# The Universe: Nemesis, the suns evil twin.

#### Cosmos

FOTCM Member
When trying to work out how long it might take for comet materials disturbed from the Oort cloud and Kuiper regions to reach the inner orbits and start affecting us in earnest, one might consider how long it took the Voyager spacecraft to get from Earth out to and beyond Pluto.

They were launched in 1977, and only very recently (like in early November of this year if I'm not mistaken) has Voyager 2 officially left the Solar System. That's about 42 years. -And it was traveling at 54,000km/h. -Which is 15,000 meters per second. For reference, a rifle bullet will travel between around 1000 and 1500 meters per second. So.., the Voyager spacecraft was moving about 10 x faster than a fast rifle bullet. And it took 42 years to reach the limits of the solar system.

So.., how long does it take before inbound comets reach us? It depends on their speed and starting time. How long ago did the C's say Nemesis was bowling through these debris fields? And how fast do comets fly? The rest is just math.

Anybody..?
Well, calling all astrophysicists here for a better view, yet take a sungrazing comet like this one:

or, 31.68 million mpd., assuming the speed is constant and not accelerated by solar forces - and at what distance from the sun does that happen at being a factor.

I just had the same question come to mind. It seems from what I've seen that the velocity of Asteroids and Comets can vary in their speed from 10km/s up to 600 km/s. As rightly pointed out though, that velocity is most likely not a constant for most if not all of those objects. It can vary greatly during their travel due to gravitational/electrical influences (like other planets), orbit and probably even more factors. Also, it seems that they (in general) accelerate as they come closer to the sun (the heaviest electrical/gravitational force in the solar system) and thus the closer they come to earth. So it is pretty much impossible to assign a correct time frame in which a hypothetical object (or a swarm of them) from the Oort cloud can reach earth when it gets pushed into the inner solar system by the "suns companion".

What we can do though is to estimate the fastest and lowest estimate if we would assume that the velocity of the object follows a straight line towards earth (which it isn't, since it is always an orbit or curved trajectory) and is always travelling at that speed (which it isn't either).

So going with 10km/s, we can calculate:

864,000 km ≙ 1 day
822,790,000,000 Kilometers [5500 AU] ≙ 952,303.240 days = 2609.049 years

So going with 600km/s we can calculate:

51,840,000 km ≙ 1 day
822,790,000,000 Kilometers [5500 AU] ≙ 15,871.720 days = 43.484 years

So we can say that the time it would take for such an object from the Oort cloud to reach earth can lay anywhere between at most 2609 years and at least 43 years. Go figure! If they can travel slower or faster, the estimates in both direction can increase even further, in both directions. So any number in between the two given above can hold true for any given object or swarms of them in terms of how long it takes for them to reach earth.

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#### Woodsman

##### The Living Force
FOTCM Member
I just had the same question come to mind. It seems from what I've seen that the velocity of Asteroids and Comets can vary in their speed from 10km/s up to 600 km/s. As rightly pointed out though, that velocity is most likely not a constant for most if not all of those objects. It can vary greatly during their travel due to gravitational/electrical influences (like other planets), orbit and probably even more factors. Also, it seems that they (in general) accelerate as they come closer to the sun (the heaviest electrical/gravitational force in the solar system) and thus the closer they come to earth. So it is pretty much impossible to assign a correct time frame in which a hypothetical object (or a swarm of them) from the Oort cloud can reach earth when it gets pushed into the inner solar system by the "suns companion".

What we can do though is to estimate the fastest and lowest estimate if we would assume that the velocity of the object follows a straight line towards earth (which it isn't, since it is always an orbit or curved trajectory) and is always travelling at that speed (which it isn't either).

So going with 10km/s, we can calculate:

864,000 km ≙ 1 day
822,790,000,000 Kilometers [5500 AU] ≙ 952,303.240 days = 2609.049 years

So going with 600km/s we can calculate:

51,840,000 km ≙ 1 day
822,790,000,000 Kilometers [5500 AU] ≙ 15,871.720 days = 43.484 years

So we can say that the time it would take for such an object from the Oort cloud to reach earth can lay anywhere between at most 2609 years and at least 43 years. Go figure! If they can travel slower or faster, the estimates in both direction can increase even further, in both directions. So any number in between the two given above can hold true for any given object or swarms of them in terms of how long it takes for them to reach earth.
Glad to see I'm not the only one crunching these bones.

Those were about the same numbers I was coming up with when considering the Oort cloud. I was thinking, "Oh, would you look at that! We're all going to die of old age before any of those boulders even arrive. What are we getting our knickers in a twist for?"

But then, unless memory fails me, (a genuine possibility), I recalled that the Kuiper Belt is waaaaay closer, and was also the solar system feature the C's were mentioning in relation to our Solar Twin.

Kinda puts everything on schedule.

#### thorbiorn

##### The Living Force
FOTCM Member
First one comment to what I wrote in The Universe: Nemesis, the suns evil twin. where I qouted: Session 12 December 2010
Q: (L) [...]Anyhow, the conclusion that he draws is…- and he also points out that it seems that Sirius is heading in our direction; we are getting closer to Sirius - so, he theorizes that Sirius is our companion star. Is he correct about that?

