Six galaxies undergoing sudden, dramatic transitions

Kisito

Jedi Council Member
Vos montres semblent-elles ralentir? Cela a commencé avec mon horloge de travail et maintenant ma montre.🤓
 
A team of astronomers observed six mild-mannered LINER galaxies suddenly and surprisingly transforming into ravenous quasars -- home to the brightest of all active galactic nuclei. The team reported their observations, which could help demystify the nature of both LINERs and quasars while answering some burning questions about galactic evolution, in the Astrophysical Journal on September 18, 2019. Based on their analysis, the researchers suggest they have discovered an entirely new type of black hole activity at the centers of these six LINER galaxies.
A: What do you think about the ”new” explosion 3 to 4 billion light years away? They think, that is.

{Here it seems the Cs are referring to recent news of an explosion that is going on in the center of a small galaxy said to be 3.8 billion light-years away. See: [...]


“Astronomers say they have never seen anything this bright, long-lasting and variable before. Usually gamma-ray bursts mark the end of a massive star and emission from these events never lasts more than a few hours. But radiation from the blast continues to brighten and fade from the location a week after the explosion.”
And: “Rather than the short-lived gamma-ray bursts typically associated with the death of a massive star -- most last no more than a few hours -- this explosion continues more than a week later to emanate pulses of high-energy cosmic radiation for an effect that's brighter, longer lasting, and more variable than scientists have ever seen.”}

Q: (L) Are you saying that it’s not as far away as they’re saying it is?

A: Yes.

Q: (L) What is it representing? What is it doing?

A: The wave has begun in earnest!

Q: (L) What do you mean?

A: Energy is pouring into your universe from higher densities.


About quasars, complementing the Cs' quote above, Session 21 March 2015:

Q: (L) [Reads questions from the forum - Objective questions on all - part I and II] "Some scientific theory states that quasars are black holes, is this correct?"

A: No

Q: (L) "If not, what really are the quasars, these celestial objects which are a fraction of a galaxy but shine more than a whole galaxy and run at speeds near the light velocity at the confines of the visible universe?"

A: Transdensity portals of energy.
 
If we could find more data about these galaxies like even the aproximate distance fron the first one that start changing to the last one, the sixth one then we could find some aproximate distance. Then we know that these changes occured in about 9 months, we can calculate the speed.
Lets suppose this is the Wave that Cs were talking about, maybe we can know its speed. I know that the Wave is not just a phisical wave, and it is not only on a 3d plane, that it is much more complex.
Just quick thought that came to my mind while reading this article and this thread.:huh:

On this page there is a button to download this pdf which contains the names of the objects if I'm not mistaken.

On page 4 of that pdf there is this table of "basic data" (:shock:) about the objects, perhaps Konstantin or someone else can make sense of it?

1569278634492.png
 

WIN 52

The Living Force
A bit more about Alice.

Could the rollout of 5G be the catalyst that sets the dna changes in motion? Just trying to connect a couple of dots here. The C's say not to worry. Basically we have nothing to worry about except dying prematurely. Address those personal health issues and don't sweat the big picture.
 

SlavaOn

Jedi Master
The following list is compiled from the article. The galaxies are sorted by the order when "changing-look" was noticed. A Lasair galaxy catalogue references some coordinates but I have no idea how to interpret them and figure out their relative positions. Maybe someone could take it further?

Host galaxy Changing-look Started
(E) ZTF18aaabltn April 2016
Object has 50 candidates, at mean position:
(RA, Dec) = (124.360084, 10.202799)
(RA, Dec) = (08:17:26.420, 10:12:10.077)
(l, b) = (213.359534, 23.690883)

(C) ZTF18aahiqfi Sept 2017
404 error

(D) ZTF18aaidlyq after Sept 2017
Object has 12 candidates, at mean position:
(RA, Dec) = (138.879320, 48.235501)
(RA, Dec) = (09:15:31.037, 48:14:7.805)
(l, b) = (170.922825, 43.528497)

