March 8, 2004: Yesterday we made a number of interesting discoveries
that have left a few dangling threads hanging out there that ought to
be tugged just a bit before we continue.
of all, there is the question about the death of Dr.
David Kelly, the biological warfare weapons specialist who had links to
three other top microbiologists who are on the startlingly long list of
microbiologists who have died mysteriously in the past few years.
readers of the site here already know that I make unusual connections
between things and this item certainly has been working on me. What it
reminded me of was the movie V,
where the aliens began to target scientists for destruction because they
were the only ones capable of figuring out the genetics of the invaders
and what might be used as a weapon against them. I know that is a strange
connection, but when you try to figure out a reason for the deaths of
so many microbiologists in so short a period of time, considering what
is happening on the global political stage, you have to start somewhere.
course, it wasn't until the death of David Kelly that the clue about Ethnic
Specific Weapons turned up and then it all began to make a sick sort
news bytes tell us that Kelly was involved with ultra secret work at Israels
Institute for Biological Research. We are also told that there have been
"persistent reports" that the institute is engaged in DNA sequencing
research. This last seems to be founded on the fact that a former member
of the Knesset, Dedi Zucker, claimed in the Israeli Parliament that the
institute was "trying to create an ethnic specific weapon" in
which Arabs could be targeted by Israeli weapons.
NOT fit in this little scenario is the fact that it was Israeli sources
making the claim that Kelly met Israeli institute scientists several times
in London in the past two years, from which, it seems, the inference was
made that Kelly was involved with ultra secret work FOR Israel.
As I have
already written, the problem that captured my attention - assuming that
Dedi Zucker was letting the cat out of the bag when he said that Israel
was "trying to create an ethnic specific weapon in which Arabs could
be targeted" - was what kind of "marker" would they use
to include or exclude based on ETHNICITY?
two points to keep in mind here. First, studies
done from the perspective of the Y chromosome, or the male genetic line,
between Ashkenazic Jews, Sephardic Jews, Israeli Arabs/Palestinian, and
Lebanese populations as well as limited genetic connections to European
in most European and Near Eastern populations, the highest
frequency mtDNA type is the HVS-1 Cambridge Reference Sequence (CRS).
This type occurs at 16%, on average, in Europe, and at 6%, on average,
in the Near East. All of the seven European and Near Eastern non-Jewish
populations have the CRS as their modal haplotype.
At that point
in time, what was revealed by the genetic studies available to me, suggested
that any biochemical weapon specifically designed to take out Palestinians
would also take out most of today's Jewry, AND a large number of Europeans
and their descendants, such as many Americans.
at it from the point of view of mtDNA wasn't entirely satisfactory either.
Remember the remark: two of the nine Jewish populations had the CRS
as their modal haplotype, including the largest group of modern Jews,
pattern in Ashkenazic Jews is of particular interest. Despite the common
opinion that this population has undergone a strong founder event, it
has a modal haplotype with a frequency similar to that of its host
population (9.0% vs. 6.9%), providing little evidence of a strong
founder event on the female side.
that the mtDNA as an "excluder" would only work for less than
30 percent of modern Jews - Separdic Jews - and the remaining 70 percent
would be as susceptible to an Ethnic Specific agent as Palestinians. That
didn't make a whole lot of sense. Since most of the Zionist Jews are Ashkenazi,
why would they create a weapon that would guarantee their own destruction?
I kept thinking about Larsen's explication of the possibility of "engineered
biological pathogens which would affect only those races which historically
have no natural defense against certain "enzyme inhibitors."
