The Universe: Nemesis, the suns evil twin.

Gary

The Living Force
FOTCM Member
From Science Alert:

Something invisible is tearing apart the nearest star cluster to Earth


Strange things are afoot in the Milky Way.

According to a new analysis of Gaia satellite data, the closest star cluster to our Solar System is currently being torn apart - disrupted not just by normal processes, but also by the gravitational pull of something massive we can't see.

This disruption, astronomers say, could be a hint that an invisible clump of dark matter is nearby, wreaking gravitational havoc on anything within its reach.

Actually, star clusters being pulled apart by gravitational forces is inevitable. A star cluster is, as the name suggests, a tight, dense concentration of stars. Even internally, the gravitational interactions can get pretty rowdy.

Between those internal interactions and external galactic tidal forces - the gravity exerted by the galaxy itself - star clusters can end up pulled apart into rivers of stars: what is known as a tidal stream.

These streams are hard to see in the sky, because it's often quite tricky to gauge stellar distances, and therefore group stars together. But the Gaia satellite has been working to map the Milky Way galaxy in three dimensions with the most detail and highest precision achievable, and the most accurate position and velocity data on as many stars as possible.

Because stars pulled from a star cluster still share the same velocity (more or less) as the stars in the cluster, the Gaia data has helped astronomers identify many previously unknown tidal streams, and star clusters with tidal tails - threads of stars that have started to come loose from the cluster both in front and behind it.

In 2019, astronomers revealed they had found evidence in the second Gaia data release of tidal tails streaming from the Hyades; at 153 light-years away, it's the closest star cluster to Earth.

This caught the attention of astronomer Tereza Jerabkova and her colleagues from the European Space Agency and the European Southern Observatory. When Gaia Data Release 2.5 (DR2.5) and DR3 became available, they homed in, expanding the search parameters to catch the stars the earlier detections had missed.


They found hundreds and hundreds of stars associated with the Hyades. The central cluster is about 60 light-years across; the tidal tails span thousands of light-years.

Having such tails is fairly normal for a star cluster disrupted by galactic tidal forces, but the team noticed something weird. They ran simulations of the cluster's disruption, and found significantly more stars in the trailing tail of the simulation. In the real cluster, some stars are missing.

The team ran more simulations to find out what could cause these stars to go astray - and found that an interaction with something big, about 10 million times the mass of the Sun, could reproduce the observed phenomenon.

"There must have been a close interaction with this really massive clump, and the Hyades just got smashed," Jerabkova said.

The big problem with that scenario is that we can't currently see anything that massive anywhere nearby. However, the Universe is actually full of invisible stuff - dark matter, the name we give to the mysterious mass whose existence we can only infer by its gravitational effects on the things we can see.

According to these gravitational effects, scientists have calculated that roughly 80 percent of all matter in the Universe is dark matter. It's thought that dark matter is an essential part of galaxy formation - large clumps of it in the early Universe collected and shaped the normal matter into the galaxies we see today.

Those dark matter clumps can still be found today in extended 'dark halos' around galaxies. The Milky Way has one thought to be 1.9 million light-years across. Within those halos, astronomers predict denser clumps, called dark matter subhalos, just drifting around.

Future searches may turn up a structure that could have caused the weird disappearance of stars in the trailing tail of Hyades; if they don't, the researchers think the disruption could be the work of a dark matter subhalo.

The finding also suggests that tidal streams and tidal tails could be excellent places to look for sources of mysterious gravitational interactions.

"With Gaia, the way we see the Milky Way has completely changed," Jerabkova said. "And with these discoveries, we will be able to map the Milky Way's sub-structures much better than ever before."

The research has been published in Astronomy & Astrophysics.
 

United Gnosis

Jedi Council Member
If the imagery is from a geosynchronous orbit like that of the GOES satellite then the shadow could be the moon or the earth temporarily blocking the view to the sun?
Yes, we call it SGO eclipse season. The breathless reporting above comes entirely out of incompetence and unawareness of basic satellite measurement dynamics. It's really pathetic, and is a clear sign to listen to -100% of what this fake amateur says.
(Because even a fake amateur who only looked at the sun lightly for a couple years would already know... she seems to still think that an obvious satellite reflection last year was a "spaceship? Waste of time.

