Coconut Oil

Hey all,

So I've been reading up on coconut oil, especially after reading a few glowing articles about it on sott. I followed the links back to their pages and to their sources. It seems the ones from Natural News (the 3 articles that are primarily about coconut oil) source pages that basically have verbatim what is in those articles. The only scientific source I can seem to find leads back to one Bruce Fife, N.D. Apparently a prodigious author of health cures, especially enthusiastic about coconut oil. Bruce is sponsored by the Weston A. Price Foundation according to one of biographies.

I feel like I'm being a little vague so I'm going to break down the sources on this Naturalnews article:
ht_tp://_www.naturalnews.com/025199_coconut_oil_candida_health.html
This was posted by Elizabeth Walling who also posted : ht_tp://_www.naturalnews.com/026433_coconut_oil_health_moisturizer.html (which coincidentally uses as sources things that have a fair amount of miming or lead back to Bruce Fife)
Her sources for the former are:
Bredel, Matthew. (2008) Coconut Oil: Candida Cure.

Crook, William G. (1986) The Yeast Connection, Vintage Books.

Fife, Bruce. (2005) Coconut Cures: Preventing and Treating Common Health Problems with Coconut. Piccadilly Books.
A search on Matthew Bredel brings up ht_tp://_www.matthewbredel.com/ first, this Matthew is quote
My name is Matthew Bredel and as of March, 2007, I am a full-time, work-at-home internet marketer.
The name Matthew Bredel also brings up a fair bunch of article-conglomeration sites, most of the articles are about business, but there are a fair share about holistic medicines, including the info on Candida.
This site: ht_tp://www.buzzle.com/authors.asp?author=5353 seems to indicate that these men are the same.

Back to Bruce,
According to here: ht_tp://www.ihealthtube.com/aspx/contributors.aspx?sp=97
Bruce Fife, N.D.
Coconut Research Center
Dr. Bruce Fife is a naturopathic doctor and certified nutritionist, and is the director of the southern Colorado chapter of the Weston A. Price Foundation, a nonprofit dedicated to nutritional education. He is currently the president of the Coconut Research Center, a nonprofit organization dedicated to educating the public and the scientific community on the nutritional and health benefits of coconut oil. He has written numerous health and nutrition books, including The Coconut Oil Miracle, The Palm Oil Miracle, Coconut Lover's Cookbook, Cooking with Coconut Flour: A Delicious Low-Carb, Gluten-Free Alternative to Wheat and Eat Fat, Look Thin. He resides in Colorado Springs, Colorado.
Also similar: ht_tp://www.thepowermall.com/thecenterforhealth/bio/fife.htm
(Coincidentally while looking for Bruce's info I found this creepy site : ht_tp://www.123people.com/ That searches people's names on the internet and digs up all the personal info they can find. )
The Weston A. Price Foundation according to its site is
The Foundation is dedicated to restoring nutrient-dense foods to the human diet through education, research and activism. It supports a number of movements that contribute to this objective including accurate nutrition instruction, organic and biodynamic farming, pasture-feeding of livestock, community-supported farms, honest and informative labeling, prepared parenting and nurturing therapies. Specific goals include establishment of universal access to clean, certified raw milk and a ban on the use of soy formula for infants.
Based out of DC. Nothing exceptional there.

Their website is registered to one Sally Fallon
Her bio on ht_tp://_www.newtrendspublishing.com/SallyFallon/aboutSallyFallon.html contains a quote that's rather troubling
Ms. Fallon's lifelong interest in the subject of nutrition began in the early 1970s when she read Nutrition and Physical Degeneration by Weston A. Price. Called the “Charles Darwin of Nutrition,” Price traveled the world over studying healthy primitive populations and their diets. The unforgettable photographs contained in his book document the beautiful facial structure and superb physiques of isolated groups consuming only whole, natural foods.
I might be just jumping at shadows on this one but the phrase "facial structure" in relation to diet throws up a red flag for me.

Anyway,
I think I might be reading a little too much into things, but the thing that concerns me most the circular references of these coconut oil articles. Well, that and the lack of smear sites or anything largely negative towards these folks in any of the searches. Does anyone have his book so they could provide what he's using as research?
 

anart

The Living Force
blindpsychic said:
I think I might be reading a little too much into things, but the thing that concerns me most the circular references of these coconut oil articles. Well, that and the lack of smear sites or anything largely negative towards these folks in any of the searches. Does anyone have his book so they could provide what he's using as research?
I think it's a great question. I've noticed several of the 'natural news' site articles tend to be written in a pretty subjective manner, without much documentation. That doesn't necessarily mean they are incorrect, but it does give pause. If anyone can find any more information on Fife or his research, or lack thereof, it might clear things up.
 

JEEP

The Living Force
The unforgettable photographs contained in his book document the beautiful facial structure and superb physiques of isolated groups consuming only whole, natural foods.
Actually, what comes to my mind is perhaps the absence of cleft palates. Haven't we all seen numerous pictures of babies and children with this terrible condition in undeveloped countries?

Also, years and years ago I happened upon a website proclaiming the virtues of coconut and coconut oil. Among the benefits listed were those in regards to Chrons disease. As I happened to be acquainted with a lady whose husband was afflicted with this condition, I did mention the site to her. I'm pretty sure she equated it to the recommendation of using snake oil and that I must have had a screw loose to give any credence to that info. However, conventional medicine did not save her husband.

I do agree that claims need to be backed up with verifiable research and facts.
 
