Rising fluxes of cosmic rays inside the solar system

c.a.

The Living Force
FOTCM Member
#16
Space Weather & Human Health | The Casey Example
Published on Sep 28, 2017

https://youtu.be/mo62uOT4TS8?rel=0
Nobody can pinpoint any given event and blame the sun, but THIS was the type of event we watch for during solar storms. John Casey is a true titan in our world. We highly recommend his book “Upheaval”.
Flashback
John Casey Author of UPHEAVAL & ADAPT 2030 Discuss Catastrophic Earthquakes Striking USA (315) 1:12:18
Published on Feb 18, 2017
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZTJCY6M-3fY
John Casey Author of UPHEAVAL & ADAPT 2030 Discuss Catastrophic Earthquakes Striking USA and Mini Ice Age Preparation. During every grand solar minimum the USA is rocked by 7.0-8.2+ earthquakes as well massive eruptions and seismic events across the globe. Our conversation covers how to prepare for these events and what to expect in terms of infrastructure damage, how to keep your family and businesses safe, investment opportunities, global crop losses and intensification of the grand solar minimum with a timeline to intensification.
 

c.a.

The Living Force
FOTCM Member
#17
GLOBAL COSMIC RADIATION MEASUREMENTS: Monday, Jun. 11, 2018
SpaceWeather.com -- News and information about meteor showers, solar flares, auroras, and near-Earth asteroids
For the past two years, Spaceweather.com and the students of Earth to Sky Calculus have been traveling around the world, launching cosmic ray balloons to map our planet's radiation environment. Our sensors travel from ground level to the stratosphere and bring their data back to Earth by parachute. Here is a plot showing radiation vs. altitude in Norway, Chile, Mexico, and selected locations in the USA:

Note: Data from Sweden and several other US states are omitted for the clarity of the plot.

We're about to add a new country to the list: New Zealand. On June 18th, a team of students from Earth to Sky is traveling to New Zealand's north island to launch 3 cosmic ray balloons in only 10 days. Soon, we will know more about cosmic rays above Earth's 8th continent.

Cosmic rays are, essentially, the subatomic debris of dying stars, accelerated to nearly light speed by supernova explosions. They travel across space and approach Earth from all directions, peppering our planet 24/7. When cosmic rays crash into Earth's atmosphere, they produce a spray of secondary particles and photons that is most intense at the entrance to the stratosphere. This secondary spray is what we measure.

The purpose of our mapping project is to study how well Earth's atmosphere and magnetic field protects us from cosmic rays. As the plot shows, the shielding is uneven. More radiation gets through to the poles (e.g., Norway) and less radiation penetrates near the equator (e.g., Mexico).

But there's more to the story. Our launch sites in Chile and California are equidistant from the equator, yet their radiation profiles are sharply different. Chile is on the verge of the South Atlantic Anomaly, which almost surely distorts the radiation field there. Our flights over New Zealand may shed some light on this, because our launch sites in New Zealand will be the same distance from the equator as the sites in Chile. Stay tuned!

Technical note: The radiation sensors onboard our helium balloons detect X-rays and gamma-rays in the energy range 10 keV to 20 MeV. These energies span the range of medical X-ray machines and airport security scanners.

Side-notes:


 

c.a.

The Living Force
FOTCM Member
#18
RT
Cosmic radiation from giant star system heading towards Earth – NASA (VIDEO, PHOTO)
4 Jul, 2018 13:50
A star system containing two gigantic suns is blasting cosmic rays into space and NASA scientists have found that the radiation is making its way towards Earth on intergalactic winds.

High-energy observations in the sprawling southern constellation of Carina had puzzled scientists for some time. But now a NASA orbital telescope has helped pin the energy source on Eta Carinae, a double-star system around 7,500 light years away from Earth.

It is already known that rays with energies greater than 1 billion electron volts are sprayed into our solar system. However, the erratic movement of the energy and sheer size of the great expanse previously made it difficult to locate some of the sources. Colliding stellar winds within Eta Carinae, which is surrounded by an hourglass dust nebula, have now been confirmed as a reason for the energy patterns in the region.

“We know the blast waves of exploded stars can accelerate cosmic rays to speeds comparable to that of light, an incredible energy boost,” said NASA astrophysicist Kenji Hamaguchi. “Similar processes must occur in other extreme environments. Our analysis indicates Eta Carinae is one of them.”

Using the NuStar telescope, NASA was able to collect data on violent shock waves from colliding winds that result in cosmic rays, some of which have been seen to bounce off the Earth’s magnetic field.