Also, this was mentioned a few days ago, 20 seconds in what should be among the basic diet for a solar watcher, Suspicious0bservers' daily news:
 
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United Gnosis

Jedi Council Member
Also, a simple hint this is nothing new:



And from this link:

"SDO circles the Earth in a geosynchronous orbit, meaning it makes one complete path around our planet every 24 hours. This is a special orbit, because it means to someone on Earth the satellite stays in one spot in the sky, making communication with it much easier.

But it means that twice a year the orbits of SDO and Earth line up, and the Earth irritatingly gets in the way of SDO’s view of the Sun, partially blocking it. These times are called “eclipse seasons”, and we’re in the middle of one of them now. On Mar. 2, the Earth got between SDO and the Sun…and not only that, a few hours later the Moon did as well!"
 
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itellsya

SuperModerator
Moderator
FOTCM Member
NASA reports on a recent discovery by a citizen scientist of an unusual brown dwarf that's 50 light years from Earth. It's nicknamed 'The Accident' but it's official designation is WISEA J153429.75-104303.3

It's considered unusual because it's thought to be extremely old, 'double the media age of known brown dwarfs'; its temperature signature is cold in some wavelengths and warm in others, whereas brown dwarfs normally register just as cold; it's also thought to be moving at high speed compared with other brown dwarfs at a similar distance from Earth.

They speculate that there may be many more like 'The Accident' out there: "The chance of finding one so close to the solar system could be a lucky coincidence, or it tells us that they're more common than we thought."

Full article below:


Enigmatic ancient brown dwarf discovered in solar neighborhood suggests more 'accidents' may be lurking in our galaxy - NASA




Tony Greicius
NASA
Tue, 31 Aug 2021 12:00 UTC






galaxy
© NASA/JPL-Caltech/UCLA
This mosaic shows the entire sky imaged by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Infrared light refers to wavelengths that are longer than those visible to the human eye. Many cosmic objects radiate infrared, including gas and dust clouds where stars form, and brown dwarfs.
Brown dwarfs aren't quite stars and aren't quite planets, and a new study suggests there might be more of them lurking in our galaxy than scientists previously thought.

A new study offers a tantalizing explanation for how a peculiar cosmic object called WISEA J153429.75-104303.3 - nicknamed "The Accident" - came to be. The Accident is a brown dwarf. Though they form like stars, these objects don't have enough mass to kickstart nuclear fusion, the process that causes stars to shine. And while brown dwarfs sometimes defy characterization, astronomers have a good grasp on their general characteristics.

Or they did, until they found this one.


brown dwarfs
© NASA/JPL-Caltech/Dan Caselden
Can you see the dark spot moving in the bottom left corner of the screen? It's a brown dwarf nicknamed "The Accident," which was discovered by citizen scientist Dan Caselden. It had slipped past typical searches because it doesn't look like any other known brown dwarfs.
The Accident got its name after being discovered by sheer luck. It slipped past normal searches because it doesn't resemble any of the just over 2,000 brown dwarfs that have been found in our galaxy so far.

As brown dwarfs age, they cool off, and their brightness in different wavelengths of light changes.
It's not unlike how some metals, when heated, go from bright white to deep red as they cool. The Accident confused scientists because it was faint in some key wavelengths, suggesting it was very cold (and old), but bright in others, indicating a higher temperature.

"This object defied all our expectations," said Davy Kirkpatrick, an astrophysicist at IPAC at Caltech in Pasadena, California. He and his co-authors posit in their new study, appearing in the Astrophysical Journal Letters, that The Accident might be 10 billion to 13 billion years old - at least double the median age of other known brown dwarfs. That means it would have formed when our galaxy was much younger and had a different chemical makeup. If that's the case, there are likely many more of these ancient brown dwarfs lurking in our galactic neighborhood.

A Peculiar Profile

The Accident was first spotted by NASA's Near-Earth Object Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (NEOWISE), launched in 2009 under the moniker WISE and managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Southern California. Because brown dwarfs are relatively cool objects, they radiate mostly infrared light, or wavelengths longer than what the human eye can see.
Brown dwarfs
© NASA/JPL-Caltech
Brown dwarfs share certain characteristics with both stars and planets. Generally, they are less massive than stars and more massive than planets. A brown dwarf becomes a star if its core pressure gets high enough to start nuclear fusion, the process that causes stars to shine.

To figure out how The Accident could have such seemingly contradictory properties - some suggesting it is very cold, others indicating it is much warmer - the scientists needed more information. So they observed it in additional infrared wavelengths with a ground-based telescope at the W. M. Keck Observatory in Hawaii. But the brown dwarf appeared so faint in those wavelengths, they couldn't detect it at all, apparently confirming their suggestion that it was very cold.