I realized that there must surely be a lot more to this issue than was
available to the public. Who knows what kind of research goes on in the
Enclaves of the National Security State?
the problem rested as I continued to dig for clues.
take a moment to answer the question:
what is mtDNA and what, precisely, does it do?
are tiny structures that exist within every cell, though not in the cell
nucleus along with the chromosomes. The mitochondria help the cell use
oxygen to produce energy. The more active a cell is, the more energy it
needs and the more mitochondria it contains. Active cells such as those
that make up muscles and neurons can contain as many as a thousand mitochondria.
is in a little membranous sac which also contains enzymes for aerobic
metabolism, or the burning of fuel that we take in as food. This "burning"
takes place in a "sea of oxygen" which neither produces "flame"
nor gives off light, but most definitely produces heat.
output of this process is a high-energy molecule called ATP which is needed
by the body to run everything from the beating of the heart, to thinking
with the cells of the brain.
the middle of each of these little power cells is a tiny piece of DNA
that is only sixteen and a half thousand base pairs in length. To compare,
the bases in the chromosomes of the nucleus number three thousand million.
DNA is composed of genetic codes for the oxygen-capturing enzymes
that do the work in the mitochondria. Interestingly, many of the genes
that control the workings of the mitochondria are found within the nuclear
chromosomes. This, of course, reminds us of Larsen's "enzyme inhibitors."
An inhibitor that affects "oxygen capturing enzymes?"
also something very bizarre about the mtDNA: Mitochondrial DNA forms a
it happens, bacteria and other micro-organisms also have circular chromosomes.
think that mitochondria were once free-living bacteria that invaded more
advanced cells hundreds of millions of years ago. The cells got a boost
from being able to use oxygen - a cell can create much more high-energy
ATP from the same amount of fuel using oxygen than it can without it -
and the mitochondria may have found life within the cell more "comfortable"
than outside. Yes, I know this is a really wild explanation, but it gets
better. The experts theorize that, very slowly, over millions of years,
some of the mitochondrial genes were transferred to the nucleus where
they remain. This means mitochondria are trapped within cells and cannot
return to the outside even if they wanted to.
is based on the fact that the nuclear chromosomes are littered with broken
fragments of mitochondrial genes that can't do anything because they are
with the strange connections that pop up in my head, all of this reminded
me of a number of remarks made by "Us in the Future" which I
can't resist including here in chronological order, though each excerpt
came at different times, spread out over 8 years:
is as yet undiscovered enzyme relating to carbon. Light waves
were used to cancel the first ten factors of DNA by burning them off.
At that point, a number of physical changes took place...
Could you describe to me the true meaning of the Osirian cycle. What
was the symbology of the killing of Osiris and the cutting up of the
A: Removal of knowledge centers.
Q: (L) Knowledge centers in what?
A: Your DNA.
Q: (L) So, the breaking up of Osiris' body represents the breaking up
of the DNA in our bodies?
A: Partly. Also means knowledge capacity reduction.
an illusion that works for you because of your altered DNA state.
A few weeks ago several of us began to suffer from internal heat, insomnia,
and other things. What was this?
A: Image. Deep conjunction of fibrous linkage in DNA structure.
Is there any possibility of regaining or restructuring this DNA?
A: Was there, will be again.
OK, we've got a whole bunch of DNA, in these funny- looking double strands.
And, according to the book, only 2% is actually used, and the other
98% of it is what these 'experts' are pleased to call 'junk.' They call
it junk. Now, I would like to know, is there any way to activate this
A: Won't it be activated on its own?
Q: Is bloodline
something that is distinct or different from genetics or DNA?
A: Symbiotic relationship.
these bloodlines carrying a specific codon that is designed to activate
at a certain period of time or in response to a certain frequency?
A: Possibly, but why should not that apply to everyone?
Q: I have
been having this sensation of an electrical charge building up in my
legs and I would like to know what I can do to discharge this. All the
muscles are hard and uncomfortable.
A: Molecular changes due to DNA evolving.
Group watches video: Riverdance.]
Q: Hi guys!
Did you like the movie?... How close are these dances to the original
Q: What about these dances would make them more original?
Q: But, why the stylized rigidity of the arms?
A; Has to do with sound through chemical enzyme based utilization for
Q: How does the stiff-arm posture relate to sound?
A: Chemical transmitter flow.
Q: You mean that something flowed through their arms and out their hands
to enhance levitation?