I guess its worth noting that this: http://www.sott.net/articles/show/190024-Diabetes-and-Virgin-Coconut-Oil
is an article by our Dr. Fife from his book. There's some references on there (finally) although they're mostly between 10 - 20 years old.
 

brainwave

Jedi Master
FWIW, being west Indian I grew up eating lots of food cooked with coconut milk, using coconut oil on my skin and drinking coconut water. My great grandmother use to make a batch of the oil every so often and the husk was used for cleaning stuff. Unfortunately it stopped being a daily food source when I moved to the poison land of McDonald's. I have recently reintroduced it in my life and it's great for the skin.

Drinking the coconut water is also said to be good for health, though it is high in sugar. I once read someplace that it was used as a plasma substitute for WWII soldiers in the Pacific when they lost too much blood and none was available. I don't know how true that is but I can see it used as fluid/electrolyte replacement. I know it is used in research as a growth and storage medium for cell culture and is said to be one of the best medium.

This website _http://www.healthtruthrevealed.com/full-page.php?id=09015110104&&page=article has some info with references.

brainwave
 

Erykah

Jedi Master
FOTCM Member
Living in a Pacific Island culture we eats lots of coconuts and coconut oil. And as brainwave shared coconut oil is great for the skin especially on severe sun burns. I began taking coconut oil daily when I read the eating healthy cookbook thread and wanted to find a way to deal with Candida. Our family also found Coconut oil great for getting rid of sugar fixes when doing the Anti-Candida diet. Reading through the thread
I found the following and wanted to post it here

http://www.cassiopaea.org/forum/index.php?topic=10713.0, there was a reference in post # 9 by Oxajil

Is coconut oil the cure for everything?

Another natural anti-yeast treatment is plain old ordinary coconut oil. This natural substance has been known for many centuries to prevent yeast infections in women in Pacific islands.

Finally, the oils in coconut oil have been tested against Candida yeast.

Both capric and lauric acid found in coconut oil in very large amounts, were totally, absolutely, completely lethal to Candida yeast.

Bergsson and Thormar writing in Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy wrote: "The susceptibility of Candida albicans to several fatty acids and their 1-monoglycerides was tested with a short inactivation time, and ultra-thin sections were studied by transmission electron microscopy after treatment with capric acid (found in coconut oil). The results show that capric acid, a 10-carbon saturated fatty acid, causes the fastest and most effective killing of all three strains of C. albicans tested, leaving the cytoplasm disorganized and shrunken because of a disrupted or disintegrated plasma membrane. Lauric acid (also found in coconut oil), a 12-carbon saturated fatty acid, was the most active at lower concentrations and after a longer incubation time. Read the full article here and the 1.03 mb PDF version here.

It is interesting that people who eat a lot of coconuts live in areas where yeast and fungi are extremely plentiful, yet they are rarely troubled by infections. Only in more temperate climates where processed vegetable oils are the main source of dietary fat are yeast infections, skin fungus, acne, and other skin infections big problems.

Much more research needs to be done on the effectiveness of coconut oil in curing Candida, but for now the evidence suggests a good quality Virgin Coconut Oil is one of the best weapons in killing Candida. Much information is on the internet concerning the use of coconut oil to treat yeast infections. It is also an excellent topical anti-yeast agent for treating vaginal yeast infections. Read why coconut oil is one of the most health promoting foods on Earth here.

Bruce Fife reporting in his book: "The overall health of both groups of Pacific Islanders was extremely good compared to Western standards. There were no signs of kidney disease or hypothyroidism that might influence fat levels. There was no hypercholesterolemia (high blood cholesterol). All inhabitants were lean and healthy despite a very high saturated-fat diet from coconut oil. In fact, the populations as a whole had ideal weight-to-height ratios as compared to the Body Mass Index figures used by nutritionists. Digestive problems are rare. Constipation is uncommon. They average two or more bowel movements a day. Atherosclerosis, heart disease, colitis, colon cancer, hemorrhoids, ulcers, diverticulosis, and appendicitis are conditions with which they are generally unfamiliar." Enough said? Try 3 to 4 tablespoons per day.

It will not make you fat, and best of all it is non-toxic, very much unlike many prescription antifungals. But, start out with a low dose until you find out what your side effects from the break down of yeast affects you. You may say, "Yuck, coconut oil is a saturated fat!" Yes, but it is one very healthy food, and this is another highly important food that we have been conned into believing is bad for us by the American Soybean Association, Center for Science in the Public Interest and others interested in promoting their own products without regard for our health (a trade war).
I hear what your saying blindpsychic as this Dr. Fife seems to be the main source of information when it comes to research on the benefits of coconut oil.
 

Iconoclast

Jedi Master
while not completely on topic, here is a seldom-seen documentary known as 'the coconut revolution' and 'Bougainville: Our Island, Our Fight' (1998)

_http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=9073157933630784238&ei=XsNuSrLhMp-i2wKx_4w2&q=coconut+revolution&dur=3

The Island of Bougainville is located in the Solomon Islands, but is politically considered a territory of Papua New Guinea. For the last ten years the people of this Island have fought a guerrilla war with salvaged and recovered World War II weaponry against government forces supplied with more modern equipment. The government has instituted a a complete economic blockade of the island in addition to an extended campaign of aerial bombardment and violence against its civilian population. Bougainville - "Our Island, Our Fight" depicts the world of Bougainville residents as they leave their traditional coastal society to take refuge from a dangerous military conflict. An explanation of the conflict's causes reveals that the installation of an open cut copper mine at Panguna had initially offered promise of economic prosperity for the region. Bougainville residents eventually determined that the mine project entailed significant ecological damage and social exploitation. Through interviews staged above the now-derelict mine, "Bougainvillians" speak about their initial recognition of the consequences of this mine, the poisoning of their water supply and the degradation of farmlands and jungle habitat. Later scenes show the difficulties which Bouganville residents face due to the naval blockade of their island. The blockade prevents them from receiving medical and humanitarian aid, leading to declining health and appearance of leprosy (though some supplies are smuggled from the Solomon Islands). "Our Island, Our Fight" does violate the Papua New Guinea government blockade. The film was made at great personal risk to its director, Wayne Coles-Janess who had to be smuggled onto and off the island. It includes the first and only television interview with the BRA President Francis Ona and the defecting Papua New Guinea officer, BRA General Sam Kouna. In the many international film festivals in which it has featured, it has provoked a strong response amongst audiences as diverse as Turkey, the United States, Brazil, and Tunisia It has also been used as a resource by Amnesty International, the United Nations, the Australian Army and the Australian Parliament
it also mentions how they ingeniously use coconuts & its byproducts to survive. (not much focus on its health-benefits though, IIRC)

worth watching!
 

