Sol (Sun) and it's phenomena

Puma

The Living Force
FOTCM Member
SOLAR CYCLE 25 ACTIVITY REPORT MAY 19

▪︎Geospace still quiet despite high speed solar wind (>500 km/s)
▪︎Latest Solar wind speed record: 524.5 km/sec
▪︎density: 3.07 protons/cm3
▪︎Neutron Counts today: 5.8% High
▪︎Sunspot number: 147 (SN 153 may 16)
▪︎Geomagnetic conditions now Kp=2 quiet
▪︎A strong solar flare from AR3017 was observed at 07:19 UTC (May 19) and measured M5.6 produced a moderate R2 Radio blackout over Central Asia
▪︎Three Minor C flares a one M1.5 solar flare from AR3014 the biggest sunspot region facing Earth. The M flare was observed at 10:14 UTC (May 19) and produced a minor R1 Radio blackout over Central Asia. Sunspot AR3014 has a 'beta-gamma-delta' magnetic field that poses a threat for X-class solar flares. (SN14 size 660MH Earth is 169MH)
INCREASING CHANCE OF FLARES: Big sunspot AR3014 has an unstable 'beta-gamma-delta' magnetic field that harbors energy for strong explosions. NOAA forecasters estimate a 35% chance of M-class solar flares and a 15% chance of X-flares on May 19th. Any eruptions will be geoeffective because the sunspot is directly facing Earth. SpaceWeather.com
BIG SPOTS! How big can a sunspot get if a sunspot could get big? Earth is 169 MH (millionths of a Sun's visible hemisphere) Historic sunspot regions, AR9393(2001)= 2440MH, AR10486 (2003)=2610MH, AR12192 (2014)=2700MH, Great spot of 1947=6100MH! Dr.C.Alex Young
hmi200.gif
 

Puma

The Living Force
FOTCM Member
SOLAR CYCLE 25 ACTIVITY REPORT MAY 20

▪︎Geospace still quiet despite high speed solar wind (>500 km/s) cosmic rays decrease
▪︎Latest Solar wind speed record: 534.5 km/sec
▪︎density: 8 protons/cm3
▪︎Neutron Counts today: 4.7% Elevated
▪︎Sunspot number: 154 (SN 147 may 16)
▪︎Geomagnetic conditions now Kp=3 quiet
▪︎Moderate solar flares from AR3014 (SN17 size 760MH)
M1.1 was observed at 15:25 UTC (May 19) and produced a minor R1 Radio blackout over North Atlantic Ocean
M3.0 was observed at 07:45 UTC (May 20) and produced a minor R1 Radio blackout over Central Asia.
▪︎Filament eruption on the far side of the sun
▪︎Sundiving comet. There was a "storm" of 25 comets on Dec.13 2010
Sundiving comets—a.k.a. "sungrazers"—are nothing new. SOHO typically sees one every few days, plunging inward and disintegrating as solar heat sublimes its volatile ices.
 

Puma

The Living Force
FOTCM Member
SOLAR CYCLE 25 ACTIVITY REPORT MAY 21

▪︎Geospace disturbed 12h ago
▪︎Latest Solar wind speed record: 529.3 km/sec
▪︎density: 2.58 protons/cm3
▪︎Neutron Counts today: 3.2% Elevated
▪︎Sunspot number: 109 (SN 154 may 20)
▪︎Geomagnetic conditions now Kp=2 quiet
▪︎Active geomagnetic conditions Kp4 disturbed. Threshold Reached: 23:59 UTC May 20
▪︎Earth is inside a stream of solar wind flowing from a coronal hole located on the northwest limb.
▪︎Eight active regions visible from earth
▪︎New Assigned region AR3019 located on the northeast limb (SN 8 size 100MH it has a beta magnetic field)
SETTING SUNSPOTS: Solar Cycle 25 is changing the way days end. The setting sun is now spotted. Valerie Liard took this picture yesterday evening from Epernay, France:
sunset_strip.jpg
AR3014 is one of the largest sunspots in years. Stretching more than 125,000 km from end to end, its length is almost 1/3rd of the distance from Earth to the Moon. AR3014 is so big it is technically a "naked eye" sunspot. SpaceWeather.com
 

Puma

The Living Force
FOTCM Member
SOLAR CYCLE 25 ACTIVITY REPORT MAY 22

▪︎Geospace disturbed 12h ago
▪︎Latest Solar wind speed record: 516.7 km/sec
▪︎density: 9.06 protons/cm3
▪︎Neutron Counts today: 3.4% Elevated
▪︎Sunspot number: 110 (SN 109 may 21)
▪︎Geomagnetic conditions now Kp=2 quiet
▪︎Active geomagnetic conditions Kp4 disturbed. Threshold Reached: 01:50 UTC May 22
▪︎Solar wind flowing from these coronal holes should rech Earth on May 27-28.
coronalhole_sdo_200.gif
 