Q: Well, if you think about it, the Celtic floklore talks about the
enormous heat of certain heros who had to be plunged into very cold
water several times so that they could cool down enough to put clothes
on. Add to that the fact that the Celts went into battle naked because
they would go into the 'furor' and produce so much heat that they could
not tolerate clothing. And, what about the heat of the 'states' [described
by Ibn al-'Arabi] that I experience from time to time identified that
as a 'reflection' of the connection to 4th density. That is a truly
bizarre state because the heat is so intense it is almost unbearable,
yet does not even show on a thermometer, and to anyone else who touches
me, I am not hot. Yet the internal heat is unbelievable.
What would be the effect of cosmic rays emitted by a supernova that
is in some proximity to the earth on the human body?
A: Genetic splice of strand.
Q: (L) How close would a supernova have to be to have this effect?
A: 2000 light years.
once said that the core of DNA is an as yet undiscovered enzyme related
to carbon. Is that correct?
Q: Here in this book it says: "Evidence is accumulating that only a
relatively small portion of the DNA sequence is for so-called structural
genes. Structural genes lead to the production of protein. There are
an estimated 50,000 structural genes with an average size of approximately
5,000 base pairs, which then accounts for only 250 million of the estimated
3 billion base pairs.
the rest of the DNA for?
the DNA is so-called repetitive sequences, repeated thousands of times.
The function is unknown. The ALU, repeat, for instance, contains over
300,000 copies of the same 300 base pair sequence. Certainly this DNA
is not junk and plays some important role in the gene regulation chromosomal
architecture or chromosomal replication.
it was thought that genes were single sequences of DNA that are coded
into RNA and then into protein. However, further study has shown greater
complexity. It is now known that there are pieces of DNA within a gene
that are not translated into protein. These intervening sequences, or
INTRONS, are somewhat of a mystery, but appear to be a very common phenomenon."
this thing they are talking about, these INTRONS, are these the core
that you were talking about?
A: In part.
Q: What about this ALU repeat with over 300,000 copies of the same base
pair sequence. What is it?
A: Tribal unit.
Q: What is a tribal unit?
A: Sectionalized zone of significant marker compounds.
Q: What does this code for?
A: Physiological/spiritual union profile. ...
Q: What does the rest of the DNA code for that is not coding for structural
genes. What else can it be doing?
A: Truncated flow.
Q: Truncated flow of what?
A: Liquids. ...
Q: (L) Does truncated flow mean a flow of liquid that has been stopped?
A: Yes. Because of design alteration!
Q: Is this liquid that has been truncated a chemical transmitter?
Q: And would this chemical transmitter, if it were allowed to flow,
cause significant alterations in other segments of the DNA?
Q: So, there is a segment of code that is in there, that is deliberately
inserted, to truncate this flow of liquid, which is a chemical transmitter,
or neuropeptide, which would unlock significant portions of our DNA?
A: Close: Biogenetic engineering. ...
Q: Okay, can you tell us what this specific liquid or transmitter was
A: Think of the most efficient conductor of chemical compounds for low
wave frequency charge.
A: Closer. It is a naturally bonding combination.
Q: (L) Well, I'll have to research it. The fact is, we've got 3 billion
base pairs... do some of these so-called segments of "junk DNA," if
they were activated, would they instruct chromosomal replication to
take place with more than 23 pairs as a result?
A: In part.
Q: Is there anything we can do in terms of activities or...
A: No. Biogenetic engineering.
Q: Was the thought that I had one night that, at some point in time
something may happen that will turn genes on in our bodies that will
cause us to physically transform, an accurate perception of what could
A: For the most part, yes.
Q: Are there any limitations to what our physical bodies can transform
to if instructed by the DNA? Could we literally grow taller, rejuvenate,
change our physical appearance, capabilities, or whatever, if instructed
by the DNA?
A: Receivership capability.
Q: What is receivership capability?
A: Change to broader receivership capability. ..
Q: (A) It means how good is your receiver.
Q: (L) What is your receiver? The physical body?
A: Mind through central nervous system connection to higher levels.