RedFox

The Living Force
FOTCM Member
Caprylic acid/octanoic acid/Medium-chain triglycerides (C8 triglyceride)

Having experienced some good health improvements personally taking caprylic acid and cooking with coconut oil (when my entire body would ache after having any other oil/fat in large quantities) I thought it would be a good idea to post some info on it here.
I realise I may not have bookmarked the research I did before taking it so have set out to find more info on it to post here....

Lets start with what wiki says

_http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caprylic_acid (highlights added)
Caprylic acid is the common name for the eight-carbon saturated fatty acid known by the systematic name octanoic acid. It is found naturally in the milk of various mammals, and it is a minor constituent of coconut oil and palm kernel oil.[1] It is an oily liquid that is minimally soluble in water with a slightly unpleasant rancid-like smell.

Two other acids are named after goats: caproic (C6) and capric (C10). Along with caprylic acid these total 15% in goat milk fat.

Uses

Caprylic acid is used commercially in the production of esters used in perfumery and also in the manufacture of dyes.

Caprylic acid is also used in the treatment of some bacterial infections. Due to its relatively short chain length it has no difficulty in penetrating fatty cell wall membranes, hence its effectiveness in combating certain lipid-coated bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus and various species of Streptococcus.[4]

Caprylic acid is an antimicrobial pesticide used as a food contact surface sanitizer in commercial food handling establishments on dairy equipment, food processing equipment, breweries, wineries, and beverage processing plants. It is also used as disinfectant in health care facilities, schools/colleges, animal care/veterinary facilities, industrial facilities, office buildings, recreational facilities, retail and wholesale establishments, livestock premises, restaurants, and hotels/motels. In addition, caprylic acid is used as an algaecide, bactericide, and fungicide in nurseries, greenhouses, garden centers, and interiorscapes on ornamentals. Products containing caprylic acid are formulated as soluble concentrate/liquids and ready-to-use liquids.[5]

Caprylic acid must be covalently linked to the serine residue at the 3-position of ghrelin, specifically, it must acylate the -OH group, for ghrelin to have its hunger-stimulating action on the feeding centers of the hypothalamus, though other fatty acids may have similar effects.[clarification needed]
Ok, so there are shades of MMS here (with it being used for cleaning/sterilisation).....with a key difference being that it is found in the milk of mammals (including humans).

My primary focus initially was on healthy weight gain/increasing of appetite....here is what I found.

_http://www.nutritionj.com/content/8/1/25
Effect of octanoic acid-rich formula on plasma ghrelin levels in cachectic patients with chronic respiratory disease

Abstract

Background

For cachectic patients with chronic respiratory disease (CRD), conventional enteral nutrition formula is an optional treatment to maintain energy balance. The molecular mechanisms by which enteral nutrition formula controls appetite and weight remain unknown. We examined whether enteral nutrition formula rich in octanoic acids would increase plasma levels of ghrelin, an appetite-stimulating hormone produced in the stomach, in cachectic patients with CRD.

Methods

Plasma ghrelin profiles in cachectic patients with CRD were assessed and compared with those in age- and sex-matched controls. Plasma levels of acyl-ghrelin, an active ghrelin modified by octanoic acids, and desacyl-ghrelin were measured separately. We examined changes in 24-h plasma ghrelin profiles before and after single administration of the formula. We also evaluated the effects of 2-week administration of the formula on plasma ghrelin levels and nutritional status in patients.

Results

The ratio of acyl-ghrelin to desacyl-ghrelin in plasma was lower in patients than in controls. Single administration of the formula did not change plasma desacyl-ghrelin levels, but induced an increase in acyl-ghrelin levels. Two-week treatment with the formula was effective in increasing weight and acyl-ghrelin, along with improving nutritional status in patients.

Conclusion

These results show that the formula contributes to increased weight, which may be associated with induction of acyl-ghrelin production in cachectic patients with CRD.

Background

Weight loss and nutritional depletion represent independent risk factors for the incidence of pneumonia and mortality in patients with chronic respiratory diseases (CRD) [1,2]. Excess energy expenditure and appetite loss are the main causes of weight loss in such patients, and are difficult to control using established treatments. Enteral nutrition formula is often used as a supplement for patients with insufficient oral calorific intake, although the effects of additional nutrition on weight gain seem to differ depending on the components of supplementation [3,4]. The contribution of formula components to weight gain and to induction of orexigenic hormones remains unclear.

Ghrelin, a novel growth hormone (GH)-releasing peptide, was first isolated from the stomach [5] and induces a positive energy balance by stimulating food intake through GH-independent mechanisms. Acyl-ghrelin, an active ghrelin that induces appetite through the hypothalamus, is synthesized in the stomach and inactivated as desacyl-ghrelin by deacylation. Octanoic acids are essential for acylation in the biosynthesis of acyl-ghrelin. Increased intake of octanoic acids may thus increase plasma acyl-ghrelin levels. Many reports have provided molecular analysis of ghrelin in patients with malignancy, but few have analyzed ghrelin levels in cachectic patients with CRD.

