Rising fluxes of cosmic rays inside the solar system

Laura

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Administrator
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SPACE RADIATION: According to a new study just published in the research journal Space Weather, astronauts face a growing peril from space radiation. Rising fluxes of cosmic rays inside the solar system place increasingly strict limits on the amount of time explorers can safely travel through interplanetary space. Visit http://spaceweather.com for more information and links to the complete study.
 

Ellipse

The Living Force
FOTCM Member
From Wikipedia :
Early speculation on the sources of cosmic rays included a 1934 proposal by Baade and Zwicky suggesting cosmic rays originating from supernovae.[30] A 1948 proposal by Horace W. Babcock suggested that magnetic variable stars could be a source of cosmic rays.[31] Subsequently in 1951, Y. Sekido et al. identified the Crab Nebula as a source of cosmic rays.[32] Since then, a wide variety of potential sources for cosmic rays began to surface, including supernovae, active galactic nuclei, quasars, and gamma-ray bursts.[33]

Later experiments have helped to identify the sources of cosmic rays with greater certainty. In 2009, a paper presented at the International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC) by scientists at the Pierre Auger Observatory showed ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) originating from a location in the sky very close to the radio galaxy Centaurus A, although the authors specifically stated that further investigation would be required to confirm Cen A as a source of cosmic rays.[34] However, no correlation was found between the incidence of gamma-ray bursts and cosmic rays, causing the authors to set a lower limit of 10−6 erg cm−2 on the flux of 1 GeV-1 TeV cosmic rays from gamma-ray bursts.[35]

In 2009, supernovae were said to have been "pinned down" as a source of cosmic rays, a discovery made by a group using data from the Very Large Telescope.[36] This analysis, however, was disputed in 2011 with data from PAMELA, which revealed that "spectral shapes of [hydrogen and helium nuclei] are different and cannot be described well by a single power law", suggesting a more complex process of cosmic ray formation.[37] In February 2013, though, research analyzing data from Fermi revealed through an observation of neutral pion decay that supernovae were indeed a source of cosmic rays, with each explosion producing roughly 3 × 1042 - 3 × 1043 J of cosmic rays.[2][3] However, supernovae do not produce all cosmic rays, and the proportion of cosmic rays that they do produce is a question which cannot be answered without further study.[38]

So we don't really know from where cosmic rays come from, but an event in the universe surely happened.
 

mkrnhr

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The paper is behind pay-wall and the abstract reads:
The Sun and its solar wind are currently exhibiting extremely low densities and magnetic field strengths, representing states that have never been observed during the space age. The highly abnormal solar activity between cycles 23 and 24 has caused the longest solar minimum in over 80 years and continues into the unusually small solar maximum of cycle 24. As a result of the remarkably weak solar activity, we have also observed the highest fluxes of galactic cosmic rays in the space age and relatively small solar energetic particle events. We use observations from the Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation (CRaTER) on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter to examine the implications of these highly unusual solar conditions for human space exploration. We show that while these conditions are not a show stopper for long-duration missions (e.g., to the Moon, an asteroid, or Mars), galactic cosmic ray radiation remains a significant and worsening factor that limits mission durations. While solar energetic particle events in cycle 24 present some hazard, the accumulated doses for astronauts behind 10 g/cm2 shielding are well below current dose limits. Galactic cosmic radiation presents a more significant challenge: the time to 3% risk of exposure-induced death (REID) in interplanetary space was less than 400 days for a 30 year old male and less than 300 days for a 30 year old female in the last cycle 23–24 minimum. The time to 3% REID is estimated to be ∼20% lower in the coming cycle 24–25 minimum. If the heliospheric magnetic field continues to weaken over time, as is likely, then allowable mission durations will decrease correspondingly. Thus, we estimate exposures in extreme solar minimum conditions and the corresponding effects on allowable durations.