“We’ve known for some time that the region around Eta Carinae is the source of energetic emission in high-energy X-rays and gamma rays,” said Fiona Harrison, NuSTAR telescope researcher. “But until NuSTAR was able to pinpoint the radiation… the origin was mysterious.”

Launched in 2012, the NuStar orbiter has been used to map selected regions of space and act as a census for collapsed stars. The telescope has also been tasked with investigating mysterious black holes, and last year documented the ‘energy eating’ phenomena in the Milky Way.
 

c.a.

The Living Force
FOTCM Member
#19
Opinion:

Earth has Entered into a New Epoch Cosmic Rays
R Wayne Steiger Published on Jul 4, 2018 / 22:43
July 3, 2018 is the date that has been officially called the beginning of a new Epoch for planet Earth and all Living Beings and is being called the Epoch of Cosmic Radiation. Is this what all governments have been preparing for? Is this what is causing global climate change? What is this doing to our bodies, how is this changing Mankind?
 
#20
Cosmic Ray’s Starlight Cafe

What was that article awhile back about energy pouring into our universe from a higher dimension? When asked the Cs said “the Wave has begun in earnest!”
 

c.a.

The Living Force
FOTCM Member
#21
SpaceWeather.com -- News and information about meteor showers, solar flares, auroras, and near-Earth asteroids
COSMIC RAYS PENETRATE AIRPLANES OVER THE SOUTH PACIFIC: Last month, flight attendants got some bad news. According to a new study from researchers at Harvard University, the crews of commercial airlines face an elevated risk of cancer compared to members of the general population. The likely reason: cosmic rays. High energy particles from space hitting the top of Earth's atmosphere create a spray of secondary radiation that penetrates the walls of airplanes flying above ~20,000 feet.

On June 19th, Spaceweather.com and students of Earth to Sky Calculus flew from California to New Zealand to launch a series of space weather balloons--part of an ongoing program to map cosmic rays around the globe. Naturally, we took our radiation sensors onboard the airplane. Here is what we measured:

Within minutes after takeoff from Los Angeles, radiation in the passenger compartment multiplied 25-fold and remained high until we landed again in Brisbane 13 hours later. Peak dose rates were almost 40 times greater than on the ground below. In total, we absorbed a whole body dose approximately equal to a panoramic dental X-ray.

Our sensors measure three types of radiation: neutrons, X-rays and gamma-rays. Using bubble chambers, we found that about 1/3rd of our exposure came from neutrons:


Each bubble pictured above is formed by an energetic neutron (200 keV – 15 MeV) passing through the chamber. Counting bubbles yields the total dose, about 8 uGy (micro-Gray) of neutrons during the entire flight. These measurements are important because neutrons are a biologically effective form of radiation of interest to cancer researchers.

The remaining 2/3rd of our exposure came from X-rays and gamma-rays. To find out about those, read the rest of the story.

Opinion:
R Wayne Steiger Streamed live on Jul 6, 2018 / 58:38
There is not much you and I can do about the increasing levels and exposure to Cosmic Rays but we can sure learn to monitor and read the data so you can make plans accordingly and if you are a frequent flier you NEED to know this information it is a matter of Life and Death.
Tonight we will go to all the different web sources and you will become more than a novice in understanding what the data is measuring, how do use the information for you and your family and loved ones to plan accordingly. It is only going to get worse the bombardment of these Cosmic Rays so the more we know the better prepared we all can become
Solar Shutdown
 

c.a.

The Living Force
FOTCM Member
#22
Last edited:

c.a.

The Living Force
FOTCM Member
#23
Adapt 2030 Published on Jul 13, 2018 / 10:04
With galactic cosmic rays now influencing our atmosphere, it seems cloud cells on Earth and well as global wind patterns have shifted and are becoming more unstable. As examples the dust storm from Africa, now encircles 3/4 of our planet at the equator, atmospheric compression events in Japan dumping half a years worth of rain in ten days leaving part of the country under water. Arizona dust storms, lines of water spouts off of Italy, something surely has changed.

LIVE update from west of Durango, CO with storms developing near 416 Fire burn scar
Reed Timmer Streamed live 16 hours ago

StormChasingVideo Published on Jul 13, 2018
Here is a mind blowing time-lapse of the Haboob or Sand Storm that blew through the Yuma County, AZ on 7/9/2018. Shots were taken from Tacna, Welton, and Yuma.
 

c.a.