(A) ZTF18aajupnt/AT2018dyk before March 2018
Object has 59 candidates, at mean position:
(RA, Dec) = (233.283453, 44.535658)
(RA, Dec) = (15:33:8.029, 44:32:8.367)
(l, b) = (72.115962, 53.393557)

(B) ZTF18aasuray May 10, 2018
Object has 88 candidates, at mean position:
(RA, Dec) = (173.483108, 67.018640)
(RA, Dec) = (11:33:55.946, 67:01:7.102)
(l, b) = (134.178696, 48.382161)

(F) ZTF18aasszwr July 2018
Object has 111 candidates, at mean position:
(RA, Dec) = (186.459673, 51.146212)
(RA, Dec) = (12:25:50.322, 51:08:46.364)
(l, b) = (132.638436, 65.496869)
 

Wandering Star

Dagobah Resident
On the "new era" internet, people say that time is accelerating, that the day is "very fast", as if they had fewer hours.

For the past several years, the exact opposite has happened to me. Especially this last year.

For me, every month is very long, it is endless.

If I have noticed something, time is slower.

Surely "conscience" has something to do with this "perception."

Very interesting what happened with these galaxies.
 

Persej

The Living Force
FOTCM Member
Q: (L) [Reads questions from the forum - Objective questions on all - part I and II] "Some scientific theory states that quasars are black holes, is this correct?"

A: No

Q: (L) "If not, what really are the quasars, these celestial objects which are a fraction of a galaxy but shine more than a whole galaxy and run at speeds near the light velocity at the confines of the visible universe?"

A: Transdensity portals of energy.

So, if quasars are transdensity portals of energy, and the Wave is pouring energy from higher densities, and we know have six more quasars in our universe... that all sounds to me that the Wave is intensifying.
 

Persej

The Living Force
FOTCM Member
Another mysterious explosion in the universe:


For the first time, astrophysicists have observed a cosmic explosion emit particles that are a trillion times more energetic than visible light, a record-setting measurement from a phenomenon that scientists are still seeking to fully understand.

The observation of this powerful gamma-ray burst (GRB), as these explosions are known, adds another layer to what scientists think happens when a star implodes. The findings were published on November 20 in two papers in the journal Nature.

When a star dies, its insides no longer support its own mass, and it crashes upon itself. This self-collision compresses the star's core into a neutron star or a black hole, while generating explosions that produce a supernova. These explosions are GRBs, and they produce short-lived jets of extremely energetic light. GRBs may also occur when two neutron stars collide. They happen on a daily basis, and release as much energy in a few seconds as our Sun will emit in its entire 10 billion years of life. Until now, however, no telescope had observed a GRB emit photons (light particles) on the order of a teraelectronvolt, or TeV.

"Such a strong signal has never been measured in ground-based gamma ray astronomy — this is the first time," said Razmik Mirzoyan, the spokesperson and senior astrophysicist of the MAGIC collaboration, the group that manages the telescopes that made the observation. (...)

Astrophysicists had been searching for TeV photons from GRBs for decades, Moretti said, and this observation was due to a mix of luck and preparation.

The burst came from a progenitor star that was 4.5 billion light-years away, according to the studies — relatively close, astronomically speaking. The farther away high-energy particles are from Earth, the more likely they are to be absorbed by extragalactic background light and not reach our telescopes.

After verifying that the GRB observed emitted photons in the TeV range, scientists realized the process used to explain and model these bursts could not account for such a high energy. Instead, Moretti said they are nearly certain that the emitted photons were raised to a TeV-level energy after colliding with nearby electrons.


 

SlavaOn

Jedi Master
Wave is pouring energy from higher densities

Maybe this was already answered... A wave needs a medium to propagate within. Like the sound waves need at least a density of gas and the ocean waves - water. A light wave, according to the consensus of modern scientists, does not need any medium, since it has "dual nature"; i.e. when it wants it is a bunch of photons (particles) which zoom through the vast emptiness of space at the light speed... According to another theory (that I agree with), there exists an ether and there is no duality of light. So, the light wave is the movement of the ether medium and we see its front propagating through 3D space.