A: Not Sol’s companion; but look in that direction for clues to your own little brother.
Clues can of course be more than the object itself, it can be disturbances in the orbits of other objects, or unusual phenomena, a clue when it comes to a direction may be plus or minus more degrees than I indicated. As I began to comment on the first post by Woodsman more came up, so they are put together:
So.., how long does it take before inbound comets reach us? It depends on their speed and starting time. How long ago did the C's say Nemesis was bowling through these debris fields? And how fast do comets fly? The rest is just math.
Those clocks would have started when Nemesis first entered the Kuiper Belt. Whenever that was. Does anybody know?
But then, unless memory fails me, (a genuine possibility), I recalled that the Kuiper Belt is waaaaay closer, and was also the solar system feature the C's were mentioning in relation to our Solar Twin.
There are many unknowns for sure.

The C's said the companion star had passed through the Oort cloud, but they did not say when it entered, and when it left. They said some objects in the Oort cloud had been affected by the passage by the companion, and that some would head our way, but we don't know when they were affected by the gravity field of the companion, what their mass was, what their speed was, what their direction was, what their position was. If one has that many variables, then it might be difficult to get a precise answer without a lot of work which requires much more than just math, although that certainly is important. Regarding the Kuiper belt, it is 30-50 AU away from the Sun, beyond the orbit of Neptune. 30-50 AU is also the range within which Pluto moves.

The C's gave an average distance to the Oort cloud which I translated to 5500 AU. This I contrasted with the hypothesis in the Wiki of a distance of 2000-200,000 AU. Today I looked it up again, and found nobody has made, or should we say published, direct observations, so the true existence and true extent of the Oort cloud is not yet public knowledge. This is explained in the following article which, just to make things confusing, does not mention an outer limit of 200,000 AU like the Wiki source but only 50,000 AU. Oort cloud Archives - Universe Today
POSTED ON AUGUST 15, 2018
Oort Clouds Around Other Stars Should be Visible in the Cosmic Microwave Background

For decades, scientists have theorized that beyond the edge of the Solar System, at a distance of up to 50,000 AU (0.79 ly) from the Sun, there lies a massive cloud of icy planetesimals known as the Oort Cloud. Named in honor of Dutch astronomer Jan Oort, this cloud is believed to be where long-term comets originate from. However, to date, no direct evidence has been provided to confirm the Oort Cloud’s existence.

This is due to the fact that the Oort Cloud is very difficult to observe, being rather far from the Sun and dispersed over a very large region of space. However, in a recent study, a team of astrophysicists from the University of Pennsylvania proposed a radical idea. Using maps of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) created by the Planck mission and other telescopes, they believe that Oort Clouds around other stars can be detected.
The above appears to leave any concrete knowledge about the Oort cloud to a future time.

And this is what the Wiki says about the research to locate a companion that has been done so far: Nemesis (hypothetical star) - Wikipedia
In particular, if Nemesis is a red dwarf or a brown dwarf, the WISE mission (an infrared sky survey that covered most of our solar neighborhood in movement-verifying parallax measurements) was expected to be able to find it.[2] WISE can detect 150-kelvin brown dwarfs out to 10 light-years. But the closer a brown dwarf is, the easier it is to detect.[15] Preliminary results of the WISE survey were released on April 14, 2011.[29] On March 14, 2012, the entire catalog of the WISE mission was released.[30]In 2014 WISE data ruled out a Saturn or larger-sized body in the Oort cloud out to ten thousand AU.[31]
10,000 AU is beyond the average distance for the Oort cloud given by the C's. 150 Kelvin is the same as -123 degrees Celsius. That is cold! But what does it mean that they can not find something smaller than the size of Saturn?
The size of Saturn compared to the Earth is described here: Saturn Compared to Earth - Universe Today:
The equatorial diameter of Saturn is 120,536 km; that’s about 9.5 times bigger than the diameter of the Earth. The surface area of Saturn is 83 times the area of Earth, and the volume is 764 times the volume of Earth.
And the Sun in relation to the Earth: Ask an Astronomer
This is about 109 times the diameter of Earth. The Sun weighs about 333,000 times as much as Earth. It is so large that about 1,300,000 planet Earths can fit inside of it. Earth is about the size of an average sunspot!
This means that we should be able to fit 1,300,000/764 = 1702 object the size of Saturn into the Sun. In relation to the research it means they have not yet found an object warmer than minus 123 degrees Celsius that with regard to size is larger than 1/1700 the size of the Sun or the same as one that is larger than 765 times the size of the Earth within a distance of 10,000 AU, which is about 0.16 light years from the Sun.