This is a plot representing the relative dose of radiation received by astronauts with two kinds of shielding over time. It gets worse.
swe20184-fig-0002.png
 

un chien anadolu

Jedi Master
Here is a good graphical summary of Henrik Svensmark’s theory: Effects of galactic cosmic ray flux on Earth climate and biological diversity.

flow-chart-nc-2012.jpg


Original article here : _https://calderup.wordpress.com/2012/04/24/a-stellar-revision-of-the-story-of-life/
 

ianvr

Jedi
Was about to post this article when I've seen it was already published.

Very interesting article and it makes me wonder if global (and other planet) warming is also not due to these increased cosmic rays. It is said that this is also as a result of the weak Solar Maximum.

I've always wondered if we don't have longer "seasons" on Earth which spans so many years, centuries or longer that it doesn't get recorded. Just like we are going through Summer, Autumn, Winter, Spring in one Earth rotation around the Sun; we might have similar seasons on a galactic level but spanning thousands or millions of years.

There was also earlier an interesting article on Spaceweather site around the effects of cosmic radiation on airline passengers and how the effects double when it was measured on a flight at 25,000 ft vs a flight at 35,000 ft. I don't think it can be good for you or your health if you spend a lot of time flying at those altitutes like commercial pilots and crew are exposed too.
 

whitecoast

The Living Force
FOTCM Member
Very interesting article and it makes me wonder if global (and other planet) warming is also not due to these increased cosmic rays. It is said that this is also as a result of the weak Solar Maximum.


According to Pierre's book Earth Changes and the Human Cosmic Connection, cosmic rays have a net cooling effect, due to the increased cloud cover repelling solar radiation. :)
 

lostinself

Jedi Master
Recently there has been a drop in the cosmic ray influx:

forbush_strip2.gif


It's caused by an increase in solar activity and some CMEs passing near Earth and sweeping away the radiation. The graph caught my attention because in the course of recent days (a week or so) the weather has somewhat normalized here in PL and now we can enjoy a pretty classic winter. Which is a nice change because earlier we could observe the somewhat anomalous weather that has been slowly becoming a norm over the years - dull haziness of the air, increased humidity, long periods without precipitation, strong winds etc.

It's a crude and merely local observation but it agrees pretty much with the cosmic rays / low-level cloud formation hypothesis. Especially considering the air haziness which is not present at the moment with the radiation level lowered.
 

itellsya

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Spaceweather.com's project to detect the levels of cosmic rays reaching Earth has come back with it's data, running Feb 2015 to June 2016 - they say they're intensifying.


http://spaceweather.com/ said:
COSMIC RAYS INTENSIFY: Researchers have long known that solar activity and cosmic rays have a yin-yang relationship. As solar activity declines, cosmic rays intensify. Lately, solar activity has been very low indeed. Are cosmic rays responding? The answer is "yes." Spaceweather.com and the students of Earth to Sky Calculus have been using helium balloons to monitor cosmic rays in the stratosphere over California. Their latest data show an increase of almost 13% since 2015.

Cosmic rays, which are accelerated toward Earth by distant supernova explosions and other violent events, are an important form of space weather. They can seed clouds, trigger lightning, and penetrate commercial airplanes. Furthermore, there are studies ( #1, #2, #3, #4) linking cosmic rays with cardiac arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death in the general population.

Why are cosmic rays intensifying? The main reason is the sun. Solar storm clouds such as coronal mass ejections (CMEs) sweep aside cosmic rays when they pass by Earth. During Solar Maximum, CMEs are abundant and cosmic rays are held at bay. Now, however, the solar cycle is swinging toward Solar Minimum, allowing cosmic rays to return. Another reason could be the weakening of Earth's magnetic field, which helps protect us from deep-space radiation.

There's a new section of our website where you can monitor cosmic rays in the atmosphere. From here, scroll down a few inches to find the latest measurements, the date of the next balloon flight, and more information about the data and sensors.