So, which is the Wave then?
- it has "dual nature" wave/particle and doesn't need a medium;
- a wave that travels in ether and manifests in 3D;
- a wave that travels in another medium. Which one?
 

itellsya

SuperModerator
Moderator
FOTCM Member
Just to note, because i don't believe it's been posted yet. An article from the 9th of December reports that Betelgeuse, a usually bright star in the Orion constellation, has dimmed significantly.

The reason behind this recent dimming, from what i could find online - and i don't exactly know much about this kind of thing - one guy says something about it's periodicity, and maybe the coming together of those cycles, another says it could be due to an emission of gas obscuring it's usual brightness.

It also apparently led some to assume that it's about to go supernova, because apparently it will at some point, but the official estimate is that it has at least another 100,000 years before that happens.

It reminds me of the recent news that some stars in the night sky previously catalogued have 'disappeared'.

Physics in Sweden and the Institute for Astrophysics on the Canary Islands reports something strange in the current issue of The Astronomical Journal. They compared star maps from the 1950s with recent surveys, and discovered that 100 previously catalogued stars cannot be found anymore.

The group's project, called Vanishing and Appearing Sources during a Century of Observations (VASCO) has been comparing mapped stars listed in the U.S. Naval Observatory Catalogue (USNO) B 1.0, dating from the 1950s, with those in another, more recent sky catalog, the Pan-STARRS Data Release (DR1). A total of 150,000 objects were found in the older catalogue (which lists 600 million stars) that did not have a readily identifiable counterpart in the new star survey, even though the Pan-STARRS Data Release includes stars that are five times less bright than the faintest light sources included in USNO. Of these 150,000 anomalies, the authors visually inspected 24,000 candidates and discovered that 100 of these point sources of light appear only in the older star survey. And since then, apparently, they've vanished.

The article on Betelgeuse:

Betelgeuse Is “Fainting” But It's Not About To Explode. Probably

By Stephen Luntz
09 Dec 2019, 17:32

1577042601361.png

A ripple of excitement is passing through the community of astronomers, both amateur and professional, at reports that Betelgeuse has dimmed significantly over recent days. Those who study the star most closely are hosing down the idea the world is about to experience perhaps the greatest event in the history of astronomy, but that doesn't mean there isn't something interesting going on.
To understand the fuss it is necessary to know that Betelgeuse, the deep red star in Orion's shoulder is a red supergiant with a mass large enough that it will inevitably become a supernova one day. Moreover, given its development, that day will be soon, by astronomical standards.

When this occurs, it will be a truly awe-inspiring sight. Betelgeuse is conveniently placed, far enough away there will be no danger to Earth, but close enough that its brightness will be breathtaking, possibly outshining the full Moon.

While there are several nearby stars that will eventually become supernovae, Betelgeuse probably heads the queue. There is general agreement its maximum life expectancy is less than a million years, and one study estimates its remaining life at 100,000. An explosion in our lifetimes is not likely, but more credible than for fellow supergiants like Antares or Spica.

Consequently, the report of a sudden dip in brightness, referred to as a “fainting”, hasn't been received quite the way it would have with any other star. Nevertheless, two explanations have been offered, each more likely than the possibility this is a prelude to stellar Armageddon.

The first point astronomers have noted is that Betelgeuse is a variable star, whose brightness is constantly changing. Although recent measurements have it fainter than anything previously recorded, we know it is operating on multiple cycles. When the minimums of each cycle come together, the star will look particularly faint, but will brighten soon after.


Alternatively, with a stellar wind ordinarily a million times that of the Sun, Betelgeuse could have ejected more dust than usual, obscuring it enough to cause the dimming.

Either way, establishing the explanation should be fun, but not that much fun.

Meanwhile, the nearby supernova drought continues. A galaxy the size of the Milky Way would normally have around one supernova every 100 years. Yet not has been seen since the invention of the telescope, the last occurring in 1604. The only supernova visible to the naked eye since then occurred 32 years ago in the Large Magellanic Cloud, a hundred times more distant than Betelgeuse, and astronomers are still writing papers on what they saw.