Q: So, that is the whole issue of gaining knowledge and developing control
over your body. If your mind and CNS are tuned to higher levels of consciousness,
that has significance in terms of your receivership capability?
of Nordic heritage hold secret power centers, can be of darkness, or
activates neuro-chemicals which turn on DNA receptors.
to our mtDNA, we realize that this is the powerhouse of the body, where
oxygen capturing enzymes are coded. The mystery as to why parts of mtDNA
are attached to nuclear DNA might be easily solve by theorizing that it
was once part of the nuclear DNA. Again, a segment from our superluminal
transmissions from Us in the Future comes to mind:
the time Neanderthal man was on the Earth, did he live alongside Modern
A: Yes. Except modern type man was different then.
Q: In what ways?
A: DNA and psycho/electrical frequencies.
Q: Does this mean that their physical appearance was different from
what we consider to be modern man?
A: Radiance. ...
Q: Oh, that's interesting. Well, there are legends that the Northern
people had "light" in their veins. Very ancient belief. Is this what
you are referring to?
I don't want
to speculate too much further on the mtDNA at this point except to suggest
that it might be the key to Ethnic Specific biochemical weapons when you
consider that its configuration is similar to that of bacteria.
Now, as I
mentioned, realizing that Ashkenazi Jews were different in some significant
way from Separdic Jews, I decided to have a look at Koestler's book which
presents the theory that Eastern European Jews are descended from the
ancient Khazars. Look again at the chart below to note the position of
Ashkenazi Jews relative to other groups according to the male lineage
from Michael Hammer's study, Uni of Arizona.
are represented by triangles: Ashkenazim = Ash, Roman Jews = Rom,
North African Jews = Naf; Near Eastern Jews = Nea; Kurdish Jews
= Kur, Yemenite Jews = Yem; Ethiopian Jews = EtJ; non-Jewish Middle
Easterners = Pal, non-Jewish Syrians = Syr, non-Jewish Lebanes =
Leb, Israeli Druze = Dru, non-Jewish Saudi Arabians = Sar; Non-Jewish
Europeans: Rus = Russians, Bri = British, Ger = Germans, Aus = Austrians,
Ita = Italians, Spa = Spanish, Gre = Greeks, Tun = North Africans
and Tunisians; Egy = Egyptians, Eth = Ethiopians, Gam = Gambians,
Bia = Giaka, Bag = Bagandans, San = San, Zul = Zulu. Tur = non Jewish
Turks, Lem = Lemba from south Africa.
notice that the lower right corner of the graph is where Near Eastern
Jews are positioned. One might therefore theorize that the Near Eastern
Jews are, more or less, the most "Jewish" of the Jews in terms
of many generations of "Jews" in their family lines. Looking
around this cluster, we notice that there are several "families" that
are very close, including Yemenite Jews, Druze, North African Jews, and
Palestinians. On the other hand, the Ashkenazi Jews are not only much
closer to Turks, Syrians and Roman Jews, they are quite distant from both
the Near Eastern Jews and the Palestinians. I also noted with some considerable
interest that Saudi Arabians are much closer to Europeans and even Ashkenazi
Jews than to Palestinians.
Zionist Jews - most of them Ashkenazi - do not like Koestler's ideas -
that the Eastern European Jews were originally Khazars, an Aryan tribe
from Central Asia. The short version of one of the theories held to by
the Ashkenazi themselves is that the Roman Jews are descended from a group
of Jews that fled Israel at the time of the diaspora and that some of
them migrated up into Eastern Europe, then going even further East and
mixing with Turks, forming the Ashkenazi Jews. Another theory is that
the Khazars included remnants of original Jews who fled Israel at the
time of the Babylonian captivity. When they adopted Judaism in the 9th
century, they were just "coming home" so to say. With either
of these theories, they retain their "birthright" to Israel
upon which the present occupation of Palestine is based.