Pierre mentions the traditional view of the Solar system in chapter 1 of Earth Changes and the Human-Cosmic Connection.
According to conventional space science, the movements of the bodies within the solar system are exclusively ruled by gravitational laws. German astronomer Johannes Kepler established his three laws of planetary motion in the beginning of the 17th century,
Pierre explains there are many other considerations which is what follows in the rest of the book. However to recapitulate what the basis is of the early research here is more on Kepler's three laws, which perhaps also can give some ideas of the movement of comets. From: Kepler's Law - Universe Today
There are actually three, Kepler’s laws that is, of planetary motion: 1) every planet’s orbit is an ellipse with the Sun at a focus; 2) a line joining the Sun and a planet sweeps out equal areas in equal times; and 3) the square of a planet’s orbital period is proportional to the cube of the semi-major axis of its orbit. As it’s the third which is most often used, Kepler’s law usually means Kepler’s third law (of planetary motion).
Rule number two means that in the classical model a comet will move faster when it is close to the center of gravity near the Sun. They continue:
Although Kepler’s laws are only an approximation – they are exact, in classical physics, only for a planetary system of just one planet (and then the focus is the baricenter, not the Sun) – for systems in which one object dominates, mass-wise, they are a good approximation.

Further Reading: Kepler’s Three Laws of Planetary Motion, and Understanding Solar System Dynamics: Orbits and Kepler’s Laws (both from NASA) are good, and this University of Virginia webpage is fun!
The last page will give an idea of how the speed close the center of gravity is much larger than further away from the center. It is a simulation where one can insert a planet, observe its orbit and watch how the speed and the distance from the center changes.

The above quote mentioned baricenter and here is an explanation:
The barycenter is the point in space around which two objects orbit. For the Moon and Earth, that point is about 1000 miles (1700 km) beneath your feet, or about three-quarters of the way from the Earth’s center to its surface. That means the Earth actually wobbles around a point deep in its interior, pulled around by the Moon.

The question of comets and their movements has been important for a long time, and in spite of obstacles with the location of the Companion and the Oort clouds and cometary streams, history shows there is no reason to give up. In this paper on the history of science one finds: https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/abs/10.1098/rsnr.1988.0007
https://doi.org/10.1098/rsnr.1988.0007
The Principia and comets
David W. Hughes
Published:01 January 1988
Abstract
Isaac Newton is one of the major luminaries in the history of cometary science. Before the publication of his Principia the following cometary problems were writ large: what was their physical and chemical form; what orbits did they have and why; and were they periodic or random ? Newton solved the second of these and published his solution in the Principia. His law of gravitation indicated that any conic section was a permissible orbit for any celestial body, comets included. The remarkable comet of 1680 was one of the keys to his discovery. Its orbit was found to be essentially parabolic and the Principia showed, for the first time, how its orbital parameters could be calculated. Principia can be regarded in part as a formidable textbook on comets and it contains a detailed discussion of the author’s views on these enigmatic objects. Newton discusses their planetary as opposed to stellar origins, their luminosity variation, tail formation, periodicity, mass, supposed influence on Earth, and role as a fuel for stars.
And for more history on comets in Oort Cloud Formation and Dynamics they write in the introduction:
1. INTRODUCTION “They have observed Ninety-three different Comets, and settled their Periods with great Exactness. If this be true, (and they affirm it with great Confidence) it is much to be wished that their Observations were made publick, whereby the Theory of Comets, which at present is very lame and defective, might be brought to the same Perfection with other Parts of Astronomy.” — Jonathan Swift, Gulliver’s Travels (1726)
Did Jonathan Swift write fact or fiction? He had some interesting insights even though people to this day wonder where he got it from: Jonathan Swift and the moons of Mars Between Newton and Swift, both seems to have had skills that are needed. In the above paper on Oort Cloud Formation and Dynamics they write about Oort:
Oort showed that comets in the cloud are so far from the Sun that perturbations from random passing stars can change their orbits and occasionally send some comets back into the planetary system. Oort’s accomplishment in defining the source of the LPCs is particularly impressive when one considers that it was based on only 19 well-determined cometary orbits, compared with the 386 high-quality orbits in the 2003 catalog

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#### thorbiorn

##### The Living Force
FOTCM Member
So we can say that the time it would take for such an object from the Oort cloud to reach earth can lay anywhere between at most 2609 years and at least 43 years. Go figure! If they can travel slower or faster, the estimates in both direction can increase even further, in both directions. So any number in between the two given above can hold true for any given object or swarms of them in terms of how long it takes for them to reach earth.
Glad to see I'm not the only one crunching these bones.
The speed of the super fast comet is impressive. 600 km/s is 30 times faster than the Chelyabinsk meteor, which gives 900 times more energy per unit of mass. The Chelyabinsk meteor was a minimum of 10,000 tons up to14,000 tons so this would mean that the same amount of destruction would be created by just 11-15 tons.

Now building on some of your ideas, I will try a more classical approach and find out where it leads. How far out do the comets go and how long do they take to get here under normal circumstances?

On semimajor axis actually the same page from where I found the information about Jonathan Swift Jonathan Swift and the moons of Mars there was some information that might help to calculate what the usual estimated travel distances and travel times are for comets.
The semimajor axis is half the longest distance (major axis) across an ellipse. The semimajor axis is one of the orbital elements – a standard parameter used to describe an elliptical orbit. The semimajor axis is also the average distance of an orbiting object from its primary. The periapsis and apoapsis distances, rp and ra, can be calculated from the semimajor axis, a, and the eccentricity, e, by the formula

rp = a(1 - e) and ra = a(1 + e)

 semimajor axis
When looking into the tables known comets the "periapsis" is called perihelion and apoapsis, if it was given would then be aphelion. See Apsis - Wikipedia
Assuming the laws of Kepler have validity for some of the comets, what might the above mathematics mean if one selects a comet with a known semimajor axis a and know eccentricity e.