Based on the hypothesis that octanoic acids are necessary for acylation in biosynthesis of acyl-ghrelin, we investigated whether oral administration of an octanoic acid-rich formula would increase plasma acyl-ghrelin levels in cachectic patients with CRD.
I only posted the intro of this study, it can be looked at in more depth at the link above. My own observational data seems to suggest that I continue to gain weight when taking magnesium and cprylic acid...and stop or loose weight when I stop. At least at the moment. I do not know if this is directly related to the cprylic acid or a side effect.....it is allowing me to eat other fats without experiencing pain/fatigue (digestive enzymes didn't help).

Having said that, there is aditional research that suggest caprylic acid is an appetite suppressant.....although it didn't mention oral caprylic acid as far as I can tell.
_http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16360711
Hepatic portal vein (HPV) infusion of the medium chain fatty acid caprylic acid (CA; 2.3 mg/min, 40 microl/min) for 90 min beginning at dark onset in 18-h food-deprived male rats reduced the size of the first nocturnal meal about 40% (P < 0.01) and reduced 24-h food intake by about 15% (P < 0.001). Identical infusions into the vena cava affected neither initial meal size nor food intake. HPV CA infusion attenuated the postprandial decreases in plasma free fatty acids (P < 0.01) and beta-hydroxybutyrate (P < 0.01). HPV CA infusions did not significantly reduce nocturnal saccharine intake in a two-bottle conditioned taste aversion test, and there was no association between the saccharine intake on the test day and the feeding-inhibitory effect of CA on the conditioning day. HPV CA infusion did not affect plasma concentrations of corticosterone or of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. HPV CA infusion did not increase plasma concentration of the liver enzyme alanine aminotransferase, but did increase plasma concentration of gamma-glutamyl transferase, although not into the pathophysiological range. These data indicate that CA acts in the liver to produce a signal that inhibits feeding and that this inhibitory effect may be related to increases in hepatic fatty acid oxidation rather than be the result of aversion or toxicity.
Finally I read that coconut oil 'balances' a persons weight (brings it up or down accordingly)...although I could not find any data to back this statement up, the two contradicting studies above could well be brought together in that statement.


This next ones a bit heavier on the terminology. This one focuses on its connection to the (possible) treatment of bowel problems....it is very well referenced (see the link).

_http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1573354/
Caprylic acid and medium-chain triglycerides inhibit IL-8 gene transcription in Caco-2 cells: comparison with the potent histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A

Abstract

* Medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) is often administered to patients with Crohn's disease (CD) or short-bowel syndrome. However, little is known about the effects of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) and MCT on intestinal inflammation. In this study we examined whether caprylic acid, one of the MCFAs, and MCT suppress IL-8 secretion by differentiated Caco-2 cells.
* We found for the first time that caprylic acid and MCT suppress IL-8 secretion by Caco-2 cells at the transcriptional level when precultured together for 24 h. We also tried to clarify the mechanism of IL-8 gene inhibition by examining the activation of NF-κB and other transcription factors by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), and found that caprylic acid did not modulate their activation.
* The result of dual-luciferase assay using Caco-2 cells transfected with IL-8 promoter/luciferase reporter plasmid revealed that caprylic acid inhibited the activation of IL-8 promoter.
* Similar results were observed when cells were precultured with the well-known potent histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA).
* We examined the state of H4 acetylation in IL-8 promoter using the technique known as chromatin immunoprecipitation (Chr-IP). TSA rapidly induced H4 acetylation in IL-8 promoter chromatin, whereas caprylic acid did not. These results suggest that the inhibition of IL-8 gene transcription induced by caprylic acid and TSA does not necessarily require the marked suppression of transcription factors, and the mechanism of inhibition of IL-8 gene transcription may be different between caprylic acid and TSA.

Keywords: Caco-2 cell, caprylic acid, IL-8, MCT, NF-κB, transcription, trichostatin A, chromatin immunoprecipitation, histone acetylation

