Music,sound and resonance

A few nights ago, when I was playing an owl dismantling poor trees that did not ask for anything except to grow and encumber a tram line.
I came across a nest, nothing abnormal in a tree, except that one was occupied by a ball of feather, a baby pigeon !!!!
I had a big smile because normally I would already be in the first tree of the line, but that night I had an appointment in a tree that I was not supposed to do with a baby pigeon.
Well, well between a crazy traffic, horns, disgruntled drivers, and trams still rolling, sitting on the heights of a lime tree,
i spotted a tree to 4 meters that will be spared, and where I would move the nest , good or bad idea, I do not know!
Every time I approached my hand, the hairball began to give vigorous beak.
Finally by covering the "beast" with leaves, I managed to execute my plan.
The thing that marked me was to feel its beatings of his little heart and despite these percussions of fears,
it was able to defend itself, one can call it the instinct of survival, but courage is the name I would give.
Unless it thought I was bringing worms :lol:

In this post i will search the heart of a rainbow, or the one of a worm. :zzz:

Before to do this, keep in mind the following: (french)

So let's start:
The heart is not a solo player in the Quantum Jazz of life . Instead, it is in symphony with all other players, intermeshing and syncopating with their varied rhythms, reflecting the correlations and couplings of rhytms in a system that is quantum coherent in the ideal. It is the complex rhytm of the organism dancing life into being, in which every single player is freely improvising and yet keeping in tune and in step with the whole.
The Cass:
A: No, you don't get to pick the selection at this level. But you in the future does. The question is: How well do you play, and can you play true if the others don't?

Ark to Barcelona said something like... we don't need apparatus, we are THE apparatus..., or at least the apparatus is inner us.

No one yet fully understands the rich fractal structures underlying the healthy heart rhythm. My own feeling is that it is a sign of a high degree of coherence, or quantum coherence involving a precise, phase-correlated coupling between the body rhythms, rather like a constant conversation going between the heart and the rest of the body. That is why shuffling the heartbeat time series results in the loss of the exquisite hidden dynamic order that includes the precise phase correlations.
An unhealthy heart, by contrast is no longer intercommunicating, but falls back onto its own intrinsic rhythm, like a very boring person who keeps saying the same things, not listening or responding to anyone else, which is why its beat appears superficially more regular, even as the dynamic hidden order is destroyed.
Does your heart beat faster when you see you loved one ? Does your heart 'break'when a love is lost ? Does it feel 'heavy' when you are sad ? There is no doubt that feeling are intuitively connected with the heart, as our language indicates.
Some scientists have discovered that emotions actually affect the way the heart beats. Your heartbeat betrays your emotional status and more importantly, managing your emotion may improve your heart rhythm, and perhaps put you on the path of health.
The claim is that positive emotion works primarily by affecting the hearbeat, and the heart is the 'most powerful generator of rhythmic information patterns in the body', acting as the 'global conductor in the body's symphony to bind and synchronise the entire system'.
The heart's rhythmic patterns on the brain and body not only affect physical health, but also significantly influence perception and other mental capacities.

When the cardiovascular system is operating in the coherence mode, heart rhythm, pulse rhythm and respiratory rhythms are synchronised and entrained to the same frequencies, with a sharp peak at around 0,1 Hz in the power spectrum.
During this coherent state, heart-brain synchronisation is also observed as very low frequency brain ryhthms and electrical potentials measured across tthe skin, though the synchronisation is not quite as dramatic or immediate as with pulse and respiratory ryhthms.
The heart has an extensive communicative network with the brain .
Inputs from the heart not only affects the homeostatic regulatory centres in the brain but also influences higher brain centres involved in perceptual, cognitive, and emotional processing.