For the comets with an orbital periods from 200 to a 1000 years there is a list of periods:
List of long-period comets - Wikipedia They have semimajor axis ranging from 35 AU to just under 100 AU and eccentricities ranging from 0.872862 to 0.999946 The list comes with this introduction:
The following list is of comets with very long orbital periods, defined as between 200 and 1000 years. These comets come from the Kuiper belt and scattered disk, beyond the orbit of Pluto, with possible origins in the Oort cloud for many. For comets with an orbital period of over 1000 years, see the List of near-parabolic comets.
And in the list of near-parabolic comets they begin:
The following is a list of comets with a very high eccentricity (generally 0.99 or higher) and a period of over 1,000 years that don't quite have a high enough velocity to escape the Solar System. Often, these comets, due to their extreme semimajor axes and eccentricity, will have small orbital interactions with planets and minor planets, most often ending up with the comets fluctuating significantly in their orbital path. These comets probably come from the Oort cloud, a cloud of comets orbiting the Sun from ~10,000 to roughly 50,000 AU. The actual orbit of these comets significantly differs from the provided coordinates. A Solar System barycentric orbit computed at an epoch when the object is located beyond all the planets is a more accurate measurement of its long-term orbit.
The further away the more unreliable unless one can calculate their orbit based on observations beyond the planet filled inner solar system, which is perhaps also assuming there are no major disturbances out there.

From List of near-parabolic comets - Wikipedia I chose three that have estimated periods of 3600 years, considering that perhaps the 3600 year cycle of comet showers has something to do with comets that have a 3600 year period?

C/1990 N1, Semimajor axis: 233,2246 AU, Eccentricity 0,995316, Perihelion 1,092424 AU Orbital period 3560
ra = a(1 + e) gives ra = 233,2246 AU (1+0,995316)=465.357 AU

C/1999 K3 Semimajor axis: 235 AU, Eccentricity 0.9918 Perihelion 1,92878 AU Orbital period 3600
ra = a(1 + e) gives ra = 235 AU (1+0.9918) = 468 AU

C/2004 F4 Semimajor axis 238 AU, Eccentricity 0.999294 Perihelion 0,168266 AU Orbital period 3680
ra = a(1 + e) gives ra = 238 AU (1+0.999294) = 476 AU

Considering what they wrote in the introduction: "actual orbit of these comets significantly differs from the provided coordinates" the above distances may not be accurate down to the last given digit. However considering the eccentricities for all the long period and near parabolic comets being close to 1, admittedly with more inaccuracy for the long period comets, one can multiply the semimajor axis distance by two and have a good idea of how far out they might go.

When the 3600 period comet have an aphelion of 470 AU and compare this to the C's mentioning the Oort cloud as being in the 5500 AU range on average, then the 3600 year period comet ought to be in those regions of the Oort cloud which are closer to us. Timewise if their period is 3600 years it should, everything else equal take 1800 to go out and 1800 years to come back.

If instead of taking a comet with a given period and finding out how far it is out, we want to find out how long it takes to get out to 5500 AU under normal classical circumstances, then we can take a comet with a semimajor axis of about half of 5500 AU. We know from the previous example, that if we multiply a semimajor axis by two we would get out as far as it would go. In this case twice 2750 AU would be 5500 AU, which would take us right in the average area of the Oort Cloud. If we can find a few of such comets, we could look up and find out how long the orbital periods. This List of near-parabolic comets - Wikipedia informs us that there are several candidates, below are four which are close to the distance we are looking for.
Name Semimajor axis Eccentricity Orbital period
C/2013 G5 2700 0.99965 140000
C/1999 H1 2775 0.9997449 146200
C/2011 F1 2780 0.999345 146000
C/1916 G1 2834.363 0.999405 150900

A semimajor axis of 2700 AU would give a max distance to the Sun of about 5400 AU
A semimajor axis of 2834.363 AU would give a max distance to the Sun of about 5660 AU
As the orbital periods are 140,000 -150,000 years it would take something like 70,000 to 75,000 years to move from the extreme position in the average distance of the Oort Cloud to the position near the Sun - under the expected conditions, and that could be where the error may come in, because there are other influences:

August 3, 1996 Session 3 August 1996
A: Everything reflects macrodynamically and microdynamically. We suggest you absorb for now; and, fear not! For it is not imminent! Good Night.
A: Disasters involve cycles in the human experiential cycle which corresponds to the passage of comet cluster.
[...]
A: Did you catch the significance of the answer regarding time table of cluster and brown star? Human cycle mirrors cycle of catastrophe. Earth benefits in form of periodic cleansing. Time to start paying attention to the signs. They are escalating. They can even be “felt” by you and others, if you pay attention.
Not imminent was in 1996, 23 years ago. In 1998 it was: "They are escalating. They can even be “felt” by you and others, if you pay attention." And now we are in the middle of something, aren't we?