The Living Force
FOTCM Member
#25
Audio Read Included:
There’s something strange going on with the sun. The theory—admittedly a controversial one—is that we’re entering a grand minimum, in which the sun’s spot cycle fizzles out and cosmic radiation becomes more pervasive. We haven’t seen one since the Space Age began.

Sunspots are areas where “intense magnetic flux” has pushed up to the star’s surface, manifesting in storms whose numbers wax and wane over an 11-year cycle. At their most active, they boost the sun’s magnetic field, which envelops planets and protects them from the perils of galactic cosmic rays—charged particles from long-dead stars. Periodically, the sunspot cycle seems to fade entirely, and few or no spots show up for decades. If that happens, and we find ourselves in a grand minimum, says Scott McIntosh, a solar researcher at the National Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, Colo., the sun’s magnetic umbrella “will be made of Swiss cheese.”

“We are in a very odd cycle, and it continues to show signs it is getting progressively worse,” says Nathan Schwadron, a professor of space plasma physics at the University of New Hampshire at Durham and a primary proponent of the grand minimum theory. “It’s a weaker cycle than what we have seen throughout the Space Age.”

A grand minimum wouldn’t mean much to the average Earthling, safely enveloped by our home world’s magnetic field. But for those few souls who may venture beyond the magnetosphere, which extends about 40,000 miles toward the sun and 370,000 miles in the other direction, it would be a different story. Research has shown that exposure to space radiation (in all forms, including from the sun itself) increases astronauts’ risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer later in life. Younger astronauts are particularly susceptible, and women are more likely to get lung, breast, and thyroid cancer.

To date, only the 24 Americans who flew the Apollo moon missions from 1969 to 1972 have ever left the magnetosphere, but they didn’t encounter particularly ferocious radiation baths. “You look at the life span of the average American, and the Apollo astronauts exceed that,” says J.D. Polk, NASA’s chief health and medical officer. Those who didn’t die in accidents “lived into very old age.” Thirteen are still around. During a grand minimum, though, the level of galactic radiation would be as much as 30 percent higher than usual, leaving would-be astronauts that much more exposed. Moreover, government space agencies and private companies such as Blue Origin and SpaceX have ambitious notions of getting humans to the moon and beyond, for longer periods of time and soon.

NASA, which is hoping to send astronauts back to the moon in 2023 and Mars after that, established career limits for radiation starting in 1970. “We will more than likely exceed that for a fair percentage of the crew going to Mars and back,” says Polk. Eddie Semones, radiation health physicist for NASA at the Johnson Space Center in Houston, says that having ships with resilient and well-configured materials will be important. The agency already knows how fierce the galaxy can be, thanks to its experience with the Voyager probes, launched in 1977 and now far beyond the sun’s magnetic shield. Voyager 1 entered interstellar space in 2012 and is now hurtling along 13.2 billion miles from Earth and counting, while Voyager 2 has passed 10.9 billion. “We know what the field is out there,” Semones says. “That is the worst it would be.”

The Orion, the ship NASA wants to use for its proposed moon mission, was built with integrated warning systems. At a meeting in Westminster, Colo., in April, solar scientists got a preview of how a live crew might fare in the event of a radiation spike. A short video clip revealed a warning system that’s both toddler-certified and scientifically sound: Following an alarm, crew members would empty the Orion’s closets of equipment, then climb inside and pile as much stuff as possible onto themselves. The expected exposure level could drop by half, Semones says, if “you’re hunkered down low near the heat shield in the compartment in the stowage bays.” The mission could continue, though the future health risks would remain.

Just how big a problem cosmic radiation will be is an open question. Schwadron’s grand minimum theory has gained some traction among scholars, if not wide acceptance. At the meeting of solar scientists in Colorado, McIntosh asked those who supported the hypothesis to raise their hands. His own hand shot up in support, as did a few others’, but most in the audience were skeptical. Grand minimums are easier to observe than to predict.

They’ve also become a sensitive topic, thanks to an event known as the Maunder Minimum, which took place from 1645 to 1715, according to extrapolations of measurements from the day. Some contemporary opponents of policies to address climate change have argued that the Maunder Minimum caused a mini-ice age in Europe around that time. They argue that a similar event today would drastically drop Earth’s temperatures, and so the universe has us covered. Schwadron says he wouldn’t make that bet. “There has not been any definitive evidence that the cold climate in Europe was caused by the Maunder Minimum,” he points out.