I can only
say I have read a lot of material on both sides of the question and I
find Koestler's research to be original and credible. What is more, there
is nothing about the gene flow of the Eastern European Jews that cannot
be explained far more completely with his theory than with the "out
of Israel at some point" hypothesis. Koestler's ideas explain the
anomalies of the Khazar clans as well, when juxtaposed against the Sephardic
Jews and their paternal kin, the Palestinians.
Halkin wrote in an article entitled: Wandering Jews and Their Genes:
published in last June's Proceedings of the National Academy of Science
were the results of a study conducted by an international team of scientists
led by Michael Hammer of the University of Arizona and Batsheva Bonné-Tamir
of Tel Aviv University...
genetic samples from 1,371 males... its main conclusions are:
the exception of Ethiopian Jews, all Jewish samples show a high genetic
3. In descending order after these Middle Easterners, Ashkenazi Jews
correlate best with Greeks and Turks; then with Italians; then with
Spaniards; then with Germans; then with Austrians; and least of all
with Russians... And on the other hand again: whereas the traditional
explanation of East European Jewish origins was that most Ashkenazi
Jews reached Poland and Russia from... the Rhineland; Rhineland from
northern France... this version has come under increasing challenge
in recent years on both demographic and linguistic grounds.
the challengers maintain, must have arrived in Eastern Europe not from
the west and southwest but from the south and east - that is, via northern
Italy and the Balkans; Asia Minor and the Greek Byzantine empire; the
Volga kingdom of the Khazars... or a combination of all three.
the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science report, which appears
to bear out this newer version of events. Ashkenazi Jews, it informs
us, have a more significant admixture of Italian, Greek, and Turkish
genes than of Spanish, German, or even Austrian ones.
words, for the Jews to have traveled up through Italy to Eastern Europe,
they would have had to mix with Germans or Austrians - but that isn't
things are not so simple. Even without questioning the study's highly
technical procedures, different interpretations could be put on them.
It could be argued, for example, that the resemblance of Jewish to Greek
and Italian Y chromosomes is traceable to proselytization in the Mediterranean
world during the period of the Roman Empire...
also be remembered is that Y chromosomes tell us only about males. But
we know that in most societies, women are more likely to convert to
their husband's religion than vice-versa... If true, this might also
explain a number of differences between the Hammer/Bonné-Tamir study
and earlier research on the geographical distribution of specific Jewish
diseases, blood types, enzymes, and mitochondrial DNA...
is actually so contentious that, after the paper on the Eight Founding
Mothers of Judaism was published, Michael Hammer, himself of Ashkenazi
heritage, and others, went back to the lab and produced their own "Founding
Mother Event of Ashkenazi Jews" paper.
on January 14, 2004, just a couple of months ago, the paper, entitled
MtDNA evidence for a genetic bottleneck in the early history of the Ashkenazi
Jewish population tells us the following: (emphases, mine)
'Ashkenazi' refers to Jewish people of recent European ancestry,
with an historical separation from other major Jewish populations in
North Africa and the Middle East. The contemporary Ashkenazi gene pool
is thought to have originated from a founding deme that migrated
from the Near East within the last two millennia. After moving through
Italy and the Rhine Valley, the Ashkenazi population presumably experienced
a complex demographic history characterized by numerous migrations
and fluctuations in population size. During the past 500 years, there
was a period of rapid growth culminating in an estimated population
size of 8 million Ashkenazi Jews at the outbreak of the Second World
in this most recent research, Hammer is again trying to resurrect the
"Up through Italy and the Rhine Valley" idea which is rather
thoroughly contradicted by his own earlier research on the paternal ancestry
as Hillel Halkin pointed out. One of the issues of Ashkenazi ancestry
is the high frequency of more than 20 known recessive disease alleles.
As any animal breeder knows, this often occurs with inbreeding. Koestler
has pointed out that the Khazars - after their conversion - were more
"Jewish than the Jews." As converts, they were more zealous
in following the "rules" of not marrying outside of their group.
