DMSO - Dimethylsulphoxide

hlat

The Living Force
FOTCM Member
I'd think there would be some glyphosate on conventional cotton.
The glyphosate scared me enough not to use cotton. I used a sterling silver spoon to put the DMSO/vitamin C sodium ascorbate on the skin spot. After 6 hours, it looked like a crust of vitamin C remained on the spot and it looked like the DMSO absorbed or evaporated. I don't know if that is normal or if I made a mistake.
 

3DStudent

The Living Force
FOTCM Member
You mentioned the glyphosate and cotton cloth and that is something I had never considered but I guess it is something to think about along with all the other toxins in our environment (it's a wonder we aren't all dead I guess).
It was something that came to mind some months back after some of the podcasts on glyphosate. I've always used q-tips or cotton balls to apply DMSO in the past. Another thing is new cotton clothes will have some glyphosate, but it doesn't absorb much through the skin, so not too much of a worry.

After 6 hours, it looked like a crust of vitamin C remained on the spot and it looked like the DMSO absorbed or evaporated. I don't know if that is normal or if I made a mistake.
I think I'd expect that, especially after so long. When I put DMSO cream on it's usually just an hour and some of it goes away. If I can manage not touching anything, I will just let it sit exposed on my skin. But I see how one might want to wrap it up overnight to get a long exposure time. I've never done it overnight.
 

Gaby

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Here is a list of the recent DMSO literature, mostly from vet academic books. The first few paragraphs of each chapter are provided:


In summary, 0,1g/kg to 1g/kg have been used. It is always infused as a 10% solution to avoid hemolysis. The later is seen with >20% dilutions. Other side effects with high concentrations of DMSO are diarrhea, myositis, acute colic and collapse, which can happen with doses of >2g/kg.

These dosages are mostly from the horse literature. As for humans, we can see from the papers I posted a few pages back that a 5% dilution was used in palliative care with regression of symptoms, though they used sodium bicarbonate and potassium chloride as well. Stanley Jacob et al. recommends something between 1 to 2 g/kg of a 28%-40% DMSO dilution for stuff like strokes and brain edema. He says that a <10% DMSO dilution might give hypernatremia and water retention in people and depending on the emergency, that can be problematical. Thus, a 25-35% DMSO solution might work best in emergencies, at about 1g(ml)/kg.
 

hlat

The Living Force
FOTCM Member
I just wanted to highlight that DMSO is legal in the US for any doctor to use on people. It's just that there is no profit in it because its use would be off label and insurance companies will not pay for off label treatment.

I've been putting a little bit of the 50/50 DMSO/vitamin C sodium ascorbate mixture on a spot of skin for 3 days. I still have plenty of the mixture, maybe half of what I started with. When I put on the mixture, there's a little bit of tingling or stinging sensation where the mixture is on the skin. A little bit of the liquid slowly drips down that I wipe away with a tissue. Family has not been complaining of a bad smell, and I'm guessing it's because I'm using so little at a time.
 

Gaby

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Excerpts from "Clinical Considerations of Dimethyl Sulfoxide" by Linda K. Wong and Eric L. Reinertson

DMSO is a naturally occurring organic compound. All plant matter of marine origin contain trace quantities of DMSO.1 The phytoplankton growing near the ocean surface constantly expell volatile dimethyl sulfide (DMS) which evaporates to the ozone layer of the atmosphere and is oxidized to dimethyl sulfoxide. DMSO then reaches the earth in the form of rain. In 1963, studies of DMSO indicated that this by-product of paper manufacturing had remarkable properties, including: rapid penetration of skin, transport of other drugs across biological membranes, local anesthetic properties, reduction of swelling and promotion of healing. 4
CHEMISTRY OF DMSO

Dimethyl sulfoxide, (CH3)3S04, is a dipolar, organic compound, with a molecular weight of 78.13. 2 DMSO is a stable, colorless, nonvolatile, hydroscopic, highly associated liquid with a sulfur-like smell and a slightly
bitter taste. 5 DMSO is completely miscible with water in any proportion and acts as the acceptor of hydrogen
bonds. DMSO can complex with a multitude of compounds including: metal cations, various drugs, and components of tissue, blood, plasma, spinal fluid, etc.