Puma

The Living Force
FOTCM Member
SOLAR CYCLE 25 ACTIVITY REPORT MAY 23

▪︎Geospace quiet
▪︎Latest Solar wind speed record: 504.2 km/sec
▪︎density: 8.23 protons/cm3
▪︎Neutron Counts today: 4.6% Elevated
▪︎Sunspot number: 138 (SN 110 may 22)
▪︎Geomagnetic conditions now Kp=2 quiet
▪︎Two new active regions AR3020 (SN1 alfa magnetic field with energy to produce minor C flares, size 40MH, located southeast limb) AR3021 (SN4 beta magnetic field with energy to produce minor C flares, size 20MH located northeast limb)
hmi200.gif
SpaceWeather.com
CALM BEFORE THE STORM? The sun has been quiet for two days. Could it be the calm before the storm? Big sunspot AR3014 has an unstable 'beta-gamma-delta' magnetic field that harbors energy for strong explosions. NOAA forecasters estimate a 40% chance of M-class flares and a 5% chance of X-flares on May 23rd. SpaceWeather.com

 

Puma

The Living Force
FOTCM Member
SOLAR CYCLE 25 ACTIVITY REPORT MAY 24

▪︎Geospace quiet
▪︎Latest Solar wind speed record: 416.5 km/sec
▪︎density: 3.55 protons/cm3
▪︎Neutron Counts today: 5.3% High
▪︎Sunspot number: 132 (SN 138 may 23)
▪︎Geomagnetic conditions now Kp=1 quiet
▪︎Many lower level C flares.
▪︎Solar wind flowing from two coronal holes should reach Earth on May 27-28
 

Olivierlejardinier

Padawan Learner

Terrestrial Impact from the Passage of the Solar System through a Cold Cloud a Few Million Years Ago​


Merav Opher, Abraham Loeb

It is expected that as the Sun travels through the interstellar medium (ISM), there will be different filtration of Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) that affect Earth. The effect of GCR on Earth's atmosphere and climate is still uncertain. Although the interaction with molecular clouds was previously considered, the terrestrial impact of compact cold clouds was neglected. There is overwhelming geological evidence from 60Fe and 244Pu isotopes that Earth was in direct contact with the ISM 2 million years ago, and the local ISM is home to several nearby cold clouds. Here we show, with a state-of the art simulation that incorporate all the current knowledge about the heliosphere that if the solar system passed through a cloud such as Local Leo Cold Cloud, then the heliosphere which protects the solar system from interstellar particles, must have shrunk to a scale smaller than the Earth's orbit around the Sun (0.22). Using a magnetohydrodynamic simulation that includes charge exchange between neutral atoms and ions, we show that during the heliosphere shrinkage, Earth was exposed to a neutral hydrogen density of up to 3000cm-3. This could have had drastic effects on Earth's climate and potentially on human evolution at that time, as suggested by existing data.
 

Puma

The Living Force
FOTCM Member
A spectacular eruption was observed within the past few hours originating from behind the northeast limb. A coronal mass ejection (CME) will be associated, but will be directed away from Earth.


Southeast limb also showed a CME


Current conditions

Type II Radio Emission.
Begin Time: 24/05/2022 22:43 UTC
Estimated Velocity: 867km/sec.
Solar wind speed: 406.3 km/sec
density: 5.45 protons/cm3
Planetary K-index Kp=1 quiet
 

Puma

The Living Force
FOTCM Member
SOLAR CYCLE 25 ACTIVITY REPORT MAY 25

▪︎Geospace quiet
▪︎Latest Solar wind speed record: 354.4 km/sec
▪︎density: 2.96 protons/cm3
▪︎Neutron Counts today: 6.1 % High
▪︎Sunspot number: 137 (SN 132 may 24)
▪︎Geomagnetic conditions now Kp=1 quiet
▪︎Four new active regions AR3021 (SN5 beta magnetic field with energy to produce minor C flares, size 10MH, located northeast limb) AR3022 (SN5 beta magnetic field with energy to produce minor C flares, size 10MH located southeast limb) AR3023 (SN2 beta magnetic field with energy to produce minor C flares, size 120MH located southeast limb) AR3024 (SN1 alfa magnetic field with energy to produce minor C flares, size 60MH located southeast limb)

https://www.spaceweatherlive.com
 

Puma

The Living Force
FOTCM Member
SOLAR CYCLE 25 ACTIVITY REPORT MAY 26

▪︎Geospace quiet
▪︎Latest Solar wind speed record: 299.2 km/sec (12:10 UTC May 25)
▪︎density: 22.86 protons/cm3
▪︎Neutron Counts today: 6.2 % High
▪︎Sunspot number: 92 (SN 137 may 25)
▪︎Geomagnetic conditions now Kp=1 quiet
▪︎Coronal mass ejection associated with the M1.3 Solar flare from AR3016. A glancing blow to the magnetic field is possible on May 28
 