#### thorbiorn

##### The Living Force
FOTCM Member
In the last post, I tried to calculate how long it would take a comet from the Oort cloud to travel hundreds or thousands of Astronomical Units before arriving here many hundreds, thousands or tens of thousands of years later. This post is about the anomalies in space related to the time we live in, comet dust and the influence of the Companion.

In Session 1 December 2018 there was:
(Pierre) What was the cause of this monochromatic earthquake that lasted 20 minutes last month off the coast of Madagascar?

A: Grand chamber collapse deep underground. Like a deep sinkhole. And extremely large!!!

Q: (Joe) They were saying they thought it was an undersea volcanic eruption.

(L) So what caused it?

A: Combination of factors including crustal slippage and magnetic field anomaly. Check gravity graphic for the region for clues.

Q: (L) That must mean that globey thing they made that shows the shape of the Earth according to its gravity.

(Pierre) I would guess the anomaly shows a weak gravity so there'd be less binding force there.

(L) So it doesn't have anything to do with the sun...

(Andromeda) That trembling was on the 18th, and a week later the sun did the singing.

(L) The sun was singing.

A: Loosely connected by effects of the same general influences in the solar system at present.

Q: (L) And what are those general influences?

A: External and internal.

Q: (L) Well that doesn't help.

(Pierre) Is the external Nemesis?

A: Yes

Q: (Pierre) Internal is the state of humanity?

A: Yes

Q: (L) Is internal also streams of comet dust?

A: Yes

Q: (L) So, it's basically the same mechanism. And external could also be the wave?

A: Yes

Q: (L) So just the same general malady is affecting everything.

(Andromeda) And that's the same reason we had this big earthquake yesterday.

(L) So they didn't connect to each other, but they were effects of the same general thing. Next?

(Joe) Is the Oumuamua space rock an alien spaceship or probe?

A: Just wait a bit longer and all will become clear.

Q: (Joe) It's funny because they've been talking about it again and again. The speeding up and slowing down was reported by these Harvard people at the beginning of this year. They started talking about it again. So they keep bringing it up.

A: Recall that a spacecraft leaving your solar system experienced the same effect though at a greater distance?

Q: (L) And what spacecraft was that?

(Scottie) I don't remember exactly. Voyager or something? I remember reading about how it was speeding up and slowing down and they didn't know why.

(Ark) Pioneer.

(L) So it happened to our spacecraft against its programming. I guess what you're trying to say is that possibly the same effects that were acting on the Earth-based spacecraft that was sent out were also acting on this rock. So, it's not evidence of its alien source, but more evidence of some kind of forces in our solar system that we do not know about or understand. Is that what you're trying to say?

A: Yes

Q: (Pierre) Any object - spacecraft or rock - will experience the same anomalies.
On the case of the slowing down of the Pioneer there is this conclusion in an article about the issue published in August 2018:
Why Did NASA's Pioneer Spacecraft Mysteriously Slow Down?
An Explanation Emerges
When all of these possibilities were considered, one potential cause of the Pioneer anomaly repeatedly came to the fore: thermal effects, mostly originating from the four RTGs aboard each Pioneer. To fully analyze this possibility, Turyshev and colleagues (most notably Viktor Toth) used predicted and actual thermal measurements to create a highly accurate thermal model of the spacecraft. They first modeled the effects of heating from the Sun on the trailing face of the Pioneers. Then they turned to heat sources on the spacecraft. Heat from the RTGs radiated toward the leading edge of the spacecraft, in the direction of its motion, and heat from the electronics box also primarily radiated in this same direction. This generated a sunward (backward) pressure on the entire spacecraft. As a result, the overall heating of the craft, when all factors were included, was asymmetric. Ultimately, Turyshev and colleagues concluded that radiation forces from the differential heating of the spacecraft, known as thermal recoil forces, from the RTGs and electronics were enough to explain the entire Pioneer anomaly. Additional analysis showed that the Pioneer anomaly also appears to be decreasing in intensity with time, likely as a result of the RTGs’ radioactive decay and slow decline in power output, providing further support for the conclusions reached by Turyshev.

In the end, the theory of relativity was not overthrown, our understanding of physics is not flawed, the Pioneer anomaly was explained to people’s satisfaction, and, for now, the question has been put to rest. But the story of the Pioneer anomaly shows how exacting measurements in science can generate new questions, challenge old ideas, and stimulate new ways to solve complex problems.
Regarding anomalies in space, I wondered if the following finding might be of significance:
On RT there was an article Rare interstellar radioactive material found in Antarctic snow What they found was radioactive iron-60 from interstellar space. Iron is magnetic, it conducts electricity as does plasma:
The team then ruled out other possible explanations for how the iron-60 could have ended up in the snow, including the possibility it came from inside our Solar System or from nuclear testing. “By ruling out terrestrial and cosmogenic sources, we conclude that we have found, for the first time, recent iron-60 with interstellar origin in Antarctica,” the scientists wrote in Physical Review Letters.