DMSO can act as both an oxidizing and a reducing agent. When acting as an oxidant, DMSO is reduced to dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and when acting as a reducing agent, DMSO is oxidized to dimethyl sulfone (DMS02).
METABOLISM OF DMSO

Regardless of the route of administration of DMSO, a remarkable amount of radioactive DMSO is found in the plasma after only 30 minutes. Cutaneous administration of DMSO generally results in lower serum levels
than when DMSO is administered per os or intravenously.
7 Maximal blood concentrations of DMSO applied cutaneously are reached in 2 hours.

An oral dose of 1g/kg-body weight results in peak plasma concentrations in 4 - 6 hours, and detectable levels persisted for 400 hours. DMSO administered intravenously at the same dosage achieves higher plasma levels and is rapidly distributed throughout all tissues.

DMSO is metabolized in animals and man to form dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and dimethyl sulfone (DMS02 ). DMSO and DMS02 arepresent in all examined tissues including both hard (i. e. lens and bone) and soft tissues. 3 Unaltered DMSO is by far the most prevalent in tissues, blood, feces' and urine, with DMS02 also present but in much smaller concentrations. A small percentage of the original dose of DMSO is reduced to DMS and exhaled.
It appears that the primary route of excretion of DMSO is through the urine. 8 One and one-half to two hours after cutaneous administration of DMSO, the highest concentration is found in the kidneys, indicating that
the kidney is the organ of excretion. In dogs, studies indicate that approximately 50% of a total dose of DMSO-35S is collected in urine after 36 hours whether given by oral or intravenous administration. 8 When DMSO-35S is applied cutaneously, only 12 - 25 % of the total dose is found in the urine collected over a
24 hour period. Only a small fraction of an original dose of DMSO is excreted in the feces, regardless of the route of administration. The biliary system also appears to play a role in the excretion of DMSO. In rats administered DMSO intravenously, 8% of the total dose is recovered in a 24 hour period. This suggests that a large portion of the DMSO dose is reabsorbed in the enterohepatic circulation.

The odoriferous breath associated with administration of DMSO led researchers to investigate the possibility of pulmonary excretion. It was found that a small amount of DMSO is reduced to DMS and exhaled in the breath. Approximately 3-6% of a total DMSO dose is exhaled in the breath, regardless of the route of administration.


Membrane Penetration

DMSO readily crosses most tissues of animals and man with the exception of tooth enamel and keratinized structures. The exact mechanism involved in the membrane-penetrant action of DMSO has yet to be elucidated. It has been hypothesized that DMSO substitutes for water in the skin causing a reversible
configurational change of the skin protein, thus accounting for the rapid passage of DMSO through the skin. 11 The ability to penetrate body membranes and to become widely distributed throughout the body is advantageous, especially the ability of DMSO to transport other pharmacological agents through the skin and other biological membranes.
Membrane Transport

Non-ionized molecules of low molecular weight are transported through the skin with DMSO, but substances of high molecular weight do not pass through the skin with DMSO to any significant extent. 11 This ability to enhance percutaneous penetration of topical medications lends itself well to use in dermatological disorders because the primary limitation to topical therapy is the skin's protective
characteristics. DMSO has been found to enhance the penetration of the following therapeutic agents: Antibacterials, 11 antivirals, s estrogens,l1 corticosteriods, anti-parasitics, and local anesthetics. In one human case, DMSO was used to maintain nourishment by percutaneous absorption of nutrients dissolved in DMSO.14 Most evidence indicates that DMSO itself, does not have healing properties in the majority of dermatological disorders, but its ability to serve as a vehicle for the transfer of drugs through the intact skin and for deposition of these drugs into the skin is its beneficial effect. 2.12.14
Anti-Inflammation

DMSO apparently has significant antiinflammatory properties. Researchers indicate that the anti-inflammatory effect of DMSO may be due to its ability to scavenge inflammation-triggering free radicals5 and/or its ability to inhibit the influx of polymorphonuclear cells and monocytes into the sites of inflammation. 15 One of the most popular uses of DMSO is for treatment of acute swelling associated with traumatic injuries.

