxide. However, most cysts and ova must be removed by filtration. A 5 micron filter will significantly reduce spores and cysts.
_http://www.foodsci.purdue.edu/news/showarticle.cfm?id=20Article said:Chlorine dioxide gas kills dangerous biological contaminants
WEST LAFAYETTE, Ind. – The same sanitizing agent used to rid federal office buildings of anthrax – chlorine dioxide gas – can effectively eliminate deadly bacteria from apples and other fruits and vegetables, according to Purdue University researchers.
Scientists at Purdue began experiments using the gas to kill pathogens found on food long before anthrax was detected in mail sent to offices in New York and Washington, D.C., shortly after the terrorist attacks one year ago. The latest university test measured how effectively different potencies of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas used over various periods of time could kill Listeria monocytogenes cells on apples.
Results of the study, published in the September issue of Food Microbiology, demonstrated that the vapor was able to eradicate all of the contaminant on the fruit's skin and significantly reduce the bacteria in the stem cavity and the calyx, said Richard Linton, director of Purdue's Center for Food Safety Engineering and senior author. The calyx is the apple's bottom, directly opposite from the stem cavity.
"We see more and more cases of food-borne diseases associated with fruits and vegetables," Linton said. "Some of this is because we encourage people, especially children and the elderly, to eat more and more of these types of foods for added health benefits. Yet these are two of the groups most susceptible to bacteria on food.
"Just 10 to 100 cells of Listeria on a piece of food can cause illness, and it's possible for 1,000 to 10,000 cells to be on a piece of fruit. We need to develop ways to make food safer; traditional sanitation methods to remove pathogens are not effective enough to meet these new standards."
Although Listeria is relatively rare, it is considered the most deadly of the food-borne pathogens with a 20 percent fatality rate. The Clinton administration issued a "no tolerance" edict for Listeria in processed and ready-to-eat foods, such as hot dogs, and in dairy products. Under the policy, if one organism is found on a piece of food, the whole batch must be discarded and/or recalled from stores, warehouses and consumers' shelves.
In addition, the FDA requires that sanitizers be effective enough to reduce organisms by at least 100,000 fold for Listeria, E. coli O157:H7, and Salmonella. In this study, Linton and his team achieved this level of Listeria elimination on the apple skin. Even on the stem cavity and calyx, the gas reduced the pathogen to a far greater extent than currently possible with other methods.
Another of the paper's authors, Purdue food science researcher Yingchan Han, said one reason Listeria was used for the study is because it's hardy; it can survive in refrigeration and is difficult to inactivate.
"Using the chlorine dioxide gas makes it possible to reduce the bacteria before the apples are cut up or mashed, a significant breakthrough for decontamination processes at small juice-producing companies," Han said. "They often don't have the pasteurization heating systems necessary to meet USDA requirements for eliminating biological contaminants. These processors produce unpasteurized juice."
The chlorine dioxide process is "extraordinarily" better than other chemical methods of eliminating pathogens on produce, he said. In the current research, the chlorine dioxide gas, used at a concentration of 4 mg per liter for 30 minutes, lowered the Listeria organisms a minimum of more than 1,000-fold for all three areas of apple tested. On the pulp, the average was more than a 100,000-fold reduction. These results support previous test results when Purdue scientists used the gas to sanitize green peppers.
Linton said the gas is so effective because it's a strong oxidizing agent. "Oxidizing agents disrupt the cell membrane, in this case of the bacteria, and this causes the cell to die," he said. "The chlorine dioxide gas is 1,000 times more effective than any other method tried so far for eliminating food-borne pathogens."
He and Han said they don't believe this process will work well on already cut fruits and vegetables, and not at all for some varieties, such as lettuce, because it would likely affect the color. However, they will be testing the gas on other pathogens, such as Salmonella or E. coli, and on other foods. They also will be determining ways to make the process viable for use by commercial food producers.
The other scientist involved in this study was Jinhua Du.
The U.S. Department of Agriculture funded this research.
Purdue's Center for Food Safety Engineering includes nearly 90 university scientists collaborating with USDA-Agricultural Research Service scientists to find faster, more exact ways to detect biological and chemical food-borne contaminants and to protect against them.
_http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alternaria_alternataAlternaria alternata has been recorded causing leaf spot and other diseases on over 380 host species. It is opportunistic pathogen on numerous hosts causing leaf spots, rots and blights on many plant parts. It also causes upper respiratory tract infections in AIDS patients and asthma in people with sensitivity.
_http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=18770564Titre du document / Document title
Inhibition of hyphal growth of the fungus Alternaria alternata by chlorine dioxide gas at very low concentrations
Auteur(s) / Author(s)
MORINO Hirofumi ; MATSUBARA Akane ; FUKUDA Toshiaki ; SHIBATA Takashi ;
Résumé / Abstract
The efficacy of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas at very low concentrations for hyphal growth of Alternaria alternata related to fungal allergy was evaluated using a fungus detector. The fungus detector is a plastic sheet with a drop of spore-suspending medium, and it makes possible clear observations of hyphal growth with a light microscope. ClO2 gas (average 0.075 ppm, 0.21 μg/l) inhibited hyphal growth of the fungus, but not germination of fungal spores. The hyphal length was more than 1780 μm under air conditions (control) and 49±17 μm under ClO2 gas conditions for 72 h. According to the international chemical safety card, threshold limit values for ClO2 gas are 0.1 ppm as an 8-h time-weight average and 0.3 ppm as a 15 min short-term exposure limit. From these data, we propose that treatment with ClO2 gas at very low concentrations in space is a useful tool for the growth inhibition of fungi in the fields of food, medicine, etc. without adverse effects.