Puma

The Living Force
FOTCM Member
SOLAR CYCLE 25 ACTIVITY REPORT MAY 27

▪︎Geospace active
▪︎Latest Solar wind speed record: 423.6 km/sec (0206 UTC May 27)
▪︎density: 11.56 protons/cm3
▪︎Neutron Counts today: 6.6 % High
▪︎Sunspot number: 87 (SN 92 may 26)
▪︎Geomagnetic conditions now Kp=5 storm (G1) 14:17 UTC
▪︎Solar wind from two coronal holes the cause of the G1 storm

▪︎Another Geomagnetic storm expected tomorrow
GEOMAGNETIC STORM WATCH: Minor G1-class geomagnetic storms are possible on May 28th when a CME is expected to sideswipe Earth's magnetic field. The solar storm cloud was hurled into space by an unstable magnetic filament, which erupted on May 25th. High-latitude auroras are possible this weekend.
 

Puma

The Living Force
FOTCM Member
SOLAR CYCLE 25 ACTIVITY REPORT MAY 28

▪︎Geospace now: calm
▪︎Latest Solar wind speed record: 509.1 km/sec (12:35 UTC May 28 )
▪︎density: 9.72 protons/cm3
▪︎Neutron Counts today: 5.9% High
▪︎Sunspot number: 69 (SN 87 may 27)
▪︎Geomagnetic conditions now Kp=3 quiet
▪︎A minor G1 Geomagnetic storm Kp=5 threshold reached 08:59 UTC May 28
GEOMAGNETIC STORM WATCH: Minor G1-class geomagnetic storms are underway this weekend as Earth moves through a stream of high-speed (> 500 km/s) solar wind. The gaseous material is flowing from a hole in the sun's atmosphere. Storminess could increase later today, May 28th, when a CME is expected to sideswipe Earth's magnetic field. SpaceWeather.com
▪︎Planetary Index Forecast:
Saturday Min Kp2 (quiet) Max Kp5 (Storm)
Sunday Min Kp2 (quiet) Max Kp4 (Active)
Monday Min Kp3 (Calm) Max Kp3 (Calm)
 

Puma

The Living Force
FOTCM Member
SOLAR CYCLE 25 ACTIVITY REPORT MAY 29

▪︎Geospace quieting down after yesterday's storm.
▪︎Latest Solar wind speed record: 540.8 km/sec (01:46 UTC May 29 )
▪︎density: 8.89 protons/cm3
▪︎Neutron Counts today: 3.8% Elevated
▪︎Sunspot number: 34 (SN 69 may 28)
▪︎X-ray background drops to lowest level for many weeks with only two small C flares
▪︎Geomagnetic conditions now Kp=3 quiet
NO CME, NO PROBLEM: A coronal mass ejection (CME) was expected to hit Earth's magnetic field yesterday, May 28th, but it did not. Either the CME missed or it is still coming, moving more slowly than expected. Despite the lack of a CME, Earth's magnetic field experienced 12 hours of geomagnetic storming (G1-class) on May 27th and 28th. A solar wind stream unrelated to the CME sparked the storm with auroras as far south as Michigan in the USA. SpaceWeather.com
▪︎Adios¡ Bright active regions. Only three regions remain in the solar disk AR3021, AR3023, AR3024 None of these sunspots pose a threat for strong solar flares. Solar activity should remain low this weekend.

▪︎Eruption on the southeast farside
▪︎Eruption on the northwest farside
 

Puma

The Living Force
FOTCM Member
SOLAR CYCLE 25 ACTIVITY REPORT MAY 30

▪︎Geospace quiet
▪︎Latest Solar wind speed record: 551.3 km/sec (01:00 UTC May 29 )
▪︎density: 8.55 protons/cm3
▪︎Neutron Counts today: 3.9% High
▪︎Sunspot number: 42 (SN 34 may 29)
▪︎Geomagnetic conditions now Kp=2 quiet
Three regions remain in the solar disk AR3023 (SN 2 size 120MH located on the southeast, alfa magnetic field) AR3024 (SN1 alfa magnetic field, size 40MH located on the southeast) and AR3025 (SN8 beta magnetic field, size 90MH located northwest limb) None of these sunspots pose a threat for strong solar flares.

▪︎Magnetic dance
 
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