Another use of DMSO which utilizes its antiinflammatory properties is in the treatment of toxic snake bites. 16 It is thought that use of DMSO decreases the swelling resulting from the snake bite, and it also potentiates the action of the adn1inistered corticosteroids. DMSO also decreases the inflammation associated with perivascular injections of thiacetarsamide sodium. 17 DMSO decreases the swelling and dissipates this irritating antiparasitic,
and thus prevents sloughing of surrounding tissues. DMSO is also used in the treatment regime for otitis externa to reduce irritation. Treatment of ulcers and wounds is also augmented by DMSO therapy, in part due to its anti-inflammatory properties. 18 Topical application of DMSO to canine mammary glands reduces swelling and engorgement.

9 DMSO has also been used to relieve post-operative pain and swelling following joint and tendon repair procedures. 2o
DMSO has analgesic properties, and when used in conjunction with topical anesthetics appears to potentiate their effects.

DMSO reversibly decreases the conduction velocity of nerves and produces analgesia by acting on both the peripheral nervous system and the central nervous system. 21 Subcutaneous injection of 10% DMSO can result in a total loss of central recognition of pain. 11 DMSO produces an analgesic effect comparable
to morphine, but it is longer lasting and is not reversible by administration of naloxone
. 20 Since it is not reversed by naloxone, this indicates that opiate receptors are not involved in DMSO-induced analgesia.

DMSO can also induce total anesthesia of an animal when injected into the cerebral spinal fluid without apparent adverse reactions. 11 However, clinical application of this method of anesthesia is impractical.
Effects on Connective Tissue

DMSO decreases the concentration of collagen and its metabolites and also reduces the pathogenic deposition of collagen in response to injury. Experimentally, DMSO injected intraperitoneally will decrease the incidence of
intestinal adhesions. 11 This Inay prove useful for post-operative treatment of gastrointestinal surgery.
Effect on Bacteria, Fungi, and Viruses

DMSO exhibits a remarkable inhibitory effect on a wide range of bacteria, fungi, and both RNA and DNA viruses. 11 The bacteriostatic effect of DMSO may occur due to a loss of RNA conformational structure required for protein synthesis. 11 Pre-treatment with DMSO restored and increased the sensitivity of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria and increased the sensitivity of bacteria in general to antibiotic treatment. 11 This characteristic of DMSO may prove to be valuable.
Diuresis

DMSO has been shown to be an effective diuretic due to an increase in the urinary excretion of sodium and potassium. This diuretic effect may prove valuable in treating cases of central nervous system trauma because
the diuretic effect of DMSO is effective in decreasing intracranial pressure. 25 In man, intravenous DMSO is more effective than mannitol, urea, cortisone, or barbiturates for reducing intracranial pressure associated with severe head injuries.

Vasodilation

DMSO has potent histamine-releasing properties which result in significant vasodilation. 11 This vasodilatory effect may be useful in decreasing edema, improving circulation in localized areas, and increasing the absorption
of other drugs. DMSO vasodilation increases the cortical and spinal blood flow, thus reducing the edema resulting from acute cranial 91 and spinal cord trauma. 25 .27 Experimentally, DMSO has been used to treat intestinal,28 renal, 29 and cerebral ischemia. 3o.31


Action on Free-Radicals

DMSO has the ability to scavenge free-radicals, especially hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen atoms. S The carcinogenic effect of many organic compounds is related to the formation of free-radical intermediates. It has been shown that DMSO causes a significant inhibition of promoters of neoplasia, with reduction of both tumor rate aIJ.d yield.~ D_MSO has also been shown to protect tissues and cells against radiation damage. This protective effect is due to inhibition of hydroxy radicals by DMSO. The scavenging of free-radicals also aids in reduction of pain induced by inflammation. 2 DMSO has been shown to increase the effectivepess of griseofulvin and potentiate the action of digitoxin. 11 This is clinically important when using DMSO concomitantly with other therapeutic agents.
Very imporant info:

TOXICITY OF DMSO

The potentially toxic effects ofDMSO is the subject which virtually brought clinical investigations of DMSO to a standstill, but it is interesting to note that DMSO is of such low toxicity that grams per kilogram are used to
measure toxicity instead of milligrams per kilogram as in the case of most other drugs.
The toxic effects of DMSO vary with concentration, dosage, and route of administration.