They next set out to determine if the dimness resulted from The Accident being farther than expected from Earth. But that wasn't the case, according to precise distance measurements by NASA's Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes. Having determined the object's distance - about 50 light-years from Earth - the team realized that it is moving fast - about half a million miles per hour (800,000 kph). That's much faster than all other brown dwarfs known to be at this distance from Earth, which means it has probably been careening around the galaxy for a long time, encountering massive objects that accelerate it with their gravity.

With a mound of evidence suggesting The Accident is extremely old, the researchers propose that its strange properties aren't strange at all and that they may be a clue to its age.

When the Milky Way formed about 13.6 billion years ago, it was composed almost entirely of hydrogen and helium. Other elements, like carbon, formed inside stars; when the most massive stars exploded as supernovae, they scattered the elements throughout the galaxy.

Methane, composed of hydrogen and carbon, is common in most brown dwarfs that have a temperature similar to The Accident. But The Accident's light profile suggests it contains very little methane. Like all molecules, methane absorbs specific wavelengths of light, so a methane-rich brown dwarf would be dim in those wavelengths. The Accident, by contrast, is bright in those wavelengths, which could indicate low levels of methane.

Thus, the light profile of The Accident could match that of a very old brown dwarf that formed when the galaxy was still carbon poor; very little carbon at formation means very little methane in its atmosphere today.

"It's not a surprise to find a brown dwarf this old, but it is a surprise to find one in our backyard," said Federico Marocco, an astrophysicist at IPAC at Caltech who led the new observations using the Keck and Hubble telescopes. "We expected that brown dwarfs this old exist, but we also expected them to be incredibly rare. The chance of finding one so close to the solar system could be a lucky coincidence, or it tells us that they're more common than we thought."

Brown dwarfs
© IPAC/Caltech
This artist's illustration shows a dim, cold brown dwarf in space. Brown dwarfs form like stars, but do not have enough mass to ignite nuclear fusion in their cores - the process that causes stars to burn. As a result they share some physical characteristics with massive planets, like Jupiter.
A Lucky Accident

To find more ancient brown dwarfs like The Accident - if they're out there - researchers might have to change how they search for these objects.

The Accident was discovered by citizen scientist Dan Caselden, who was using an online program he built to find brown dwarfs in NEOWISE data. The sky is full of objects that radiate infrared light; by and large, these objects appear to remain fixed in the sky, due to their great distance from Earth. But because brown dwarfs are so faint, they are visible only when they're relatively close to Earth, and that means scientists can observe them moving across the sky over months or years. (NEOWISE maps the entire sky about once every six months.)

Caselden's program attempted to remove the stationary infrared objects (like distant stars) from the NEOWISE maps and highlight moving objects that had similar characteristics to known brown dwarfs. He was looking at one such brown dwarf candidate when he spotted another, much fainter object moving quickly across the screen. This would turn out to be WISEA J153429.75-104303.3, which hadn't been highlighted because it did not match the program's profile of a brown dwarf. Caselden caught it by accident.

"This discovery is telling us that there's more variety in brown dwarf compositions than we've seen so far," said Kirkpatrick. "There are likely more weird ones out there, and we need to think about how to look for them."

More About the Missions

Launched in 2009, the WISE spacecraft was placed into hibernation in 2011 after completing its primary mission. In September 2013, NASA reactivated the spacecraft with the primary goal of scanning for near-Earth objects, or NEOs, and the mission and spacecraft were renamed NEOWISE. JPL, a division of Caltech, managed and operated WISE for NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD). The mission was selected competitively under NASA's Explorers Program managed by the agency's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. NEOWISE is a project of JPL, a division of Caltech, and the University of Arizona, supported by NASA's Planetary Defense Coordination Office.
 

cope

Jedi Council Member
For completeness of information:
Stumbled on Phil Schneider mentioning Nemesis in the question time after his lecture on 1:01.50

Phil Schneider - Secret Underground Bases and New World Order (sept 1995)
His info would have come from inside the US government of the time.
He says it is 10x heavier than Jupiter, but that it is maybe hollow
because of the relatively low specific gravity of it of 1.718.
He says supposedly it would come as close as 500 million miles in 2052,
dragging enough comets and debris our way to destroy half the planets of our solar system.
 
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