The heart not just a mechanical pump. Instead the heart is a sensory organ, and a complex information encoding and processing centre. It has a 'heart brain' containing more than 40 000 neurons, with a complex circuitry that enables it to sense, regulate and remember. It can process information and make decisions about cardiac control independently of the central nervous system. It senses hormonal, heart, rate and blood pressure, and translates them into neurological impulses, processing this information internally, and transmits the information to the brain via the vagus nerves and spinal column. Neurological signals originating in the heart influence the whole body. In addition to modulating the activity of the nervous and endocrine system, it influences the activity of the digestive tract, urinary bladder, spleen, respiratory and lymph systems, and skeletal muscles.
The heart makes and secretes a number of hormones and neurotransmitters, including oxytocin, the 'love' or social 'bonding hormone'. Oxytocin is producted at concentrations in the heart in the same range as in the brain. Most heart hormones are released in synchronicity with the contractions of the heart, giving rise to pulsating bursts that can intermesh most effectively witn the work ryhthms of other organs and tissues.
With every beat the heart generates a powerful pressure wave that travels rapidly throughout the arteries, much faster than the actual flow of blood, creating what we feel as our pulse.
The heart sounds, generated by the closing of the heart valves and cardiac murmurs, can be heard all over the chest and can extend as far as the groin.
Of all the organs, the heart generates by far the most powerful and most extensive ryhthmic electromagnetic field in the body. The electrical voltage generated, the ECG is about 60 times greater in amplitude than the electrical activity produced by the brain, and it permeates every cell in the body. The magnetic component the heart's field is about 5000 times stronger than the magneticield produced by the brain, and can be measured several feet away from the body with sensitive magnetometers.
The electromagnetic waves generated by the heart are are immediately registered in the brain waves.
Thus, information about a person's emotional state is also communicated throughout the body and into the external environment via the heart's electromagnetic field, and may play a role in our perception.
HeartMath researchers proposes that the heart's electromagnetic waves may interact with the fields of organs and other structures to create hologram-like interference patterns that 'inform the activity of all bodily functions'.
The other half of the process is that the heart is also informed by the activity of all bodily functions, which is reflected in its ryhthmic variation from moment to moment.

You can have more details, schemas and formulas in the book "The Rainbow and The Worm", The physics of organisms by Mae-Wan Ho
that i already read some quotes in some threads here in the forum.
And of course the HeartMath website.
Here something more brought by Keit from this thread:,13795.msg618151.html#msg618151
We communicate with the quantum field primarily through our thoughts and feelings. Since our thoughts are themselves energy—as you know, the electrical impulses the brain generates can easily be measured by devices such as an EEG—they are one of the primary means by which we send out signals into the field...

Cellular biologist Glen Rein, Ph.D., conceived of a series of experiments to test healers’ ability to affect biological systems. Since DNA is more stable than substances such as cells or bacterial cultures, he decided to have healers hold test tubes containing DNA.3 This study took place at the HeartMath Research Center in California. The folks there have conducted extraordinary research into the physiology of emotions, heart-brain interactions, and much more. Essentially, they and others have documented a specific link between our emotional states and our heart rhythms...

In Dr. Rein’s experiment, he first studied a group of ten individuals who were well practiced in using techniques that HeartMath teaches to build heart-focused coherence. They applied the techniques to produce strong, elevated feelings such as love and appreciation, then for two minutes, they held vials containing DNA samples suspended in deionized water. When those samples were analyzed, no statistically significant changes had occurred.

A second group of trained participants did the same thing, but instead of just creating positive emotions (a feeling) of love and appreciation, they simultaneously held an intention (a thought) to either wind or unwind the strands of DNA. This group produced statistically significant changes in the conformation (shape) of the DNA samples. In some cases the DNA was wound or unwound as much as 25 percent!

A third group of trained subjects held a clear intent to change the DNA, but they were instructed not to enter into a positive emotional state. In other words, they were only using thought (intention) to affect matter. The result? No changes to the DNA samples. The positive emotional state that the first group entered did nothing by itself to the DNA. Another group’s clearly held intentional thought, unaccompanied by emotion, also had no impact
. Only when subjects held both heightened emotions and clear objectives in alignment were they able to produce the intended effect. An intentional thought needs an energizer, a catalyst—and that energy is an elevated emotion.

Heart and mind working together. Feelings and thoughts unified into a state of being. If a state of being can wind and unwind strands of DNA in two minutes, what does this say about our ability to create reality? What the HeartMath experiment demonstrates is that the quantum field doesn’t respond simply to our wishes—our emotional requests. It doesn’t just respond to our aims—our thoughts. It only responds when those two are aligned or coherent—that is, when they are broadcasting the same signal. When we combine an elevated emotion with an open heart and a conscious intention with clear thought, we signal the field to respond in amazing ways.