We may know more about whether a grand minimum has arrived by the mid-2020s, when the current sunspot cycle reaches its expected peak. Lisa Simonsen, a space radiation element scientist at NASA, says that if one comes to pass, the agency can plan for it. The missions would simply be designed and tested based on whatever conditions might be encountered. NASA does have a few potential tricks up its sleeve, beyond the duck-and-cover method. Advanced materials called hydrogenated boron nitride nanotubes, or hydrogenated BNNTs, could be used to improve shielding. The agency has also considered whether magnetic force fields can be formed around ships.

There could even be some advantage to a grand minimum. Cosmic rays are fairly stable—and therefore predictable—over long periods of time; high sunspot levels, by contrast, can mean spikes in solar radiation, including possible coronal mass ejections. Such ejections come with little advance warning, and for a crew in outer space, one would likely be an emergency in the making. Cosmic radiation is the devil NASA can know.
 

mkrnhr

SuperModerator
Moderator
FOTCM Member
#27
Another aspect of solar activity: The Sun Is Spitting Out Strange Patterns of Gamma Rays--and No One Knows Why

To their surprise, the researchers found the most intense gamma rays appear strangely synced with the quietest part of the solar cycle. During the last solar minimum, from 2008 to 2009, Fermi detected eight high-energy gamma rays (each with energies greater than 100 giga–electron volts, or GeV) emitted by the sun. But over the next eight years, as solar activity built to a peak and then regressed back toward quiescence, the sun emitted no high-energy gamma rays at all.
and then:

But Linden and his colleagues also discovered another curiosity entirely unpredicted by earlier ideas: During solar minimum, most gamma rays above 50 GeV are emitted near the sun’s equator, but throughout the rest of the cycle they tend to come from the polar regions. That means the sun’s total gamma-ray emission is most intense along its equator at solar minimum and at its poles during maximum.
 

thorbiorn

The Living Force
FOTCM Member
#28
Found a presentation of
"What's Wrong with Earth's Magnetic Field?"
It also explains the influence of the South Atlantic Anomaly and why the Earth in some places is exposed to more cosmic radiation
Cosmic Ray’s Starlight Cafe

What was that article awhile back about energy pouring into our universe from a higher dimension? When asked the Cs said “the Wave has begun in earnest!”
Could it be this from December 2017: Study: Cosmic rays trigger climate change on Earth by increasing cloud cover -- Sott.net or this from March 2018? Galactic cosmic rays hitting Earth are 'bad and getting worse' -- Sott.net or Is there a connection between cosmic rays, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions? -- Sott.net
 

mabar

The Living Force
FOTCM Member
#29
what may mean being orange?
https://www.livescience.com/64027-orange-earth-airglow.html said:
Ghostly Orange Light Envelopes Earth During Rare Airglow
An eerie, marmalade-colored light show made Earth look like a gigantic orange lollipop, prompting an astronaut aboard the International Space Station to snap a photo of it on Oct. 7. And yesterday, NASA shared the glorious shot with Earthlings down below.

The enveloping orange hue is known as airglow — a mesmerizing luminescence caused by chemical reactions high in Earth's atmosphere, NASA reported. This ghostly glow usually happens when ultraviolet radiation from sunlight energizes molecules of nitrogen, oxygen, sodium and ozone in the atmosphere. These energized molecules then bump into each other and lose energy as they collide, resulting in a faint but spectacular afterglow, NASA said.

Airglow is best seen at night, as it's 1 billion times fainter than sunlight, NASA said. This particular photo was taken at an altitude of more than 250 miles (about 400 kilometers) above Australia. [Earth Pictures: Iconic Images of Earth from Space]

The radiating blush, also known as chemiluminescence, is comparable to glowing chemical reactions here on Earth, including those seen in children's toys such as glow sticks and glow-in-the-dark silly putty, NASA added.

But airglow is more than an entrancing light attraction. It can also teach scientists about the workings of the upper atmosphere. For instance, it can shed light on how particles near the interface of Earth and space move, including how space weather and Earth weather are connected, NASA said.

Researchers are already using satellites — such as NASA's Ionospheric Connection Explorer (ICON) — to study this dynamic zone.
Although this airglow emanated orange, the phenomenon isn't always the color of the snack food Doritos. In 2016, a photographer in the Azores islands in the Atlantic Ocean took a photo of a rainbow-colored airglow, according to Space.com, a sister site of Live Science.
Originally published on Live Science.
 