Introduction

The epithelium is a line of defense against an array of substances in the intestine, including resident and pathogenic micro-organisms (Sanderson & Walker, 1994). In inflammatory conditions where the mucus barrier is lost, such as Crohn's disease (CD) or necrotizing enterocolitis, intestinal epithelial cells secrete a wide array of cytokines after stimulation with pro-inflammatory cytokine or bacterial products (Eckmann et al., 1993). Recently, it was demonstrated that increasing concentrations of butyrate, one of the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), led to a dose-dependent reduction in IL-8 secretion by intestinal epithelial cells (Huang et al., 1997; Andoh et al., 1999a). Clinically, butyrate enema is effective for patients with active distal ulcerative colitis (Scheppach et al., 1992; Steinhart et al., 1994), and although the precise molecular mechanism that leads to such responses has not been well characterized, it is assumed to be partly based on the inhibitory action of butyrate on NF-κB activation, leading to inflammatory cytokine gene inhibition in enterocytes (Inan et al., 2000; Andoh et al., 1999b). However, little is known about the effects of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) and medium-chain C8 triglyceride (MCT) on intestinal inflammation. MCT has been used therapeutically when assimilation of dietary long-chain triglyceride (LCT) is diminished (Winawer et al., 1966; Tandon et al., 1972), and in patients whose small bowel has been resected, replacement of dietary LCT by MCT has been reported to cause considerable improvement in fat absorption, resulting in a gain in total energy absorption (Jeppesen & Mortensen, 1998). It is also often administered to patients with CD. Although dietary fat intake has been thought to be a risk factor of relapse in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), whether MCFAs and MCT actually have an inflluence on intestinal inflammation has not been examined thoroughly either in vivo or in vitro.
We examined whether caprylic acid, a MCFAs and MCT suppress IL-8 secretion by Caco-2 cells, a colon cancer cell line that is an established model for the human intestinal epithelium (Pinto et al., 1983). IL-8 is an α-chemokine that possesses potent neutrophil chemo-attractant and activating properties (Oppenheim et al., 1991; Baggiolini et al., 1989) and is one of the most important chemokines in the pathogenesis of IBD. It is increased in the intestinal mucosa in patients with active ulcerative colitis (UC) and active CD, and is a good target for therapy (Mazzucchelli et al., 1994). To clarify the mechanism of IL-8 gene transcription, we examined the expression of IL-8 mRNA by Northern blotting and activation of its transcription factors by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). We then performed a dual-luciferase assay, using Caco-2 cells transfected with IL-8 promoter/luciferase reporter plasmid, to evaluate the activation of the IL-8 promoter.
Cousens et al. (1978) demonstrated that all SCFAs containing up to six carbon atoms inhibited calf thymus deacetylases in vitro, leading to H4 acetylation in a rat hepatoma cell line (HTC cells). Reversible histone acetylation, which occurs in the ε-amino group of specific internal lysine residues located at the highly basic N-terminal domains of core histones, is often reported to affect gene transcription (Allfrey, 1980; Norton et al., 1989), and several lines of evidence have suggested that histone H4 acetylation may play a role in the inhibition of IL-8 gene in Caco-2 cells (Huang et al., 1997). In addition, it has become well established for several genes that targeting of histone acetylation to promoters is required for the regulation of transcription (Kuo et al., 2000; Vogelauer et al., 2000). In the present study, we used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with chromatin immunoprecipitation (Chr-IP) to examine the state of H4 acetylation in IL-8 promoter gene chromatin. Using this technique, it is possible to assess the acetylation states of promoters of individual genes (Braunstein et al., 1993). Furthermore, we compared the action of caprylic acid on IL-8 gene transcription with that of trichostatin A (TSA), a well-known inhibitor of histone deacetylase (Yoshida et al., 1990). Although the molecular structure of TSA is quite different from those of SCFAs and MCFAs, TSA induces a marked accumulation of highly acetylated histones, and therefore, is considered to be useful for analysing the role of histone hyperacetylation in regard to the fatty acid-mediated intracellular regulation of gene transcription.
For a complete breakdown/analysis/results see the link above.

Gallstones....
_http://www.coconut-oil-central.com/coconut-oil-gallbladder.html
Coconut Oil Gallbladder: Eliminate Gallstones Without Surgery

Coconut oil gallbladder health? Coconut oil makes it possible for you to forget about surgery in dealing with gallstones.

When bile (essential for Fat digestion) in the gallbladder solidifies, it develops into gallstones. This can decrease the quantity of bile released into the intestines and even clog bile ducts. Very painful!

Surgically removing the gallbladder is the customary solution to gallstones. But the humble coconut oil is offering its versatile services in the hope of keeping this invasive approach at a distance.

Coconut oil in your diet is a safe and efficient method of addressing gallstones. The monoglycerides and diglycerides of caprylic acid and capric acid have been found to dissolve human gallstones.

Caprylic (C8) and Capric (C10) acids are two of coconut oil’s potent medium chain fatty acids (MCFA). The Mayo Clinic and the University of Wisconsin Hospital are witnesses to this totally noninvasive approach using coconut oil.
Data to back this up???
The only things I could find involved injecting (I think?) a solution into the gall bladder....
_http://www.freepatentsonline.com/4205086.html
A method for the treatment of gallstones is disclosed herein which comprises perfusing adjacent the gallstones a liquid form of a physiologically-compatible mixture of fatty acids and/or alcohol esters of fatty acids. The mixture preferably comprises octanoic acid and decanoic acid, and the gylcerol esters thereof.
There is a lot of articles on the internet that talk about it being used in the treatment of candida (specifically if it is buffered with magnesium or calcium for a slower/timed release - caprylic acid being very quickly absorbed normally), but have not been able to find any clinical data on this yet.
I am also unable to find the link to articles talking about how caprylic acid is absorbed without the need for bile salts, and that it is readily used in the production of bile salts.
Given I was having problems with eating enough good fats (I'd get severe body aches and fatigue) this sold me on using coconut oil for cooking, and I've been able to consume a lot of it without any side effects or the need for enzymes.

Other snippets I've found

_http://www.nutri-notes.com/julaug95_simple.htm
It’s strong effect on the immune system is reported in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, which states that caprylic acid can, "cause lysis of tumor cells with little damage to normal tissue" (AJCN 1991;53(4supp):1082S-1086S). Hepatic tumors in mice treated once daily were totally obliterated after only four days, leaving normal liver cells unaffected. Because of this action of caprylic acid, the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition notes that it represents, "a novel mode of antitumor action" (AJCN 1991;53(4supp):1082S-1086S).
 

dannybananny

Jedi Council Member
Coconut Oil and Alzheimer’s Disease


This article is amazing, only one more reason why people don't need Big Pharmacy and should stick more to Nature.

How worried should drug companies be about supplements eating into their monopoly profits? A lot—as this story will show. Please share it with anyone you know who is suffering from Alzheimer’s or is worried about it.

Of course, just about everyone worries about Alzheimer’s. It currently afflicts 5.2 million people in the US and is the seventh leading cause of death. The cost of treating it is estimated at $148 billion.

Mary Newport, MD, has been medical director of the neonatal intensive care unit at Spring Hill Regional Hospital in Florida since it opened in 2003. About the same time the unit opened, her husband Steve, then 53, began showing signs of progressive dementia, later diagnosed as Alzheimer’s Disease. “Many days, often for several days in a row, he was in a fog; couldn’t find a spoon or remember how to get water out of the refrigerator,” she said.