The quantum field responds not to what we want; it responds to who we are being. ...

Since every potential in the universe is a wave of probability that has an electromagnetic field and is energetic in nature, it makes sense that our thoughts and feelings are no exception. I find it a useful model to think of thoughts as the electrical charge in the quantum field and feelings as the magnetic charge in the field.4 The thoughts we think send an electrical signal out into the field. The feelings we generate magnetically draw events back to us. Together, how we think and how we feel produces a state of being, which generates an electromagnetic signature that influences every atom in our world.

This should prompt us to ask, What am I broadcasting (consciously or unconsciously) on a daily basis? All potential experiences exist as electromagnetic signatures in the quantum field. There are an infinite number of potential electromagnetic signatures—for genius, for wealth, for freedom, for health—that already exist as a frequency pattern of energy. If you could create a new electromagnetic field by changing your state of being, which matches that potential in the quantum field of information, is it possible that your body would be drawn to that event or that event would find you?

Quite simply, our routine, known thoughts and feelings perpetuate the same state of being, which creates the same behaviors, and creates the same reality. So if we want to change some aspect of our reality, we have to think, feel, and act in new ways; we have to “be” different in terms of our responses to experiences. We have to “become” someone else. We have to create a new state of mind … we need to observe a new outcome with that new mind. From a quantum standpoint, we have to create a different state of being as an observer and generate a new electromagnetic signature.

When we do, we will match a potential reality in the field that exists only as an electromagnetic potential. Once that match exists between who we are being/what we are broadcasting and the electromagnetic potential in the field, we will be pulled toward that potential reality, or it will find us. I know that it’s frustrating when life seems to produce an endless succession of minor variations on the same negative outcomes. But as long as you stay the same person, as long as your electromagnetic signature remains the same, you can’t expect a new outcome. To change your life is to change your energy—to make an elemental change in your mind and emotions. If you want a new outcome, you will have to break the habit of being yourself, and reinvent a new self.

What do your state of being and a laser have in common? I’ll make this connection to illustrate another thing you need to know if you want to change your life. A laser is an example of a very coherent signal. When physicists talk about a coherent signal, they are referring to a signal made up of waves that are “in phase”—their troughs (low points) and crests (high points) are parallel. When those waves are coherent, they are much more powerful.Waves in a signal are either aligned or unaligned, coherent or incoherent. The same goes for your thoughts and feelings.

How many times have you tried to create something, thinking in your mind that the end result was possible but feeling in your heart that it wasn’t? What was the result of that incoherent/out-of-phase signal that you were sending? Why is it that nothing manifested? As you just saw with the HeartMath study, quantum creating only works when your thoughts and feelings are aligned. Just as the waves in a signal are much more powerful when they are coherent, the same is true of you when your thoughts and your feelings are aligned. When you hold clear, focused thoughts about your purpose, accompanied by your passionate emotional engagement, you broadcast a stronger electromagnetic signal that pulls you toward a potential reality that matches what you want.

I frequently talk to my workshop audiences about my grandmother, a woman I adored. She was old-school Italian, as steeped in Catholic guilt as she was in the tradition of making tomato gravy to spoon on pasta. She prayed constantly for things and deliberately thought about a new life, but the guilt that had been instilled in her throughout her upbringing confused the signal she was sending. She only manifested more reasons to feel guilty. If your intentions and desires haven’t produced consistent results, you’ve probably been sending an incoherent, mixed message into the field.

You may want wealth, you may think “wealthy” thoughts, but if you feel poor, you aren’t going to attract financial abundance to yourself. Why not? Because thoughts are the language of the brain, and feelings are the language of the body. You’re thinking one way and feeling another way. And when the mind is in opposition to the body (or vice versa), the field won’t respond in any consistent way. Instead, when mind and body are working together, when our thoughts and feelings are aligned, when we are in a new state of being, then we are sending a coherent signal on the airwaves of the invisible.

Now let’s fill in another piece of the puzzle. To change our reality, those outcomes that we attract to ourselves have to surprise, even astonish, us in the way in which they come about. We should never be able to predict how our new creations will manifest; they must catch us off guard. They have to wake us up from the dream of the routine reality that we’ve grown accustomed to. These manifestations should leave us with no doubt that our consciousness made contact with the quantum field of intelligence, so we are inspired to do this again. That is the joy of the creative process.