Attachments

mabar

The Living Force
FOTCM Member
#30
http://www.spaceweather.com/ said:
TREMORS IN EARTH'S MAGNETIC FIELD

Solar wind flowing from a hole in the sun's atmosphere has been buffeting Earth's magnetic field since Nov. 9th, sparking polar auroras and geomagnetic "quakes." Stuart Green detected the tremors from his private magnetic observatory in Preston, Lancashire, UK:

"The solar wind delivered a double blow, moving magnetometer needles around the globe," reports Green. "The first wave arrived on November 9th at approximately 18:00 UT and lasted for 4.5 hrs. The second wave arrived almost 24 hrs later. It was less geoeffective than the first, although no less spectacular according to the beautiful images of the aurora being submitted to Saceweather.com."

The squiggles in Green's chart represent changes in the local magnetic field caused by the buffeting of solar wind high overhead. "The sensor is buried in my garden about 0.5 meters below the surface in an East/West orientation," he explains. "This allows very sensitive (sub nanotesla) measurements of magnetic declination during geomagnetic storms. The plot shows the change in magnetic flux density in nanotesla occurring between readings every few minutes."

https://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2010/27jul_spacequakes said:
Spacequakes Rumble Near Earth

Researchers using NASA's fleet of five THEMIS spacecraft have discovered a form of space weather that packs the punch of an earthquake and plays a key role in sparking bright Northern Lights. They call it "the spacequake."

...

A spacequake is a temblor in Earth's magnetic field. It is felt most strongly in Earth orbit, but is not exclusive to space. The effects can reach all the way down to the surface of Earth itself.


"Magnetic reverberations have been detected at ground stations all around the globe, much like seismic detectors measure a large earthquake," says THEMIS principal investigator Vassilis Angelopoulos of UCLA.


It's an apt analogy because "the total energy in a spacequake can rival that of a magnitude 5 or 6 earthquake," according to Evgeny Panov of the Space Research Institute in Austria. Panov is first author of a paper reporting the results in the April 2010 issue of Geophysical Research Letters (GRL).


In 2007, THEMIS discovered the precursors of spacequakes. The action begins in Earth's magnetic tail, which is stretched out like a windsock by the million mph solar wind. Sometimes the tail can become so stretched and tension-filled, it snaps back like an over-torqued rubber band. Solar wind plasma trapped in the tail hurtles toward Earth. On more than one occasion, the five THEMIS spacecraft were in the line of fire when these "plasma jets" swept by. Clearly, the jets were going to hit Earth. But what would happen then? The fleet moved closer to the planet to find out.

"Now we know," says THEMIS project scientist David Sibeck of the Goddard Space Flight Center. "Plasma jets trigger spacequakes."



During a spacequake, Earth's magnetic field shakes in a way that is analogous to the shaking of the ground during an earthquake. Image credit: Evgeny Panov, Space Research Institute of Austria.

According to THEMIS, the jets crash into the geomagnetic field some 30,000 km above Earth's equator. The impact sets off a rebounding process, in which the incoming plasma actually bounces up and down on the reverberating magnetic field. Researchers call it "repetitive flow rebuffing." It's akin to a tennis ball bouncing up and down on a carpeted floor. The first bounce is a big one, followed by bounces of decreasing amplitude as energy is dissipated in the carpet.

"We've long suspected that something like this was happening," says Sibeck. "By observing the process in situ, however, THEMIS has discovered something new and surprising."

The surprise is plasma vortices, huge whirls of magnetized gas as wide as Earth itself, spinning on the verge of the quaking magnetic field.



A THEMIS map of plasma flows during a spacequake. The axes are labeled in Earth radii, so each swirl is about the size of Earth.

"When plasma jets hit the inner magnetosphere, vortices with opposite sense of rotation appear and reappear on either side of the plasma jet," explains Rumi Nakamura of the Space Research Institute in Austria, a co-author of the study. "We believe the vortices can generate substantial electrical currents in the near-Earth environment."


Acting together, vortices and spacequakes could have a noticeable effect on Earth. The tails of vortices may funnel particles into Earth's atmosphere, sparking auroras and making waves of ionization that disturb radio communications and GPS. By tugging on surface magnetic fields, spacequakes generate currents in the very ground we walk on. Ground current surges can have profound consequences, in extreme cases bringing down power grids over a wide area.


After THEMIS discovered the jets and quakes, Joachim Birn of the Los Alamos National Lab in New Mexico conducted a computer simulation of the rebounding process. Lo and behold, vortices appeared in good accord with THEMIS measurements. Moreover, the simulations suggest that the rebounding process can be seen from Earth's surface in the form of ripples and whirls in auroral displays. Ground stations report just such a phenomenon.

"It's a complicated process, but it all fits together," says Sibeck.

The work isn't finished. "We still have a lot to learn," he adds. "How big can spacequakes become? How many vortices can swirl around Earth at once--and how do they interact with one another?"
 
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