After the destruction of the Khazar kingdom, the population of Khazarian
Jews was undoubtedly greatly reduced and this accounts not only for a
bottleneck, but also for the conditions in which inbreeding would occur,
leading to the expression of recessive disease alleles in the gene pool.
new paper is almost painful as his efforts to "repatriate" the
Ashkenazi Jews are quite transparent. He refers, at the very beginning,
to the "Eight Founding Mothers paper" which pretty much left
the Ashkenazi out in the cold, Jewishly speaking.
In a recent
study based on mtDNA sequence variation ... the authors inferred separate
maternal founding events for several Jewish populations, with
limited subsequent gene flow from surrounding host populations. Interestingly,
the Ashkenazi Jewish sample in this study appeared to be an exception
to this pattern, showing no strong signal of a founding event ...
the question of whether mtDNA from Ashkenazi populations exhibit signs
of a genetic bottleneck, we perform a more extensive analysis of mtDNA
genetic variation ... in a sample of 565 Jews from 15 different Ashkenazi
communities originating in western and eastern Europe, and compare these
patterns of variation with those of neighboring non-Jewish populations.
analysis, we take advantage of the ability to infer evidence for maternal
population bottlenecks on the basis of comparative estimates of mtDNA
paragraph just tells us in Sciencespeak that they intend to "interpret"
the data according to their bias; you know, "cook the data."
presented here portray a pattern of highly reduced mtDNA diversity
for the Ashkenazi population, an unusually large proportion of mtDNA
haplotypes that are unique to the Ashkenazi gene pool, and a reduction
in frequency of rare haplotypes and singleton sites compared with
Near Eastern populations.
the three most frequent Ashkenazi haplo- types account for 27.8% of
total mtDNA repertoire in our Ashkenazi sample. These Ashkenazi mtDNA
haplotypes are virtually absent from surrounding non-Jewish populations
and therefore provide a genetic signature of the Ashkenazi maternal
gene pool, and bear witness to the strong effects of genetic drift
acting on this population.
is NOT addressing is the fact that maternal gene pool of the Ashkenazi
is not related to the maternal gene pool of other Jews. As Koestler pointed
out, the above also bears witness to the self-imposed isolation of Jewish
groups among their host populations. They chose to live in walled Ghettos
and keep their genes to themselves even if it meant extreme endogamy.
In other words, what Hammer et al is describing is inbreeding. He acknowledges
with the situation in both Near Eastern and European non-Jewish populations,
where only a single haplotype (CRS) was found at elevated frequencies
(ie, above 5%).
several periods in the history of Jewish populations when bottlenecks
may have occurred, for example: (1) in the Near East before the initial
migration to Europe (eg, 41,500 years ago), (2) during the migrations
of Jews from the Near East to Italy after the 1st century A.D., (3)
upon establishment of small communities in the Rhine Valley in the 8th
century A.D., and (4) in the 12th century A.D., when migrations took
place from western to eastern Europe.
endogamy in combination with 4100-fold population growth in the last
500 years undoubtedly played a role in shaping patterns of variation
in the Ashkenazi gene pool.
authors posited that the high frequency of genetic conditions, such
as Tay-Sachs disease, is the result of heterozygote advantage, 5,28
- 30 others have argued for an important role of genetic drift. For
example, Risch et al. proposed that founder effects resulting from the
dynamics of population growth in the 16 - 19th centuries, especially
in the northern Jewish Pale of Settlement (Lithuania and Belarus), explain
most, if not all of the genetic diseases observed at high frequency
in the Ashkenazi population today. This hypothesis was supported by
the inference of a recent age of the single founder mutation ( B350
years) that causes early-onset idiopathic torsion dystonia.
older estimated age of the factor XI type II mutation ( B3000 years),
which has a high frequency in both Ashkenazi and Iraqi Jewish populations,
implies that its frequency is largely independent of the recent demographic
upheavals particular to the Ashkenazi population. [...]
