Session 30 January 2010

Gaby

SuperModerator
Moderator
FOTCM Member
Here is more info on the spindle cells:

_http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spindle_neuron

Spindle neurons, also called von Economo neurons (VENs), are a specific class of neurons that participate in signal transmission in the nervous system, and are characterized by a large spindle-shaped soma, gradually tapering into a single apical axon in one direction, with only a single dendrite facing opposite. Whereas other types of neurons tend to have many dendrites, the polar shaped morphology of spindle neurons is unique. They are found in two very restricted regions in the brains of hominids - the family of species comprising humans and other great apes. Spindle cells are also found in the brains of the humpback whales, fin whales, killer whales and sperm whales [1][2], bottlenose dolphin, Risso’s dolphin, beluga whales[3] and in the brains of African and Asian elephants.[4] The name von Economo neuron comes from their discoverer, Constantin von Economo (1876-1931).

Function of spindle neurons

Spindle neurons are relatively enormous cells that refract waves of neural signals as they are transmitted from one region of the brain to other regions. Spindle neurons have been implicated by scientists as having an important role in many cognitive abilities and disabilities generally unique to humans, ranging from savant perceptiveness and perfect pitch to dyslexia and autism. While rare in comparison to other neurons, spindle neurons are most abundant, and largest, in humans; they have only been found thus far in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the frontoinsular cortex (FI). They have also been found in the great apes, and more recently in whales and elephants.

Spindle cells appear to play a central role in the development of intelligent behavior and adaptive response to changing conditions and cognitive dissonance. They emerge postnatally and eventually become widely connected with diverse parts of the brain, indicating their essential contributions to the superior capacity of hominids to focus on difficult problems. Evidence of the importance of their role has been established through single-neuron recording, electrical stimulation, and lesion studies

...

ACC spindle neurons

In 1999, Professor John Allman, a neuroscientist, and colleagues at the California Institute of Technology first published a report on spindle neurons found in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) of hominids, but not in any other species. Neuronal volumes of ACC spindle neurons were larger in humans and the gracile chimpanzees than the spindle neurons of the robust gorillas and orangutans.

Allman and his colleagues have delved beyond the level of brain infrastructure to investigate how spindle neurons function at the superstructural level, focusing on their role as 'air traffic controllers' for emotions. Allman's team reports that spindle neurons help channel neural signals from deep within the cortex to relatively distant parts of the brain.

Specifically, Allman's team found signals from the ACC are received in Brodmann's area 10, in the frontal polar cortex, where regulation of cognitive dissonance (disambiguation between alternatives) is thought to occur. According to Allman, this neural relay appears to convey motivation to act, and concerns the recognition of error. Self-control - and avoidance of error - is thus facilitated by the executive gatekeeping function of the ACC, as it regulates the interference patterns of neural signals between these two brain regions.

In humans, intense emotion activates the anterior cingulate cortex, as it relays neural signals transmitted from the amygdala (a primary processing center for emotions) to the frontal cortex, perhaps by functioning as a sort of lens to focus the complex texture of neural signal interference patterns. The ACC is also active during demanding tasks requiring judgment and discrimination, and when errors are detected by an individual. During difficult tasks, or when experiencing intense love, anger, or lust, activation of the ACC increases. In brain imaging studies, the ACC has specifically been found to be active when mothers hear infants cry, underscoring its role in affording a heightened degree of social sensitivity.

The ACC is a relatively ancient cortical region, is involved with many autonomic functions, including motor and digestive functions, while also playing a role in the regulation of blood pressure and heart rate. Significant olfactory and gustatory capabilities of the ACC and frontoinsular cortex appear to have been usurped, during recent evolution, to serve enhanced roles related to higher cognition - ranging from planning and self awareness to role playing and deception. The diminished olfactory function of humans, compared to other primates, may be related to the fact that spindle cells located at crucial neural network hubs have only two dendrites rather than many, resulting in reduced neurological integration.

Frontoinsular spindle neurons

At a Society for Neuroscience meeting in 2003, Allman reported on spindle cells his team found in another brain region, the frontoinsular cortex, a region which appears to have undergone significant evolutionary adaptations in mankind - perhaps as recently as 100,000 years ago.