They started him on Alzheimer’s drugs—Aricept, Namenda, Exelon—but his disease worsened steadily. (It should be noted that the latest research shows that the various Alzheimer’s drugs, like Aricept, have proven disappointing, with little real benefit and often distressing side effects.) When Dr. Newport couldn’t get her husband into a drug trial for a new Alzheimer’s medication, she started researching the mechanism behind Alzheimer’s.

She discovered that with Alzheimer’s disease, certain brain cells may have difficulty utilizing glucose (made from the carbohydrates we eat), the brain’s principal source of energy. Without fuel, these precious neurons may begin to die. There is an alternative energy source for brain cells—fats known as ketones. If deprived of carbohydrates, the body produces ketones naturally.

But this is the hard way to do it—who wants to cut carbohydrates out of the diet completely? Another way to produce ketones is by consuming oils that have medium-chain triglycerides. When MCT oil is digested, the liver converts it into ketones. In the first few weeks of life, ketones provide about 25 percent of the energy newborn babies need to survive.

Dr. Newport learned that the ingredient in the drug trial which was showing so much promise was simply MCT oil derived from coconut oil or palm kernel oil, and that a dose of 20 grams (about 20 ml or 4 teaspoons) was used to produce these results. When MCT oil is metabolized, the ketones which the body creates may, according to the latest research, not only protect against the incidence of Alzheimer’s, but may actually reverse it. Moreover, this is also a potential treatment for Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, multiple sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS or Lou Gehrig’s disease), drug-resistant epilepsy, brittle type I diabetes, and type II (insulin-resistant) diabetes.

So Mr. Newport, not being able to get into the drug trial, started taking the coconut oil twice a day. At this point, he could barely remember how to draw a clock. Two weeks after adding coconut oil to his diet, his drawing improved. After 37 days, Steve’s drawing gained even more clarity. The oil seemed to “lift the fog,” and in the first sixty days, Dr. Newport saw remarkable changes in him: every morning he was alert and happy, talkative, making jokes. His gait was “still a little weird,” but his tremor was no longer very noticeable. He was able to concentrate on things that he wanted to do around the house and in the yard and stay on task, whereas before coconut oil he was easily distractible and rarely accomplished anything unless he was directly supervised.

Over the next year, the dementia continued to reverse itself: he is able to run again, his reading comprehension has improved dramatically, and his short-term memory is improving—he often brings up events that happened days to weeks earlier and relays telephone conversations with accurate detail. A recent MRI shows that the brain atrophy has been completely halted.

Let’s take a moment to consider what actually happened here. Synthetic (patentable) Alzheimer’s drugs have failed. A drug company reluctantly decides to put a non-patentable natural substance (medium-chain triglycerides derived from coconut or palm) through an FDA trial. It works. But, darn it, a smart doctor figures out that a natural food can be substituted for the super-expensive drug. Not only that, the ketones from natural coconut oil last in the body longer than the drug version—eight hours instead of three hours. This is enough to make a drug company start worrying about its future. What if this natural health idea really catches on? Goodbye to monopoly profits!

Coconut oil can be found in many health food stores and even some grocery stores. One large chain sells a non-hydrogenated (no trans-fat) brand of coconut oil in a one-liter size (nearly 32 ounces) for about $7. It can be purchased in quantities as small as a pint and up to five gallons online. It is important to use coconut oil that is non-hydrogenated and contains no trans-fat. We would also strongly encourage the use of virgin oil (chemicals used to extract non-virgin oil are potentially dangerous, and better still, virgin organic, still quite reasonably priced.)

For more information, see Dr. Newport’s website. Sadly, you will not find any information on ketones, or the use of coconut oil or MCT oil, on the Alzheimer’s Association website.

Coconut oil is not the only natural product that has the potential to turn Alzheimer’s around. We will cover some other ones, and drug industry efforts to steal some of them, in a future issue.

http://www.anh-usa.org/coconut-oil-and-alzheimer%E2%80%99s-disease/
 

Breton

The Living Force
FOTCM Member
Re: Caprylic acid/octanoic acid/Medium-chain triglycerides (C8 triglyceride)

Interesting stuff.

Today my wife found through ultrasound that she has gallstones. So it is interesting if there could be something to this information about coconut oil helping.

Has anyone else on the forum treated their gallstones in this or any manner other than surgery?
 

Laura

Administrator
Administrator
Moderator
FOTCM Member
Coconut Oil: A Nutrient Powerhouse and Metabolism Booster

Imagine you are walking the beach on the North Shore of Oahu in Hawaii. All around you, people are surfing, hiking, jogging, swimming and paddleboarding.

Suddenly it becomes obvious which of your fellow sand dwellers are tourists and which are locals. Not only do the locals have a glow about their skin and trim figures, but they also seem to be oozing with abundant health and energy to spare! Plus, there isn’t a sniffle, cough, runny nose or apparent headache in sight.

What on earth can their secret be? Is it the sun? The stress-free life? The salt air? Those things may play a role, but the real secret lies within the world’s largest seed.

Coconut: A Nutrient Powerhouse…

The Malaysian and Polynesian cultures have revered the coconut for centuries.

Not only has this largest-known seed yielded food and water for hundreds of thousands of people, it also contains nearly all of the essential nutrients your body needs for optimal health.

In addition to a whole host of amino acids, coconut is also a great source of the minerals potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, and manganese, as well as vitamin C and riboflavin (vitamin B2).

Coconut oil contains all of these nutrients and more. It also contains 90 percent saturated fat, which puts it right smack in the middle of the great fat debate.

The Saturated Oil Debate…

Coconut oil is extracted from the dried flesh of the coconut. It is also a source of plant-based saturated fat, the very fat doctors and nutritionists alike have been telling us to avoid like the plague.