All of the
above - and more - is covered rationally and plausibly by Koestler in
his book The Thirteenth Tribe. Nevertheless, Hammer et al continue
to beat the dead horse of a Near East origin for the Ashkenazi mtDNA gene
mutational frequency peak for the Ashkenazi and Near Eastern non-Jewish
populations is similar and consistent with the age of the Pleistocene
expansion, which is older than that inferred from the mutational frequency
peak for European non-Jews. This is consistent with a Near East origin
for a major portion of the Ashkenazi Jewish mtDNA pool.
Jewish population bottleneck did begin in the Near East, other Jewish
populations from around the world are predicted to harbor similar values
of f 0 and f 1 in their mismatch distributions. To test this prediction,
we examined the mismatch distributions resulting from the data of Thomas
et al., which includes samples of the Bukharan, Georgian, Indian, Iranian,
Iraqi, Moroccan, and Yemenite Jewish communities. All HVS-1 sequence
datasets showed a significantly elevated f 0 (only Sephardic Jews showed
an increase in f 1 ) relative to Near Eastern non-Jewish populations...
This result implies that global Jewish communities suffered a common
bottleneck in the Near East, or independent founder events during the
Jewish Diaspora. [...]
the above that the Sephardic Jews, did not fulfull the prediction of the
"mismatch theory" above. Also note that this prediction was
not tested against anything other than Jewish populations. What if other
populations show similar mismatch distributions? But Hammer presses on
bravely in his attempt to explain why Ashkenazi aren't like other Jews
in the maternal ancestry:
the possibility that contemporary Ashkenazi mtDNA diversity may
derive, in part, from a small and subdivided ancestral mtDNA gene pool,
and is consistent with the hypothesis that some high frequency disease
alleles originated before the separation of Jewish communities in the
Near East. Indeed, estimates of the age of mutations causing Ashkenazi
genetic diseases range from recent times (ie, during demographic upheavals
within Europe in the past 500 years), to times when ancestral Ashkenazi
populations were first migrating to and within Europe, to times before
Jewish populations migrated out of the Near East. [...]
mtDNA and disease mutation data suggest that Ashkenazi Jewish populations
experienced a long period of accentuated genetic drift marked by an
early bottleneck, perhaps beginning in the Near East. Prolonged periods
of low effective population size can lead to the accumulation of slightly
deleterious mutations throughout the genome. Small founder populations
derived from large ancestral populations are not always capable of purging
these deleterious mutations. This may be the ultimate cause of the segregation
of disease mutations in Ashkenazi Jews. However, this explanation does
not preclude more proximal causes for the increase in frequency of disease
mutations, such as those hypothesized by Risch et al., 7 unequal contribution
of a particular segment of the Ashkenazi Jewish community to the explosive
population growth occurring in the Pale of Settlement approximately
25 generations ago. Low effective size may have enabled deleterious
mutations to become established in the Jewish population, while the
recent growth of affected segments of the community amplified these
mutations to frequencies sufficiently high to form homozygotes.
words, he has described the results of the exact scenario that Koestler
has hypothesized - inbreeding of a small, surviving population of Khazars
and ghetto-ization of fanatical converts - and still has not managed to
provide a single convincing bit of evidence of the origin of the Ashkenazi
in the Near East.
of it is that Koestler's theory, despite many attempts to deconstruct
it, still provides the best answers for the origins of the Ashkenazi Jews:
they were Khazars who, for political reasons, converted to Judaism. The
interested reader is invited to click HERE
and read Koestler's book with its original research and clear exposition
of the links between the Khazars and the Eastern European Jews.
The big question
now is: Who were the Khazars? Koestler was only able to go so far with
answering this question. In my own search, I think I may have gotten a
bit closer to it than he did and, at the same time, maybe I have discovered
the clue as to why Nostradamus and Edgar Cayce said what they did:
year 1999 and seven months
From the sky will come the Great King of Terror,
Raising again the great king of the Mongols,
Before and after Mars (war) reigns at his pleasure. X.72
Cayce's mention of Mongols was as follows:
is not the acceptance in America of the closer brotherhood of man, the
love of the neighbor as self, civilization must wend its way westward
- and again must Mongolism, must a hated people be raised.
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