This frontoinsular cortex is closely connected to the insula, a region that is roughly the size of a thumb in each hemisphere of the human brain. The insula and frontoinsular cortex are part of the orbitofrontal cortex, wherein the elaborate circuitry associated with spatial awareness and the sense of touch are found, and where self awareness and the complexities of emotion are thought to be generated and experienced. Moreover, this region of the right hemisphere is crucial to navigation and perception of three dimensional rotations.
[edit] Spindle neuron concentrations

[edit] ACC

The largest number of ACC spindle neurons are found in humans, fewer in the gracile great apes; and fewest in the robust great apes. In both humans and bonobos they are often found in clusters of 3 to 6 neurons. In decreasing order of abundance, they are found in humans, bonobos, common chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans. While total quantities of ACC spindle neurons were not reported by Allman in his seminal research report (as they were in a later report describing their presence in the frontoinsular cortex, below), his team's initial analysis of the ACC layer V in hominids revealed an average of ~9 spindle neurons per section for orangutans (rare, 0.6% of section cells), ~22 for gorillas (frequent, 2.3%), ~37 for chimpanzees (abundant, 3.8%), ~68 for bonobos (abundant/clusters, 4.8%), ~89 for humans (abundant/clusters, 5.6%).
[edit] Frontoinsula

All of the primates examined had more spindle cells in the frontoinsula of the right hemisphere than in the left. In contrast to the higher number of spindle cells found in the ACC of the gracile bonobos and chimpanzees, the number of frontoinsular spindle cells was far higher in the cortex of robust gorillas (no data for Orangutans was given). An adult human had 82,855 such cells, a gorilla had 16,710, a bonobo had 2,159, and a chimpanzee had a mere 1,808 - despite the fact that chimpanzees and bonobos are great apes most closely related to humans.

[edit] Related pathologies

Abnormal spindle neuron development may be linked to several psychotic disorders, typically those characterized by distortions of reality, disturbances of thought, disturbances of language and withdrawal from social contact. Altered spindle neuron states have been implicated in both schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease, but research into these correlations remains at a very early stage.

Abnormalities in the physiological activity and anatomy of the anterior cingulate cortex are present in most of the major neuropsychiatric disorders. Allman's team has reported reduced ACC size and metabolic activity in autistic patients, as revealed in structural MRI and PET studies, and activity of the ACC is also reduced in patients, mostly boys, diagnosed with attention deficit disorder, characterized by behavioral and learning disorders.[citation needed]

Studies in humans indicate spindle cells are especially vulnerable to degeneration in Alzheimer's disease, with a loss of approximately 60 percent of ACC spindle neurons. Spindle cells also appear to be targeted in frontotemporal dementia.[5]
 

Renaissance

Ambassador
Ambassador
FOTCM Member
My jaw dropped when I read the numbers of psychopaths in the US and other countries. I thought it would be a bit higher than 6% but my god. :jawdrop: No wonder the world is in the state it's in.

Thanks for the session!!
 

Buddy

The Living Force
[quote author=transcript]

(Belibaste) We wanted to know the percentage of psychopaths geographically speaking, like in the US, Israel, UK.

(L) Alright, let's take them one at a time.

(Belibaste) USA?

A: 23 percent.
[/quote]

OMG!

The United States has a total resident population of 308,586,000.
U.S. Census Bureau. _http://www.census.gov/main/www/popclock.html. Retrieved 2008-04-29.
_http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demographics_of_the_United_States


Georgia population = 9,685,744 * 23% = 2,227,721 (approx. # of psychopaths in my home state). Assuming the bulk of the populations in major cities and suburban areas, that's still around one of every 5 or 6 people as a statistical average probability. Even with a very conservative estimate that places a huge segment of the total U.S. population in Texas and California, I could say that one of every ten or twelve people around me could still be potential psychopaths.

That's still a scary thought.

If the Haiti earthquake was an induced earthquake, then I wonder if that 1995 Steven Segall movie was a sort of 'clue' concerning the possible existence of actual related satellite technology:

Plot Summary for Under Siege 2: Dark Territory:
_http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0114781/plotsummary


Thanks for posting that session.
 
R

Rick

Guest
By the way, the eustatic sea level change curve might offer some insight into changes to the solar system. Rhodes Fairbridge showed that the variation in the sun's center of gravity is correlated with the rise and fall of sea level. From the curve itself you can make out ~25 million year cycle before 250 million years ago. After that it's hard to discern. You'd have to do a time series analysis on the data.
 