The interstellar radioactive snow gives scientists strong evidence that some of the Local Interstellar Cloud was generated by supernovae, powerful stellar explosions. The research team will now analyze old Antarctic ice to look for an increase in iron-60 in ice from about 40,000-50,000 years ago, as that is when the Solar System is thought to have entered the Local Interstellar Cloud.
Iron-60 is mentioned here in relation to a Supernova event and an extinction event. A Supernova 2.6 Million Years Ago Could Have Wiped Out the Ocean's Large Animals - Universe Today Iron-60 has a half life of 2.6 million years.

What do they say about the Local Interstellar Cloud? Local Interstellar Cloud - Wikipedia
The Local Interstellar Cloud (LIC), also known as the Local Fluff, is the interstellar cloud roughly 30 light-years (9.2 pc) across through which the Solar System is moving. It is unknown if the Sun is embedded in the Local Interstellar Cloud, or in the region where the Local Interstellar Cloud is interacting with the neighboring G-Cloud.[2]
There is this picture:

And as a drawing:

Below the picture there is this text:
Map showing the Sun located near the edge of the Local Interstellar Cloud and Alpha Centauri about 4 light-years away in the neighboring G-Cloudcomplex
Notice they have put Sirius into the picture. 1 parsec is 3.26 light years.
The article about having found radioactive iron is interesting because the Wiki continues:
In 2009, Voyager 2 data suggested that the magnetic strength of the local interstellar medium was much stronger than expected (370 to 550 picoteslas (pT), against previous estimates of 180 to 250 pT). The fact that the Local Interstellar Cloud is strongly magnetized could explain its continued existence despite the pressures exerted upon it by the winds that blew out the Local Bubble.[10]

The Local Interstellar Cloud's potential effects on Earth are prevented by the solar wind and the Sun's magnetic field.[4]
And if the Solar magnetic field becomes weaker as a result of less Solar activity then it affects what reaches us from Interstellar space, at least when it comes to Hydrogen atoms which in plasma form are protons, positively charged and can conduct electricity. And since the Iron-60 reached Antarctica how can the Wiki claim effects of The Local Interstellar Cloud's effect on the Earth are prevented? And that is not all, because one study found:
At large heliocentric distances, the solar cycle induces 10–12% fluctuations in the number density of both primary and secondary interstellar H atoms and atoms created in the inner heliosheath. We underline the kinetic behavior of the fluctuations of the H atom populations. Closer to the Sun the fluctuations increase up to 30–35% at 5 AU due to solar cycle variation of the charge exchange rate. Solar cycle variations of interstellar H atoms in the heliospheric interface and within the heliosphere may have major importance for the interpretation of H atom observations inside the heliosphere.
If the Local Interstellar cloud is unexpectedly magnetic might it be because there is more iron than expected or is it related to current? The following session mentions "Magnetic field alterations".
In Session 4 July 1998
July 4, 1998
Q: (L) That is kind of what it is sounding like. Unless our lives and experiences escalate in concert with all these other events… (A) I have a last question which I have prepared. So, we have these two physical disasters or events, the coming brown star and the comet cluster, but we have been told that this time it is going to be different because this time it is accompanied by a plane convergence.
A: Yes. Magnetic field alteration.

Q: (A) This plane convergence, or this magnetic field alteration, it’s supposed to be related to realms crossing or passing. A realm border.
A: Realm. What is root of “realm?”
Q: (L) Reality.
A: Yes. How does the magnetic field “plug in?” We want to stay on this general subject matter through this session, for your sake.
Plug in? Switching on is the same as plugging in. I can't help but think of the small experiment in physics first done by Oersted where a magnetic needle is affected by a direct current from a battery. All you have to do to create a magnetic field is to switch create an electric circuit and insert a direct current power source lke a good battery, and a magnetic field will be generated around the conducting wire making the compass needle move. At low amperage one will find the effect is less strong.

Another anomaly is discussed below, though this might be related to comet dust, but when the C's say "Earth is in a part of space that holds many anomalies and surprises." I wonder where the limit is, and if the Local Interstellar Cloud is part of it. We usually live in a world where densities and borders between parallel or coexisting realities appear to us as separate. But if that collapses, a comet far away could show up without sticking to our expectations of when that would be suitable.
(Niall) What caused the sky to turn so dark that it was practically night for 3 hours in the middle of the day in Siberia on the 20th of July?

A: High level blockage of sunlight combined with particulates in atmosphere. Remember, there are things "out there" that are virtually undetectable!

Q: (L) You mean kinda like the way Mike Bailey described the Great Comet of the Black Death? It was so black that it like sucked up light. It absorbed it instead of reflecting it. So there could be things up in the sky – or space, rather - that are unreflective and they just... they're basically invisible as they pass. Is that what you're saying?

A: Close.

Q: (L) Was it a storm cloud?

(Niall) There were mad wildfires, but not there. I think they ruled out that it was smoke from the wildfires.

A: Earth is in a part of space that holds many anomalies and surprises.

Q: (L) Can some of that be like the comet flux that Victor Clube talks about?

A: Yes

Q: (L) So, there could be comet dust too, like maybe clumps of it, unreflective?

A: Yes

Q: (L) Could that be part of what was going on there?