Oh well, at least we get to marvel a little longer at a star so bloated Jupiter's whole orbit would fit inside. And there is always Eta Carinae.


 
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itellsya

SuperModerator
Moderator
FOTCM Member
An update on Betelgeuse, according to Universetoday.com, published on 23rd January: it's the faintest it has ever been recorded ( with the most accurate records going back 25 years), dimming by 25%; dimming has slowed; it has 'swollen' by 9%; and dropped in temperature by 100 Kelvin (since September 2019).

Apparently of the known dimming cycles which it undergoes, the longest is 5-6 years, so if it is a cycle, it's not one they're aware of and would probably need to be more than 25 years long - even longer when taking into account less accurate visual estimates which go back 180 years.

It seems no one claims to know know what exactly is happening, there's still speculation that it could be that it's being obscured by a 'cloud' but then would that explain the other changing data?

Article below, plus a 10 minute video (from December 27th, so it's old info) on the topic for anyone interested:

Betelgeuse faintest ever recorded, 'swollen' by 9%


Evan Gough, Universe Today
Phys.org
Thu, 23 Jan 2020 12:00 UTC






Betelgeuse
© ESO
This picture of the dramatic nebula around the bright red supergiant star Betelgeuse was created from images taken with the VISIR infrared camera on ESO’s Very Large Telescope (VLT). This structure, resembling flames emanating from the star, forms because the behemoth is shedding its material into space. The small red circle in the middle has a diameter about four and half times that of the Earth’s orbit and represents the location of Betelgeuse’s visible surface. The black disc corresponds to a very bright part of the image that was masked to allow the fainter nebula to be seen.

Betelgeuse keeps getting dimmer, and everyone is wondering what exactly that means. The star will go supernova at the end of its life, but that's not projected to happen for tens of thousands of years or so. So what's causing the dimming?

Villanova University astronomers Edward Guinan and Richard Wasatonic were the first to report Betelgeuse's recent dimming. In a new post on The Astronomer's Telegram, the pair of astronomers report a further dimming of Betelgeuse. They also point out that although the star is still dimming, its rate of dimming is slowing.

Betelgeuse is a red supergiant star in the constellation Orion. It left the main sequence about 1 million years ago, and has been a red supergiant for about 40,000 years. It's a core-collapse SN II progenitor, which means that eventually, Betelgeuse will burn enough of its hydrogen that its core will collapse and it will explode as a supernova.

It's known as a semi-regular variable star, which means its brightness is variable. One of its cycles is about 420 days long, and another is about five or six years. A third cycle is shorter; about 100 to 180 days. Though most of its fluctuations are predictable and follow these cycles, some of them are not, like the current dimming.

Astronomers have been monitoring Betelgeuse for a long time. Visual estimates of the star go back about 180 years, and since the 1920s, the American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO) have taken more systematic measurements. About 40 years ago, astronomers at Villanova University began taking systematic photometric measurements of Betelgeuse's brightness. The photometry data from the last 25 years is the most thorough, and according to that data the star is as dim as it's ever been.

According to Guinan and Wasatonic's post on Astronomer's Telegram, Betelgeuse's temperature has dropped by 100 Kelvin since September 2019, and its luminosity has dropped by nearly 25 percent in the same time frame. According to all of those measurements, the star's radius has grown by about 9 percent. This swelling is expected as Betelgeuse ages.

In a way, we're lucky to have Betelgeuse so close by, in astronomical terms, at least. It's only about 650 light years away, and that makes it a great teacher. It's the only star other than our sun on which we can see surface details. That helps astrophysicists understand what's happening there, and on other similar stars.

Like all stars, Betelgeuse generates heat in its core through fusion. The heat is transferred to its surface via convection. The currents that carry the heat are called convection cells, which can be seen on the surface as dark patches. As the star rotates, these cells rotate in and out of view, which contributes to Betelgeuse's observed variability. Convection cells can be massive, even more so on the surface of a huge star like Betelgeuse. In 2013, scientists reported evidence of convection cells on the sun that lasted for months. It wasn't conclusive, but could something like that be contributing to the dimming on Betelgeuse?