While it’s true that coconut oil is 90 percent saturated fat, 45 percent of that fat is lauric acid, a medium-chain fatty acid that converts in your body to monolaurin.

Monolaurin is the actual compound found in breast milk that strengthens a baby’s immune system. It is also known to promote normal brain development and contribute to healthy bones, as well as protect against viruses and bacteria.3

Despite these purported health benefits, many opponents of coconut oil point to the high concentration of saturated fats as a reason to avoid it.

While there may be an argument to avoid saturated fats coming from animals that have been raised using conventional feedlots and fed an unnatural diet of corn and soy, the fat in coconut oil is actually a medium-chain triglyceride. These fats are more easily digested than other fats and are quickly metabolized, giving you a great source of energy.

Also, your body uses medium-chain triglycerides differently than other fats. Most fats are stored in your body’s cells. But the fat in coconut oil goes directly to your liver, where it is converted into energy.

In layman’s terms, that bacon and cheese omelet you ate most likely sits around in your cells waiting to be burned up or stored as fat for later. However, coconut oil gets shipped directly to your liver, where it is put to work to help you get up and get going.

Back to Those Benefits…

Let’s take a closer look at the supposed health benefits.

Coconut appears to be anti-just-about-everything:

* Anti-inflammatory
* Anti-pyretic (it reduces fever)
* Anti-fungal
* Anti-bacterial

A pharmacological study1 of virgin coconut oil found that it reduced inflammation in rats. The same study also found that when researchers induced hyperthermia (excess heat) in the rats, the coconut oil helped to reduce fever (anti-pyretic) and ease pain in the affected rats.

Researchers concluded: “The results…suggest anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic properties of virgin coconut oil.”

In other words, it reduced inflammation, eased pain, and reduced fever. That’s not bad…for rats. However, we would love to see this type of study tested in humans.

On the antifungal front, researchers studied the effect of coconut oil on Candida (the fungus common to yeast infections), as compared to fluconazole, a common antifungal drug.2

Fifty-two different isolates of Candida were obtained from clinical specimens. Of these, Candida albicans was the most common isolate used. This is important, as this form is the common cause of diaper rash, vaginitis, thrush, and yeast infections.

All isolates were tested to see how susceptible they were to both virgin coconut oil and the antifungal drug. Researchers found that Candida albicans had the highest susceptibility to coconut oil when the coconut oil had a 1:4 dilution, as compared to fluconazole, which needed a 1:2 dilution to be as effective.

Translation: They needed less coconut oil, compared to the drug, to fend off the fungus.

In simpler terms, the coconut oil worked better (in a smaller quantity) than the drug. Once again, nature beats man’s inventions.

When it comes to antibacterial properties, one study in particular found that virgin coconut oil helped to treat skin infections.3

Researchers performed a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 26 people who had atopic dermatitis, a skin condition that often includes painfully dry skin that is highly susceptible to a nasty bacterium called Staphylococcus aureus.

Researchers had half the group use virgin coconut oil twice a day for four weeks at two noninfected sites. The other group used virgin olive oil, also applying it twice a day for four weeks.

When the study started, 20 of the 26 participants tested positive for Staphylococcus aureus.

At the end of the study period, only one of the virgin coconut oil users (5 percent) tested positive for the bacteria, as compared to six users (50 percent) in the olive oil group. The coconut oil also relieved the users’ dry skin.

Researchers concluded that coconut oil might be useful for treating bacteria, fungi, and viruses. While we agree, we’d like to see this type of gold standard study repeated with a larger participant pool, as well as with a variety of bacteria strain, just to be sure.

Heart and Weight Benefits Too…

Advocates of coconut oil also point to its cardio-protective and fat-burning properties, as well as its antibacterial benefits, etc.

According to a population study4 of about 2,500 people from the Polynesian islands of Tokelau and Pukapuka, high coconut oil intake has no effect on cholesterol levels.

Investigators tracked folks who consumed a high-fat diet derived primarily from coconuts — every meal contained coconut in one form or another. The researchers reported that the participants’ overall health was very good, and that vascular disease was uncommon.

In fact, even though these people were consuming high amounts of saturated fat in the form of coconut oil, they did not seem to have high cholesterol. Coronary heart disease, colon cancer, and other bowel disorders were rare as well.

The lead researcher, Dr. Ian Prior, concluded that there was no evidence that high saturated fat intake from coconut oil had a harmful effect.

This conclusion seems right, and then some. Not only does the coconut oil appear to not hurt, it also seems to be beneficial when it comes to gastrointestinal health. However, that cannot be stated conclusively without evaluating the participants’ entire diet.

Interestingly, when it comes to weight loss, it appears that coconut oil’s medium-chain triglycerides are the very reason it is effective.

It turns out that when you eat coconut oil, your body uses it more quickly rather than storing it as body fat. In this way, those medium-chain triglycerides are thermogenic—meaning that they actually speed up your metabolism, burning more calories and giving you more energy.

For example, according to several online sources, farmers from the 1940s wanted to fatten up their livestock, so they gave them coconut oil. However, the animals became leaner and more active.

This is quite intriguing, but cannot be attributed to any credible source, but we did discover a human study that seems to back this up.

In a study of people in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico, where coconut is a staple food, researchers found that their metabolic rate was an average of 25 percent higher than people in the U.S.

However, like the farmers/livestock example, we cannot substantiate this commonly cited study either. Both appear to be perpetuated by the same author, who never cites the studies he is pulling from.

Though the mechanism of action of medium-chain triglycerides and fat-burning makes sense physiologically, we were ready to dismiss the connection between coconut oil and weight loss due to a lack of clinical evidence. Then we came across several studies which included a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study from Brazil5.

