Moon Landing

At least for me, looking at issues related to nuts and bolts of known gives better insight and avoids running away with our system 2 narration related to unknown.
Russia's attempt to land on Moon with Luna-25 seems to have failed.

We don't know the causes of the failure yet.
This is a part preliminary root cause analysis on Luna-25 failure.
Russia’s Luna-25 automatic interplanetary station collided with the Moon last month due to the failure of speed-measuring devices on the probe, Yury Borisov, the head of Russia’s space agency Roscosmos, has said.

During the probe’s landing procedure, “the correction engine didn’t stop working based on the data from the accelerometer,” which resulted in the crash, Borisov explained during a press conference on Friday.

The accelerometers that measure the changes in the speed of the vehicle “didn’t switch on, he added.

The agency head said experts are now looking for reasons why those devices didn’t perform as intended. There are 16 possible scenarios for that to happen, and eleven of them have already been examined, he said.

Borisov also revealed that the first person who offered him words of support after the crash was NASA head Bill Nelson.

Luna-25 was launched on August 11 by a Soyuz 2.1b rocket from the Vostochny Cosmodrome in the Amur Region of Russia’s Far East, the first probe sent to the Moon by the country since the Soviet era.

The spacecraft successfully reached its lunar orbit but was lost in the landing attempt on August 19. The Luna-25 “switched to a non-designated orbit and ceased to exist due to a collision with the surface of the Moon,” was how Roscosmos described it in the moment.

A few days after the crash, Borisov told journalists that the probe’s engine hadn’t shut down properly, running for 127 seconds instead of the planned 84 seconds. He said the agency “will, of course, take into account all the errors that were committed during this mission” to make sure that “the future missions of Luna-26, 27, and 28 will be successful.”
 
The Apollo missions are interesting for their historical context and since it was a political project primarily, there were surely some shenanigans and conspiracies behind the scenes (whether the landings as presented were real or not) but I doubt it is the most important thing ever.

Much more important for mankind in general and our knowledge&understanding of the Universe and our space environment have been scientific space missions (mostly unmanned) like recent ISRO Chandrayaan 3 and Russian Luna project or NASA's Pioneer and Voyager in the past, for instance. In that respect, in a bit of the Chandrayaan 3 successful moon landing shadow, was left Aditya-L1, another ISRO space probe, launched on September 2nd.


Taken from this space.com article: India's Aditya-L1 solar probe takes an epic selfie with Earth and moon (photos, video)

India's Aditya-L1 solar probe takes an epic selfie with Earth and moon (photos, video)​

Hello, spacecraft! Hello, Earth and moon!

India's first-ever solar probe just beamed some striking imagery home to Earth.
Aditya-L1, the new mission from the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), snapped a photo of itself in space, as well as shots of Earth and the moon. ISRO combined the footage into a video, which the agency shared on X (formerly Twitter) on Thursday (Sept. 7).

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The Indian Space Research Organisation Aditya-1 sun spacecraft took a selfie of Earth, visible here in this photo. (Image credit: ISRO)

Aditya-L1 launched on Sept. 2. It's performing checkouts in low Earth orbit right now before heading toward its long-term destination to study the sun. ("Aditya" translates to "sun" in Sanskrit.)

In about four months, the probe will arrive at Earth-sun Lagrange Point 1 (L1), a gravitationally stable spot about 1 million miles (1.5 million kilometers) from our planet in the direction of the sun.
"A satellite placed in the halo orbit around the L1 point has the major advantage of continuously viewing the sun without any occultation/eclipses," ISRO officials wrote in an Aditya-L1 mission description. "This will provide a greater advantage of observing the solar activities and its effect on space weather in real time."

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The Indian Space Research Organisation's Aditya-1 spacecraft's selfie in space. (Image credit: ISRO)

Aditya-L1 will study the sun to learn about a few things: solar activity, such as solar flares and coronal mass ejections of charged particles that can spark beautiful auroras on Earth while causing a risk to infrastructure like satellites.

Additionally, it will examine the "coronal heating problem." That refers to the sun's mysteriously ultra-hot outer atmosphere, which reaches temperatures around 2 million degrees Fahrenheit (1.1 million degrees Celsius), according to NASA. Other layers of the sun are not nearly so hot, presenting a mystery for scientists as to how this happens.
 
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