Why should you want a quantum surprise? If you can predict an event, it is nothing new—it’s routine, automatic; and you have experienced it many times before. If you can predict it, the same you produced the same familiar outcome. In fact, if you’re trying to control how an outcome will occur, you just went “Newtonian.” Newtonian (classical) physics was about trying to anticipate and predict events; it was all about cause and effect. What does “going Newtonian” mean when applied to your ability to create? It’s when the external environment is controlling your internal environment (thinking/feeling). That’s cause and effect.

Instead, change your internal environment—the way you think and feel—and then see how the external environment is altered by your efforts. Strive to create an unknown, new future experience. Then when an unforeseen event occurs in your favor, you will be pleasantly surprised. You just became a quantum creator. You just went from “cause and effect” to “causing an effect.”

Hold a clear intention of what you want, but leave the “how” details to the unpredictable quantum field. Let it orchestrate an event in your life in a way that is just right for you. If you’re going to expect anything, expect the unexpected. Surrender, trust, and let go of how a desired event will unfold. This is the biggest hurdle for most to overcome, because we human beings always want to control a future reality by trying to re-create how it occurred in a past reality.

I’ve just talked about aligning our thoughts and feelings to produce the result we want … yet in the process, letting go of the details surrounding how that event will come about. That’s a leap of faith, and it is necessary if we are to exchange a life of humdrum, predictable outcomes for a joyful life of new experiences and quantum surprises.

But we’ll need to make yet another leap of faith to bring what we want into reality. Under what circumstances are you typically grateful? You may answer, I’m grateful for my family, the nice home I have, my friends, and my job. What those things have in common is that they’re already in your life. Generally, we are grateful for something that already happened or is already present in our lives. You and I have been conditioned into believing that we need a reason for joy, a motivation to feel gratitude, grounds to be in a state of love. That’s relying on external reality to make us feel different internally; it’s Newton’s model.

The new model of reality challenges us, as quantum creators, to change something within us—in mind and body, in our thoughts and feelings—before we can experience the physical evidence with our senses. Can you give thanks and feel the elevated emotions associated with a desired event before it occurs? Can you imagine that reality so completely that you begin to be in that future life now? In terms of quantum creating, can you give thanks for something that exists as a potential in the quantum field but has not yet happened in your reality? If so, you are moving from cause and effect (waiting for something outside of you to make a change inside of you) to causing an effect (changing something inside of you to produce an effect outside of you).

When you are in a state of gratitude, you transmit a signal into the field that an event has already occurred. Gratitude is more than an intellectual thought process. You have to feel as though whatever you want is in your reality at this very moment. Thus, your body (which only understands feelings) must be convinced that it has the emotional quotient of the future experience, happening to you now

There was a little strange girl, everybody is more or less bizarre, except that she was even more bizarre and did not care much about this whole quirk.
She was madly in love with a little boy as bizarre as she, except that unlike her, this one did not want to sound strange to the eyes of the more or less bizarre.
This little boy was doing everything to avoid her and ignore her, so as not to suffer the mockery of others.
In their thirteenth year, during a fair at their school, the little girl in the name of Madeleine saw the little boy that i was, i saw her with so much joy running towards me to say hello, that she had not seen a rope pulled between two stands.
She fell and bleeded from the knee.
I went to her to help her, but immediately I stopped in my gesture, and it was at that moment that she saw my fear of being discovered, that she knew I was not like her, tears began to pearl, then she began to cry.
Then a small mob gathered around her.
I still feel today this suffering that at the age of 13 years old I perceived in the eyes of Madeleine.
I still feel guilty for causing this suffering, and it is true
i can not change what is already done, and I am grateful to Madeleine
of this marking lesson of being .
Thanks for that quote from Breaking the Habit of Being Yourself, zak. It was a timely reminder for me and that's a great book that ties in a lot with what I've read on the forum.
Oh ! Great 3D Student,that this quote resonates for you.
And yeah, this forum is a great ties, i am (almost) sure as the game with a pencil
to connect the number one by one until realizing the drawing behind,
it can be the same with each thread from this forum.
I didn't read Dispensa's book, it is thanks to Keit that i fell on this quote. :wow:
Something interesting, maybe a little long and even repetitive, but not less interesting.