Snow

Jedi Master
Laura said:
(Belibaste) In the past, was there a country with a higher percentage?

A: Low Countries.
Laura said:
(Joe) When they said the low countries, did they all leave the low countries and go to England?

A: USA and South Africa

Q: (Ailén) What about Holland?

(L) That's the low countries.

(Ailén) But that was in the past...

(L) Oh, you mean at present?

A: Still high

Q: (L) Are you going to give us a number on that?

A: 13
Oh boy 13 percent. That’s almost 2,1 million Dutch people! No wonder things are getting more crazy by the minute over here… :(
 
G

Gertrudes

Guest
Thank you for sharing the session Laura!

(Joe) When they said, "notice how no one is arguing with them now", does that mean that most major nations in the world are aware that this was a...

A: Yes

Q: (Joe) Good way to shut people up.
I don't know what is more shocking, an induced earthquake, or the fact that major nations knew!!
 

Mark7

Jedi Council Member
FOTCM Member
I was under the impression that the standard number of psychopaths in the general population was around 2% of women and 5% of men. 23% ! wow, scary. I can believe it when considering the conversations I heard at work. Much talk of "dropping A-bombs on them evil Ayrabs" and how torturing "terrorists" is such a good idea. Of course, some of that is probably normal people repeating what they hear/see in the media like radios receiving a broadcast... that's what they seem to resonate with however.

I usually mention the fact that we have killed over 1.2 million Iraqis, and they did not have anything to do with 911 when I hear such talk but all I get back is silence.

I wonder if the percentages of psychopaths in the US and elsewhere have risen recently due to the machinations of 4D STS, How long has this number been this high? Are Psychopaths being "seeded" into the population or are organic portals being pushed over the edge with some sort of technology? or both, or what?
 

Nautilus

The Force is Strong With This One
Laura said:
I've introduced a new "style" in this session: giving some of those present their forum names for familiarity.

Q: (Ailén) China?

A: 0.9


Q: (Ailén) Well, there are so many people in China...
1.3 billion people and only 0.9%... That's interesting.

Thank you for the new session!
 

Laura

Administrator
Administrator
Moderator
FOTCM Member
Gotnoscript said:
By the way, the eustatic sea level change curve might offer some insight into changes to the solar system. Rhodes Fairbridge showed that the variation in the sun's center of gravity is correlated with the rise and fall of sea level. From the curve itself you can make out ~25 million year cycle before 250 million years ago. After that it's hard to discern. You'd have to do a time series analysis on the data.
Thanks. I've got a nutty book on my desk that I've been reading: "Not by Fire but by Ice" by a whacko named Robert W. Felix. He's undoubtedly nuts, but he's collected some interesting data together. You might want to take a look at it. Just ignore him when he is pretending to think. (Actually, he could be deliberate disinfo.)
 

celtic

Jedi Master
(L) I have a question. I've been waiting for somebody to ask it, but since nobody is going to ask it, I want to ask it: Was the Haiti earthquake an induced earthquake, or was it totally natural?

A: (Planchette swirls on board) INDUCED! Bet you didn't expect that, did you?!
Wow this is a surprise to me I had a good feeling the government may had something to do
with this earthquake. When I was looking at the video of the earthquake occuring it looked
looked almost like some form of vibratory wave was causing the ground to shack.
 

dannybananny

Jedi Council Member
Thanks for session :)

23%...... That number blows my mind. Scared
What about Israel 42 per cent, I was surprised, not that you can not see that psychopaths rule this country but almost half of it's people are psychopath, and it means that other 58 per cent are deep under they influence not to mention that there are OP, really sick nation indeed, no wonder everyone sees it!
 

Vulcan59

SuperModerator
Moderator
FOTCM Member
Thanks for the session. :) Very surprising response to the Haiti earthquake and the percentage of psychopaths questions.

Hi lateo, you could read up on the OP thread to get some answers.
 

Masamune

Jedi Council Member
FOTCM Member
It is scary to know that one in four people around me (US) may be a psychopath (or higher because I live in a big city) and that psychopaths have the power to create earthquakes and devastate a country of their choosing...

Thanks for the session! :flowers:
 
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