A: Yes

Q: (Niall) But for 3 hours, on and then off. It began at 11:30 and ended at 2:00, and then went back to be sunny.

(Pierre) A cloud of comet dust.

(Approaching Infinity) But just for that one space? How high would it be?

(Joe) Maybe it landed.

(Approaching Infinity) It would have to be fairly close to Earth to just block out that one area. Even in 3 hours, the Earth moves quite a bit, so...

(L) It would have to move with it. So that's pretty anomalous, huh? Almost like an eclipse when no eclipse was scheduled.

A: Indeed! Stay tuned!
Interesting transcripts that really open up for so many possibilities. A statement like "there are things "out there" that are virtually undetectable!" leaves us little hope of being able to understand everything.

#### thorbiorn

##### The Living Force
FOTCM Member
What do they say about the Local Interstellar Cloud? Local Interstellar Cloud - Wikipedia
The Local Interstellar Cloud (LIC), also known as the Local Fluff, is the interstellar cloud roughly 30 light-years(9.2 pc) across through which the Solar System is moving. It is unknown if the Sun is embedded in the Local Interstellar Cloud, or in the region where the Local Interstellar Cloud is interacting with the neighboring G-Cloud.[2]
The Local Interstellar Cloud might relate to a Session from some years back, that mentions the local cosmic environment:
Q: (L) Okay, enough on that. Next? (A**) I was gonna ask about Chaco Canyon. What was it built for?

A: Gathering place for those of unusual abilities.

Q: (A***) Did anybody actually live there?

A: More like a "conference center."

Q: (A**) So what happened to the people that used it?

A: Change of cosmic environment
followed by earthly difficulties such as famine, climate etc.

Q: (J) What kind of things did those people with unusual abilities do when they gathered together?

A: Well, levitate, for one; direct manifestation for another; and "travel".

Q: (Allen) So, could they travel from one spot on the planet to another?

A: Yes.

Q: (A*l) Could they teleport?

A: Yes.

Q: (J) Teleport... These weren't your average human beings then. (laughter)

A: No not exactly, but it wasn't the same environment you currently enjoy either.

Q: (A**) Where did these people come from?

A: Remnant Atlanteans. Descendants for the word sticklers.

Q: (L) I think that's because once, somebody made a big deal out of them saying "remnants of Atlantis" and they meant descendants. (A*l) Do they mean that if our environment wasn't so polluted that we could have super powers? (L) They said "cosmic environment".

A: Gravity is different now.

Q: (A*l) What happened to gravity? How'd it change?

A: Travels of the solar system through space. You are heading for another such changes soon.

Q: (A*l) Are we going to become super again?

A: Some will.

Q: (A*l) Me? (J) Is A*l going to become super again? (laughter)

A: If you are prepared.

Q: (A*l) So I need to like load up? Lock and load? (A**) Eat your spinach! (L) Seriously, the spinach is the main thing! (laughter) (J) It's part of the acclimatization. (Allen) At Chaco Canyon, they ate lots of spinach. (A*l) So I'll be able to like teleport? And you guys will be able to, too? (C) We don't know. (A*l) We can like teleport and visit each other in our rooms?

A: Wait and see!

Q: (A**) Will we have superpowers like this idiot savant guy... (Allen) He's not an idiot savant, just a savant. (A**) Okay, the savant guy... (C) Daniel Tammet.

A: Some will. That is much like 4D experience.

Q: (A**) So we'll be able to like feel and see numbers?

A: Hear colors...

Q: (A**) That's cool! (C) So does that mean that he's kind of an advanced person or...

A: Not necessarily advanced, but just the luck of the genes so to say. That sort of thing, and much else, is coded in many and now and then it activates.
For another description and illustration there was about the Local Interstellar Cloud:
The Local Interstellar Cloud (LIC) is a cloud of neutral hydrogen that is flowing away from the Scorpius-Centaurus Association and through which the Sun is currently passing. The LIC resides in a low-density hole in the interstellar medium known as the Local Bubble. Nearby, high-density molecular clouds, including the Aquila Rift, surround star-forming regions.

The Sun and the nearest stars move through filaments of galactic clouds, including the Local Interstellar Cloud (figure by P. C. Frisch, University of Chicago).
Another map published in the Daily Mail in 2012, shows where the Scorpius-Centaurus Association, that was mentioned in the description above, is located: Trapped in a bubble! Scientists shed light on the Earth's galactic neighbourhood Compared to the map above the direction to the Galactic Center is the same, but one has like zoomed out from the local environment of the Sun.

#### Inquorate

##### Jedi Master
FOTCM Member
Apparently planet 9 could be a baseball sized black hole..

#### Voyageur

FOTCM Member
Apparently planet 9 could be a baseball sized black hole..

Basic layout of conception:
...Over the past few years, astronomers have uncovered about a dozen objects in the distant solar system that defy expectations. In addition to a few other odd attributes, this special subset of icy objects orbiting past Neptune, dubbed Trans-Neptunian Objects, or TNOs, all make their closest approaches to the Sun at about the same spot in space.