Researchers tested the effects of coconut oil on 40 women between the ages of 20 to 40, with clinical abdominal obesity (waist circumference of more than 88 cm). Half of the group received a daily dose of either soybean oil or coconut oil for 12 weeks. Both of the groups were instructed to follow a balanced, low-calorie diet and to walk for 50 minutes each day.

At the end of the study period, those taking the coconut oil had a statistically greater loss of waist circumference that those taking the soybean oil. The coconut oil users also had a statistically higher level of HDL (good) cholesterol and a lower LDL/HDL ratio than the soybean oil group.

Both groups enjoyed a decrease in their body mass index (BMI).

So, those using the coconut oil lost weight, lost inches around their waist, increased their levels of good cholesterol, and improved their bad to good cholesterol ratio. Not bad for a big seed!

Using Coconut Oil…

At the very least, it is clear that coconut is not bad for you and that there is a significant difference between the saturated fat in coconuts and the saturated fat in animals.

Also, there appears to be strong evidence that coconuts are an anti-viral, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, and anti-inflammatory food. Plus, the research behind its heart and weight benefits seems well founded. Therefore, we support the use of coconut oil…for health as well as taste.

As it turns out, coconut oil is also a great option for cooking due to its high smoking point (350°F for unrefined and 450°F for refined). This is a culinary way of saying that you can sauté and bake with coconut oil and not worry about it turning into a trans-fat before your eyes. Plus, coconut oil is very stable. It has a two-year shelf life and won’t turn rancid, even in warm temperatures.

So give coconut oil a try. Just be sure to choose organic, virgin coconut oil that is unrefined, unbleached, made without heat processing or chemicals, and is non-GMO.

We are sure that after a few days with this outstanding oil, you’ll be loco for coconut, too!

References:

1Intahphuak, S, et al. “Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities of virgin coconut oil.” Pharm Biol. 2010 Feb. 48(2):151-7.

2Ogbolu, DO, et al. “In vitro antimicrobial properties of coconut oil on Candida species in Ibadan, Nigeria.” J Med Food. 2007 Jun. 10(2)384-7.

3Verall-Rowell, VM, et al. “Novel actibacterial and emollient effects of coconut and virgin olive oils in adult atopic dermatitis.” Dermatitis. 2008 Nov-Dec.19(6):308-15.

4Prior IA, et al. “Cholesterol, coconuts and diet in Polynesian atolls—a natural experiment; the Pukapuka and Toklau island studies.” Am J Clin Nutr 1981. 34:1552-61.

5Assuncao, ML, et al. “Effects of dietary coconut oil on the biochemical and antrhopometric profiles of women presenting abdominal obesity.” Lipids. 2009 Jul. 44(7):593-601.
 

Séamas

The Living Force
FOTCM Member
Thanks for posting this article Laura. I am a tall, thin guy and I don't gain weight. I used to get most of my calories from cheese, bread, granola, yogurt, pasta and sandwiches. Now I eat primarily meat and vegetables. I lost about 15 pounds when I first cut out gluten and dairy (I'm about 6 foot 1 and I went from 165 pounds to around 150) over the summer and my weight stabilized there. I have been putting a tablespoon of coconut oil on my buckwheat kasha every morning after reading about it on Signs of the Times.

I started exercising almost daily about a month ago, so I'm trying to get more calories, but this article suggests that consumption of coconut oil may actually speed up the metabolism.

Is coconut oil a good source of calories for someone who would like to gain weight? Should I just eat more of it? How much coconut oil is too much?

Thanks
 

seek10

The Living Force
FOTCM Member
When I first read the benefits of coconut oil, I remembered a south indian state called kerala. this is a state with Lots of water canals heavily uses coconut for all purposes including cooking . It's achivements are rather unique w.r.t other indian states . From wiki
_http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kerala

Kerala is a popular tourist destination famous for its backwaters, Ayurvedic treatments [9] and tropical greenery. Kerala has a higher Human Development Index than all other states in India.[10][11] The state has a literacy rate of 94.59 percent,[2] the highest in India. A survey conducted in 2005 by Transparency International ranked Kerala as the least corrupt state in the country.[12] Kerala has witnessed significant migration of its people, especially to the Persian Gulf countries during the Kerala Gulf boom, and is heavily dependent on remittances from its large Malayali expatriate community.[13][14][15][16]
The movies made in the language of this state (malayalam) strangely has more human content and real life drama,activism which is in complete contrast to other adjacent states whose movies contains masala of voilence, vulgarity and ridiculous heroism. In many indian states ( mainly south/east india), each state has their own language and culture.
 

go2

Dagobah Resident
I recently purchased a pint of Aunt Patty's Organic Extra Virgin Coconut Oil for 10.95 USD to use in a medicinal salve along with beeswax, olive oil, oil of oregano and oil of myrrh. I used the remaining coconut oil this week for cooking soups, baking root vegetables, and frying meat. The taste and cooking characteristics are excellent. The outlet store sells 32 pound pails of coconut oil imported from the Philippines for about 50 USD. Coconut oil shelf life is at least two years at room temperature due to the natural antioxidants. I am going to add a couple of pails to my "preparedness pantry".
 

curious_richard

Jedi Master
go2 said:
The outlet store sells 32 pound pails of coconut oil imported from the Philippines for about 50 USD.
Would you mind giving the name or URL for this outlet store? I would be delighted to find a source at $1.56 per pound.

The best price I have found online is $135 for five gallons (organic, pressed), which I have calculated to be 38.5 pounds), giving a price of $3.5 per pound, or $112 for 32 pounds.

The coconut oil at Walmart is about $5.50 for 930ml (== 860 gram == 1.9 pound), or $2.90/pound and this is probably non organic and extracted with solvents.
 
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