THIS RESEARCH IS CROWD-FUNDED: The cosmic ray research presented on Spaceweather.com is done by students, driven by curiosity, and funded entirely by readers. Our latest flight over California on Aug. 21st was sponsored by World Tech Toys of Valencia CA. In exchange for their generous donation of $750, we flew a toy Striker Drone to the edge of space:

HD video and poster-quality images of the drone in space are now being used by World Tech Toys for marketing and outreach--an out-of-this-world bargain.

Our next flights on Sept. 2nd and Sept. 10th need sponsors. Would you like to assist? Contact Dr. Tony Phillips to make arrangements.

stratosphere_14aug16.png
 

mabar

The Living Force
FOTCM Member
was reading at spaceweather this post
https://www.facebook.com/spaceweatherdotcom/?hc_ref=PAGES_TIMELINE said:
COSMIC RAYS IN CALIFORNIA: Recently, cosmic rays around Earth have been intensifying. How well does our planet's magnetic field protect us? The answer depends on location. Earth's magnetic field is not uniform. Some places are better shielded than others. On May 6th, we launched two balloons simultaneously from two sites in California: Bishop CA and Thousand Oaks CA. Each one carried an array of X-ray/gamma-ray sensors to the stratosphere. The purpose of the experiment was to see if we could detect variations in cosmic ray shielding within a single state. Despite the fact that the two launch sites were separated by less than 275 miles, we found a significant difference. Bishop CA had more atmospheric radiation; Thousand Oaks had less. Conclusion: Southern California is better shielded against cosmic rays than northern parts of the state. The difference was greatest at altitudes above 40,000 feet.
...and made me wonder about other places, looking for found this intersting article
https://phys.org/news/2017-03-unravelling-earth-magnetic-field.html said:
Unravelling Earth's magnetic field

ESA's Swarm satellites are seeing fine details in one of the most difficult layers of Earth's magnetic field to unpick – as well as our planet's magnetic history imprinted on Earth's crust.

Earth's magnetic field can be thought of as a huge cocoon, protecting us from cosmic radiation and charged particles that bombard our planet in solar wind. Without it, life as we know it would not exist.

Most of the field is generated at depths greater than 3000 km by the movement of molten iron in the outer core. The remaining 6% is partly due to electrical currents in space surrounding Earth, and partly due to magnetised rocks in the upper lithosphere – the rigid outer part of Earth, consisting of the crust and upper mantle.

Although this 'lithospheric magnetic field' is very weak and therefore difficult to detect from space, the Swarm trio is able to map its magnetic signals. After three years of collecting data, the highest resolution map of this field from space to date has been released.

"By combining Swarm measurements with historical data from the German CHAMP satellite, and using a new modelling technique, it was possible to extract the tiny magnetic signals of crustal magnetisation," explained Nils Olsen from the Technical University of Denmark, one of the scientists behind the new map.

ESA's Swarm mission manager, Rune Floberghagen, added: "Understanding the crust of our home planet is no easy feat. We can't simply drill through it to measure its structure, composition and history.

"Measurements from space have great value as they offer a sharp global view on the magnetic structure of our planet's rigid outer shell."
Presented at this week's Swarm Science Meeting in Canada, the new map shows detailed variations in this field more precisely than previous satellite-based reconstructions, caused by geological structures in Earth's crust.
One of these anomalies occurs in Central African Republic, centred around the city of Bangui, where the magnetic field is significantly sharper and stronger. The cause for this anomaly is still unknown, but some scientists speculate that it may be the result of a meteorite impact more than 540 million years ago.

The magnetic field is in a permanent state of flux. Magnetic north wanders, and every few hundred thousand years the polarity flips so that a compass would point south instead of north.

When new crust is generated through volcanic activity, mainly along the ocean floor, iron-rich minerals in the solidifying magma are oriented towards magnetic north, thus capturing a 'snapshot' of the magnetic field in the state it was in when the rocks cooled.
Since magnetic poles flip back and forth over time, the solidified minerals form 'stripes' on the seafloor and provide a record of Earth's magnetic history.


The latest map from Swarm gives us an unprecedented global view of the magnetic stripes associated with plate tectonics reflected in the mid-oceanic ridges in the oceans.

