That's a good question. I think it may be beyond the scope of NF. In the study you linked to, it says:After reading The Anatomy of Violence, Inside the Criminal Mind and Symphony in the Brain (in progress) I came to a conclusion that NF technology may be an unexplored tool for rehabilitation of criminals. Most of them see themselves as "good (wo)men", and their main problem is in abnormal thinking patterns. NF has a lot of documented cases of fixing such abnormal thinking (there is a case in TAoV, and Othmer's son Brian was cured of his violent behavior before he died of overdose). Also NF can help with alcohol/drug abuse, which often leads to crime. More than that there's a study suggesting that even psychopaths can get an improvement in rage control with NF. Another 2017 meta-study concludes that there's not enough data yet to make any claims about effectiveness of NF for criminals.
Do you know of any cases when proper NF exacerbated antisocial or criminal behavior? Or made psychos more clever? Maybe Cs can give us a hint how good NF can be for fixing criminal behavior?
One of the problems is the self-report, as we know they can be lying. But on the other hand, if their brain shows some changes, it may be a possible way to reduce their levels of violence. I doubt that it would change something in born psychopaths, but it does sound promising for sociopaths or people with serious attachment issues.Konicar had the psychopaths perform neurofeedback training during 25 sessions spread over 3 months. After the study, subjects demonstrated improved control of their brain activity. They also reported reduced levels of impulsivity and aggression, assessed via an in-depth questionnaire before and after the intervention. Crucially, Konicar found that the subjects better able to control their brain activity reported larger reductions in aggression.
It would be great if they could conduct similar studies with different kinds of psychopaths, successful and unsuccessful ones as described by A. Raine. Given how different their brains seem to be from each other, would NF have a different effect? It can go either way. For example, if could make some less anxious about getting caught, thus more reckless and easier to catch, and others way more composed, thus harder to catch.