Common complaints associated with the use of DMSO are the garlic-like breath odor, erythema, dryness, occasional pruritus associated with cutaneous administration, and diarrhea. In humans, headache,32 nausea, sedation, and less frequently, dizziness2s ,26 are reported and it is assumed that animals may
experience similar phenomena. U rea-modified DMSO moderates some of these side effects. Urea-modified DMSO consists of 60parts DMSO, 20-parts urea, and 20-parts water. 6 This formula decreases the garlic or
sulfur odor in the breath and the cutaneous irritation, pruritus and dryness. Since the potential for systemic toxicity is the greatest with intravenous administration of DMSO, the LD50 has been determined for
several species and are in the range of 2.58.9g/ kg body weight.
33 Symptoms at near lethaI doses were similar in all species investigated and include spontaneous motor activity, tremors, muscular weakness,' prostration, transient convulsions, dyspnea, pulmonary edema, and hemorrhage. 33 The oral LD50 of DMSO is higher than the intravenous LD50 and is approximately 109/kg body weight. 34

With intravenous administration of DMSO it was found that there is no increased toxicity with repeated daily dosing, assuming that the repeated daily does not exceed the single maximum tolerated dose. 35 Damage to blood vessels due to DMSO is directly proportional to the concentration of DMSO and the number of repeated injections. The concentration of DMSO administered intravenously should not exceed 50% or the injected vessel may be subject to intimal damage, fibrosis, perivascular inflammation, and/or intravascular thrombi. 3s However, no necrosis or sloughing of the blood vessel occurs. At or above the maximum tolerated dose there is a transient increase in respiratory rate, an increase in diuresis, and evidence of hemoglobinuria and bilirubinuria which are a direct result of erythrocyte damage and subsequent release of hemoglobin. 35

Rapid in travenous administration of DMSO can induce seizures. 21 Local tissue reactions to subcutaneous or intramuscular injections are directly related to the concentration and total amount of DMSO injected. Reported responses to these injections include inf1~mmatory, hemorrhagic, gelatinous, and edematous tissue reactions, but there is no abscess formation, necrosis, or sloughing. 35 Intradermal injections of undiluted DMSO cause an intense local vasoconstriction followed by hemorrhage and necrosis,35 and therefore, should be avoided.

Most biochemical changes associated with the administration of DMSO are related to the damage incurred by the red blood cells. 35,36 This direct hemolytic effect is doserelated and is seen with intravenous DMSO
in high concentration or high dosage rate. Very high doses of oral DMSO cause hemorrhagic gastroenteropathy. Hemolysis results in a reversible anemia with a reduction in hemoglobin in the circulating blood, hemoglobinuria, hematuria, and bilirubinuria. As a result of red blood cell damage, reticulocytosis and increased erythroid activity in the spleen and bone marrow are often observed.

In spite of the dose-related hemolysis and subsequent hemoglobinuria associated with high concentrations of intravenous DMSO, there is no decrease in renal function and in general, no evidence of renal structural
changes
. 36 Some reports indicate the presence of a mild tubular nephrosis,33 but there are no reports of nephrotoxic tubular damage. Also, there are no urine sediment abnormalities, and no increases in urine protein or glucose.

Liver damage with high doses of DMSO consists of fatty degeneration, cloudy swelling, granulation of parenchymal cytoplasm, and inflammation in the portal spaces. 33.35 Other changes include hemolyzed red blood cells in the hepatic sinusoids, cytoplasmic fragmentation of the Kupffer cells, and hemosiderin
granules in the interstitium.