"These magnetic stripes are evidence of pole reversals and analysing the magnetic imprints of the ocean floor allows the reconstruction of past core field changes. They also help to investigate tectonic plate motions," said Dhananjay Ravat from the University of Kentucky in the USA.

"The new map defines magnetic field features down to about 250 km and will help investigate geology and temperatures in Earth's lithosphere."
... and -unless I understoo wrong- one can/could know more o less where incoming cosmic rays are reaching ground, so to speak ... was in my mind the increase in other circumnstances as cosmic rays are increasing
http://spaceweather.com/ said:
...
Cosmic rays can seed clouds, trigger lightning, and penetrate commercial airplanes. Furthermore, there are studies ( #1, #2, #3, #4) linking cosmic rays with cardiac arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death in the general population.
...
edit: delete links and ... the aimation is quite intesting, although, did not know how to embebed here ...
 

c.a.

The Living Force
FOTCM Member
Lee & Adapt 2030 discuss The Grand Solar Minimum Part 1 of 5
Published on Jun 15, 2017

https://youtu.be/6kub7PrWNZE
Lee & Adapt 2030 discuss The Grand Solar Minimum
mirrored with permission
PT-2 (32:31)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-1nSps_doiI
PT-3 (32:03)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-QF2J4byiu0
PT-4 (32:03)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Dh9V24-0UvA
PT-5 (23:22)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uHEgq1MmKjE

Note: Links With Vids
 

Mikey

The Living Force
c.a. said:
Lee & Adapt 2030 discuss The Grand Solar Minimum Part 1 of 5
Published on Jun 15, 2017

Could you post a summary of the findings presented in these videos?
 

c.a.

The Living Force
FOTCM Member
Data said:
c.a. said:
Lee & Adapt 2030 discuss The Grand Solar Minimum Part 1 of 5
Published on Jun 15, 2017

Could you post a summary of the findings presented in these videos?
MIAC #015 Vibrational Shifts Due to Cosmic Ray Increases...
Episode Info
http://www.stitcher.com/podcast/david-dubyne/adapt-2030-mini-ice-age-conversations/e/miac-015-vibrational-shifts-due-to-cosmic-ray-increases-erratic-50047914
Vibrational Changes are being felt by everyone across the planet, with cosmic rays increasing 25.7% over the last five years the question needs to be asked is the emergence of a new super yellow rust fungal strain wiping out wheat crops across the middle east and central Asia and the unstoppable Asian bird flu, are these relates to cosmic ray increases. Losses of fruit and berry crops across the E. USA and wipe out of vegetable production in Europe and now with greenhouse growers in Canada a month behind in planting due to extreme cold, the flipping seasons are an indication of the intensifying mini ice age. Think tanks are keeping an eye on several events globally as an indication of how humanity will react to currency devaluation, food shortages and major infrastructure breakdowns through Venezuela, Brazil and I-85 in USA. Food For Liberty Food For Liberty Heirloom Seed Kit Food For Liberty Geodesic Dome Greenhouses Brought to you by ADAPT 2030 YouTube Channel Oil Seed Crops HOME Page Support ADAPT 2030 on PATREON

Today, ‎June ‎19, ‎2017, ‏‎9 hours ago

Also seeing many dead bird's on the roadways And experiencing near miss collisions while driving, over the last number of weeks.
 

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c.a.

The Living Force
FOTCM Member
c.a. said:
Data said:
c.a. said:
Lee & Adapt 2030 discuss The Grand Solar Minimum Part 1 of 5
Published on Jun 15, 2017