This dimming episode may not be the star itself, but rather a cloud of gas and dust obscuring the light.
As time goes on, and Betelgeuse burns more of its fuel, it loses mass. As it loses mass, its gravitational hold on its outer edges is weakened, and clouds of gas escape the star into the surrounding regions. This could cause the current dimming episode.

Or could it be something else? We know a lot about stars, but we don't know everything. We've also never been able to observe any other red super-giants the way we can with Betelgeuse.
Betelgeuse
© NASA
The familiar constellation of Orion. Orion’s Belt can be clearly seen, as well as Betelgeuse (red star in the upper left corner) and Rigel (bright blue star in the lower right corner)
Astronomers Know What'll Happen, They Just Don't Know When.

Whatever the cause, we know what the eventual end for Betelgeuse looks like: a supernova explosion. Whether this dimming is directly related to the approaching cataclysmic death of this unstable star is unknown at this point. As Guinan and Wasatonic say on Astronomer's Telegram, "The unusual behavior of Betelgeuse should be closely watched."

When Betelgeuse does eventually go supernova, it will be the most fascinating act of nature witnessed by any human ever. Other supernovae like SN 185 and SN 1604 were much further away than Betelgeuse. When Betelgeuse goes supernova, it will the third-brightest object in the sky, after the sun and the full moon. But some estimates say it'll be even brighter than the moon.

Betelgeuse will light up the sky like no other supernovae, and will last for months, visible in daytime, and casting shadows at night. Then, in about three years, it will fade to its current brightness. About six years after it goes supernova, Betelgeuse won't even be visible in the night sky. Orion the Hunter will be no more.

When, exactly, all this will happen, nobody knows. And though this recent dimming likely isn't directly connected to Betelgeuse's eventual supernova explosion, astronomers don't know that for sure, either.
 
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axj

The Living Force
The following list is compiled from the article. The galaxies are sorted by the order when "changing-look" was noticed. A Lasair galaxy catalogue references some coordinates but I have no idea how to interpret them and figure out their relative positions. Maybe someone could take it further?

Host galaxy Changing-look Started
(E) ZTF18aaabltn April 2016
Object has 50 candidates, at mean position:
(RA, Dec) = (124.360084, 10.202799)
(RA, Dec) = (08:17:26.420, 10:12:10.077)
(l, b) = (213.359534, 23.690883)

(C) ZTF18aahiqfi Sept 2017
404 error

(D) ZTF18aaidlyq after Sept 2017
Object has 12 candidates, at mean position:
(RA, Dec) = (138.879320, 48.235501)
(RA, Dec) = (09:15:31.037, 48:14:7.805)
(l, b) = (170.922825, 43.528497)

(A) ZTF18aajupnt/AT2018dyk before March 2018
Object has 59 candidates, at mean position:
(RA, Dec) = (233.283453, 44.535658)
(RA, Dec) = (15:33:8.029, 44:32:8.367)
(l, b) = (72.115962, 53.393557)

(B) ZTF18aasuray May 10, 2018
Object has 88 candidates, at mean position:
(RA, Dec) = (173.483108, 67.018640)
(RA, Dec) = (11:33:55.946, 67:01:7.102)
(l, b) = (134.178696, 48.382161)

(F) ZTF18aasszwr July 2018
Object has 111 candidates, at mean position:
(RA, Dec) = (186.459673, 51.146212)
(RA, Dec) = (12:25:50.322, 51:08:46.364)
(l, b) = (132.638436, 65.496869)

It's hard to make heads or tails of it, but the coordinates imply vastly different locations across the sky - which rules out a close cluster of galaxies. The first galaxy also has a reference to a distance: 239.0 Mpc (megaparsec), which is about 800 million lightyears away.

According to the paper, that first galaxy is also the one where the "changing look" started in April 2016. Though not knowing how far away the other galaxies are (or at least I didn't find it), we cannot "plot a course" of these changes and whether they are getting closer and at what speed.
 
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