Pulmonary changes associated with the conventional administration of DMSO are not common but with near-lethal doses of DMSO, development of pulmonary edema can occur. 35 The pathogenesis of pulmonary
edema is related to a decreased heart rate and blood pressure, vascular distention, and stasis of blood.

Teratogenic effects of DMSO appear to be n1inimal unless extraordinarily high doses of DMSO are administered. The most definite teratogenic effects are seen in the hamster and the chicken. 35 In the hamster, the teratogenicity of DMSO is directly related to the stage of development of the embryo when DMSO is
administered. Direct injection of DMSO into the chick embryo results in fetal abnormalities, but injection of DMSO into the yolk sac does not produce any teratogenic effect. Rabbits treated with very high doses of DMSO
demonstrate a reduction in embryo viability. 35

Administration of DMSO in high doses, to both male and female rats prior to mating, does not cause any reduction in fertility nor is it associated with any teratogenic effects. 33 The major concern associated with administration of DMSO to gravid animals is the dosage given, but it is unlikely in a clinical situation
that such high doses would be dispensed. The topical route of application of DMSO appears to be the least toxic. The most important aspect of the cutaneous toxicity ofDMSO involves local tissue reactions. DMSO passes
through the skin fairly rapidly and causes vasodilation and erythema proportional to the concentration of DMSO applied. Cutaneous application of high concentrations of DMSO slutions exaggerate the hydroscopic effects of DMSO, depriving the tissues of water. 33 Dogs and monkeys treated vvith 90% Dl\1S0 over
an extended period exhibit a slight hyperkeratosis of the skin with no other significant histological
changes in the skin. 35 In humans, 80% DMSO applied topically results in a significant incidence of eosinophilia, attributed to the cutaneous histamine-releasing effect of DMSO.33 Cutaneous administration of DMSO with occulusive bandages may cause a papillovesicular reaction which leads to inflammation and epidermal death. 37 Although these are not permanent changes, occulusive bandaging
should be avoided when using topical DMSO.


The transport and penetrant properties of DMSO impose a hazard to the cutaneous administration of DMSO. DMSO has the capability to enhance the absorption of topical medications and other materials into the skin,
and therefore, any other medication or compound present on the skin should be removed prior to cutaneous application of DMSO. DMSO and its metabolites will not accumulate in the tissues, and no delayed toxicity
to DMSO has been reported. 35 In animals treated with intradermal DMSO for 3 weeks, no signs of sensitization were noted when challenged with an intradermal dose of DMSO.35 Therefore, any toxic effects of DMSO will most likely be observed during or immediately following DMSO therapy.

Administration of DMSO causes the cortical fibers of the lens of the eye to become less relucent than normal and this change results in the production of a refractive error and myopia. 34 The severity of this change is directly related to the length of administration of DMSO and the concentration of DMSO
used
. Clinically, severely affected animals have an opalescence in the center of the lens although the lens remains optically clear. The pathogenesis of the DMSO-induced lenticular change is not known. DMSO does not accumulate in the lens but following chronic administration, DMSO can be found in the cornea,
aqueous humor, and vitreous body. 33 These lenticular changes, once established, persist for long periods of time. In summary it is apparent that the toxicity of DMSO is minimal when used in clinically normal doses and concentrations. The toxic 93 !effects are most frequently seen in abnormally Ihigh experimental doses and concentrations.
 

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Laura

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This caught my eye!
DMSO has been found to enhance the penetration of the following therapeutic agents: Antibacterials, 11 antivirals, s estrogens,l1 corticosteriods, anti-parasitics, and local anesthetics
. In one human case, DMSO was used to maintain nourishment by percutaneous absorption of nutrients dissolved in DMSO.
Made me think about the many stories of aliens who absorb nutrients through the skin in "baths". Creepy, I know, but darned if that doesn't sound more reasonable now, especially considering that many reports also associate aliens with a strong sulphur odor!!!

Not to divert the discussion, of course...