But some astronomers say that doesn't fit with current theories about the solar system. Even at their closest, these so-called extreme TNOs (eTNOs) stay so far from our last known planet that Neptune can't be responsible for shaping their odd orbits.

So, to account for the bizarre orbits, a team of astronomers recently invoked a wild yet increasingly convincing explanation for how they came to be. Namely, a goliath planet some five to 15 times the mass of the Earth is hiding far beyond Pluto, hundreds of times farther from the Sun than Earth. It's this giant world, Planet Nine proponents argue, that is shepherding the eTNOs into their unusual orbits.

In recent years, astronomers have discovered a number of far-flung objects that all have very similar perihelia, meaning they make their closest approaches to the Sun at about the same location in space. One leading theory that attempts to explain the clustering is that a massive and unseen world known as Planet Nine is hiding in the outer solar system.

[...]
According to Konstantin Batygin, who has been instrumental to the Planet Nine hypothesis but was not involved in the new study, it's definitely possible that a primordial black hole could replace Planet Nine in their model, but that doesn't mean it should.

"The important thing to understand here is that all that the calculations can tell is the mass of Planet Nine, not its composition," Batygin told Astronomy. "So, in principle, Planet Nine can be a planet, a potato, a black hole, a hamburger, etc., as long as its orbital parameters are right."

Though Batygin isn't entirely convinced a black hole roaming the outer solar system would be a more natural fit than Planet Nine, he admits he's hesitant to write off the new theory completely.

#### cope

##### Jedi Council Member
The WISE survey came out, a nice video with ¨everything¨ within 25LY. http://wise.ssl.berkeley.edu/video/quicktime/wise_bd.mov . Surprising to me is a binary set of brown dwarfs at 2,9LY distance, called WISE 79, 81. This would be on the edge of the Oort cloud, roughly in the direction the sun is moving, of Barnhard's, and Sirius is the other way. The link was mentioned by S.0. of 15 December.

#### Mike

##### The Living Force
FOTCM Member
I subscribe to a patreon channel and one of the posts recently had three of these videos given. These were given in reference to information given via a channeling session on 13 April that an extrasolar body is at its closest approach to the solar system right now and is being obscured for the most part by the sun and can be seen at times from certain places on the earth. It was asked why it is not publicly known and it was said astronomers, etc are being threatened, etc to cover it up. FWIW.

I'm not sure what the videos are showing in terms of the 'object' that is close to the sun. Could be an optical illusion or something like that, since we have seen for many years strange things in sky in relation to the sun due to changes in the atmosphere. A few comments to the videos say that the 'object' is a lens flare, but I'm not knowledgeable on the subject to say either way.

#### Mike

##### The Living Force
FOTCM Member
Missed the 10 minutes to edit, but the last video's youtube channel has a few other videos that I haven't viewed yet that are of interest to the subject, but I will do so tomorrow.

#### Laura

Moderator
FOTCM Member
Looks like lens flare to me.

#### Skyfarmr

##### Jedi Master
Looks like lens flare to me.
Could you please explain why you think that, Laura?
Regarding the first shorter videos: To my amateur eyes, the camera operator is not keeping camera completely still, and it seems the lens flare identified by operator to lower right of Sun is moving with camera movement, but object to upper left of Sun remains in place relative to Sun.

In this video, (a longer compilation video) the first clip beginning at about 0.25 secs shows the object to the upper right of center beyond Sun, appearing and disappearing in the clouds in the forefront. Is that even possible if it were a lens flare?

I'm no expert and not sure of what to look for... just curious about how you identify this object as a lens flare and how we can distinguish one from the real thing? Thank you.

#### Skyfarmr

##### Jedi Master
Dang! excuse me...my left/right dyslexia has been revealed. corrections in brackets
Regarding the first shorter videos: To my amateur eyes, the camera operator is not keeping camera completely still, and it seems the lens flare identified by operator to lower right {left} of Sun is moving with camera movement, but object to upper left {right} of Sun remains in place relative to Sun.

#### mkrnhr

##### SuperModerator
Moderator
FOTCM Member
I'm no expert and not sure of what to look for... just curious about how you identify this object as a lens flare and how we can distinguish one from the real thing? Thank you.
First of all, never point a refractive (ie. using lenses) towards the sun, it produces lens flares which renders the images useless. In order to take images of the sun, usually coronographs are used. The moon during an eclipse is a natural coronograph for instance.

Usually, cameras are compounds of lenses (whether phone camera, DSLR, handheld cameras, etc.). Light that goes through the lenses once (from the object to the sensor) form the main image. Then there are what is called ghost images that are formed because a tiny fraction of the light refects on the surfaces of the lenses. There are internal reflection within the material of the lens, and external reflections between the lenses. Usually, for every day pictures that do not saturate the sensor, these ghost images are so weak (in intensity) that they are not sensed by the sensor. However, light from the sun is so intense, that these ghost images become detectable. The configurations of these artifacts in the images can be simulated provided that we know the exact optical design of the camera (which is almost never disclosed for obvious reasons).

In short, photo and video cameras are the wrong tool to observe the sun and its surroundings. Unless they're using appropritate tools, theses videos are useless and a waste of time for those who are taking them (but if that's their hobby, it's fine).