Could you post a summary of the findings presented in these videos?
MIAC #015 Vibrational Shifts Due to Cosmic Ray Increases...
Episode Info
http://www.stitcher.com/podcast/david-dubyne/adapt-2030-mini-ice-age-conversations/e/miac-015-vibrational-shifts-due-to-cosmic-ray-increases-erratic-50047914
Vibrational Changes are being felt by everyone across the planet, with cosmic rays increasing 25.7% over the last five years the question needs to be asked is the emergence of a new super yellow rust fungal strain wiping out wheat crops across the middle east and central Asia and the unstoppable Asian bird flu, are these relates to cosmic ray increases. Losses of fruit and berry crops across the E. USA and wipe out of vegetable production in Europe and now with greenhouse growers in Canada a month behind in planting due to extreme cold, the flipping seasons are an indication of the intensifying mini ice age. Think tanks are keeping an eye on several events globally as an indication of how humanity will react to currency devaluation, food shortages and major infrastructure breakdowns through Venezuela, Brazil and I-85 in USA. Food For Liberty Food For Liberty Heirloom Seed Kit Food For Liberty Geodesic Dome Greenhouses Brought to you by ADAPT 2030 YouTube Channel Oil Seed Crops HOME Page Support ADAPT 2030 on PATREON

Today, ‎June ‎19, ‎2017, ‏‎9 hours ago

Also seeing many dead bird's on the roadways. And experiencing near miss collisions while driving, over the last number of weeks.

Also thinking this may explain the recent Navy ship collision, with the Japanese container vessel.
http://forum.gcaptain.com/t/uss-fitzgerald-collides-with-acx-crystal-off-coast-of-japan/45129
 

c.a.

The Living Force
FOTCM Member
Spaceweather.com Monday, Jun. 26, 2017
NEW ATMOSPHERIC RADIATION RESULTS:
http://spaceweather.com/
Links Within:
For the past two+ years, Spaceweather.com and the students of Earth to Sky Calculus have been monitoring cosmic rays in the atmosphere above California using high-altitude space weather balloons. After more than 100 flights, they find that dose rates have increased over the Golden State by 13% since March 2015.
Chart:
http://spaceweather.com/images2017/22jun17/newhampshirevscalifornia_strip.png

Now we know the same thing is happening over New England--only more so.

The Earth to Sky team has flown balloons over Maine and New Hampshire four times since 2015, most recently on June 15, 2017. Although the data are relatively sparse compared to the better-sampled west coast, the results are clear. Radiation in the stratosphere over the northeastern corner of the USA is not only stronger than California, but also intensifying much faster--a 19% increase in New England vs. 13% in California.

What's happening? Generally speaking, cosmic rays are increasing throughout the entire solar system. This is because of the sunspot cycle. The sun is currently plunging toward a deep Solar Minimum. As it descends, the sun's weakening magnetic field and flagging solar wind provides less and less shielding against high-energy particles from deep space. Every planet in the Solar System is getting an extra dose.

The difference we see between California and New England is telling us something local about Earth. After the sun's magnetosphere deflects many cosmic rays, Earth's magnetic field and atmosphere provide another line of defense. Our data show that central California is better defended by geomagnetism than New England.

Cosmic rays penetrate commercial airlines, dosing passengers and flight crews enough that pilots are classified as occupational radiation workers. Some research shows that cosmic rays can seed clouds and trigger lightning, potentially altering weather and climate. Furthermore, there are studies ( #1, #2, #3, #4) linking cosmic rays with cardiac arrhythmias in the general population.

Related?:
Same Page Snip:
'TWINNED RAINBOW' SPLITS DOWN THE MIDDLE:
http://spaceweathergallery.com/indiv_upload.php?upload_id=136417
"On 17th June, we had some very unsettled weather in Bucharest, Romania, with rain showers in the morning and a big storm in the afternoon," reports local resident Corlaci Nicolae-Adrian. "After the storm passed, a beautiful rainbow appeared, but it was strange..." The rainbow was split down the middle:Pic Below
http://spaceweathergallery.com/full_image.php?image_name=Corlaci-Nicolae-Adrian-twinedbow2-copy_1498082839.jpg&PHPSESSID=4iqajb9o7h77jftngbdvi93ao6

Snow, Heat, Shifting Jet Stream & Cosmic Rays Twist Weather (397)
Jun 25, 2017

https://youtu.be/nlSqs_WGRKg
 
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