Another item that catches my eye:

Subcutaneous injection of 10% DMSO can result in a total loss of central recognition of pain.
11 DMSO produces an analgesic effect comparable
to morphine, but it is longer lasting and is not reversible by administration of naloxone
. 20 Since it is not reversed by naloxone, this indicates that opiate receptors are not involved in DMSO-induced analgesia.
So, if a person has a really bad back, an little shot of DMSO will fix it right up?

Wonder how it might work percutaneously as in Quinton Therapy?

And obviously, dosing with DMSO should be done carefully and following known protocols. But it sure sounds miraculous in so many ways.
 

Gaby

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So, if a person has a really bad back, an little shot of DMSO will fix it right up?
It should work. A 10% DMSO solution still burns, perhaps like a shot of intramuscular B vitamins. On the other hand, if the back pain is 10 out of 10, then a little burning and a temporary skin reaction might not be that bad. I would put 0.5cc up to 1 cc of DMSO in 10 cc of Quinton isotonic or physiological solution for this protocol and inject subcutaneously in the abdominal fat or arm.

Wonder how it might work percutaneously as in Quinton Therapy?

And obviously, dosing with DMSO should be done carefully and following known protocols. But it sure sounds miraculous in so many ways.
The calculations must be on the safe side because: "Intradermal injections of undiluted DMSO cause an intense local vasoconstriction followed by hemorrhage and necrosis,35 and therefore, should be avoided."

I would be uncomfortable injecting more than 1cc of DMSO diluted intradermally with 20cc of Quinton isotonic or physiological solution. Just like the Percutaneous Hydrotomy Association recommends using only 1 cc of EDTA at the most intradermally.
 

Starshine

Jedi Master
My mother has a tendinopathy of the long flexor of the right big toe. It is quite handicapping, she has had 4 surgeries on the left foot and 3 on the right. The first surgery of the Hallus Valgus destructured the feet as it was cut too short, 20 years ago. Morton, arthrodesis and Weil's osteotomy followed.
Long story short, we tried different things and her signal to pain is high. There are plenty of movement she can't do. We tried percutaneous hydrotomy and it improved her toe flexibility a bit, but not significantly and it was quite painful as the toes are really sensitive. She found great relief trying cryotherapy and her pain in the left foot is almost gone, she just can't walk too long.
Yet the right toe remains a problem, with its arthrodesis and tendinopathy over the sesamoid bone.
I was wondering if DMSO could be used topically in this case and with which add-on ? I was thinking 10%DMSO 90% Isotonic Quinton for example? Is the metal underlying equipment a problem?
 

Laura

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My mother has a tendinopathy of the long flexor of the right big toe. It is quite handicapping, she has had 4 surgeries on the left foot and 3 on the right. The first surgery of the Hallus Valgus destructured the feet as it was cut too short, 20 years ago. Morton, arthrodesis and Weil's osteotomy followed.
Long story short, we tried different things and her signal to pain is high. There are plenty of movement she can't do. We tried percutaneous hydrotomy and it improved her toe flexibility a bit, but not significantly and it was quite painful as the toes are really sensitive. She found great relief trying cryotherapy and her pain in the left foot is almost gone, she just can't walk too long.
Yet the right toe remains a problem, with its arthrodesis and tendinopathy over the sesamoid bone.
I was wondering if DMSO could be used topically in this case and with which add-on ? I was thinking 10%DMSO 90% Isotonic Quinton for example? Is the metal underlying equipment a problem?
Get the DMSO book and read it carefully. Instructions are given for how to do heavy duty pain applications.
 

Starshine

Jedi Master
I guess we're talking about "Walker Morton. DMSO Nature's Healer." book here. I'm surprised it's not available on Amazon FR, nor .com. Anyway I found it on ebay if that's the one we're talking about. Thank you for your recommendation Laura.
 

Laura

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I guess we're talking about "Walker Morton. DMSO Nature's Healer." book here. I'm surprised it's not available on Amazon FR, nor .com. Anyway I found it on ebay if that's the one we're talking about. Thank you for your recommendation Laura.
Yes. It is so full of goodies everyone should have a copy to read and refer to again and again!
 
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