Russian DNA Research

Russian biophysicist and molecular biologist Pjotr Garjajev and his colleagues have been carrying out cutting-edge research the more esoteric nature of DNA. They simply did not believe that 90% of our DNA is ‘Junk DNA’. From the German book Vernetzte Intelligenz by Grazyna Fosar and Franz Bludorf (summarised and translated by Baerbel):

The latest research explains phenomena such as clairvoyance, intuition, spontaneous and remote acts of healing, self healing, affirmation techniques, unusual light-auras around people (namely spiritual masters), mind's influence on weather-patterns and much more. The Russian scientists also found out that our DNA can cause disturbing patterns in the vacuum, thus producing magnetized wormholes! Wormholes are the microscopic equivalents of the so-called Einstein-Rosen bridges in the vicinity of black holes (left by burned-out stars). These are tunnel connections between entirely different areas in the universe through which information can be transmitted outside of space and time. The DNA attracts these bits of information and passes them on to our consciousness...

Russian researcher Dr.Vladimir Poponin put DNA in a tube and beamed a laser through it. When the DNA was removed, the laser light continued spiralling on its own, like it would through a crystal! This effect is called ‘Phantom DNA Effect’.

It is surmised that energy from outside of space and time still flows through the activated wormholes after the DNA was removed. The side effect encountered most often in hyper communication and also in human beings are inexplicable electromagnetic fields in the vicinity of the persons concerned. Electronic devices like CD players and the like can be irritated and cease to function for hours. When the electromagnetic field slowly dissipates, the devices function normally again. Many healers and psychics know this effect from their work.
Chapter 9
The Mysterious DNA

Junk DNA

While western science invested in the International Human Genome Project focusing on the 5% of the encoding triplets of DNA, in the Soviet Union in 1990 a group of Russian scientists of the Russian Academy of Sciences was formed to study the complete human genome. This research was led by Dr. Pjotr Garjajev, member of the Russian Academy of Sciences as well as the Academy of Sciences in New York. The Russian research was taking a wide angle and held an open view in their studies. The research team included bio physicists, molecular biologists, embryologists and even linguistic experts. Their research revealed that the supposed junk DNA that has been completely neglected and forgotten by western mainstream science, was no redundant leftover of evolution at all. Linguistic studies revealed that the sequencing of the codons of the non-coding DNA follow the rules of some basic syntax. There is a definite structure and logic in the sequence of these triplets, like some biological language. Research further revealed that the codons actually form words and sentences just like our ordinary human language follows grammar rules.

Scientists have conducted much research on the origins of human languages and the origins of the grammatical rules that are so essential to all human languages; however they have always failed to find the source. But now for the first time in history the origins of language may be surprisingly attributed to DNA. The language of the genes is much, much older than any human language that was ever uttered on this globe. It is even conceivable that the DNA grammar itself served as the blueprint for the development of human speech.

Whereas the western Human Genome Project deciphered the ‘machine language’ code of the DNA molecule, the structure of the DNA ‘bits’ formed by the sequence of nucleotides, Russian scholars discovered the higher level language present in DNA. Another amazing fact that Garjajev’s group discovered was that the DNA is by no means a closed book of life. He discovered that the text of the DNA book can be altered. The codons of the DNA string can be rearranged in different sequences. In other words the software of the human genome our DNA molecule can be reprogrammed! Research revealed that the triplets in the DNA string are able to exchange places.

Since the DNA was found to have a syntax and semantics akin to our human languages, it indicated that our currently restricted understanding of DNA serving only for the coding of the reproduction of proteins for the chemical make up of an organism, is only half of the story.

When in vitro DNA in test tubes was exposed to coherent laser light, the laser light spiralled along the DNA helix as if it was guided by the structure of the DNA molecule. The most amazing effect was noticed when the DNA itself was removed and the laser light kept spiralling! The vacuum of the space that was just previously occupied by the DNA had changed and something caused the laser light to keep spiralling. These effects have been measured and remained for quite some time after the DNA was removed. The effect is now becoming well known as the DNA phantom effect. Vladimir Poponin and his team of Russian Academy of Sciences repeated the work of Garjajev at the Hearthmath Institute in the U.S.A. Poponin concluded again that a field structure was formed in the physical vacuum even when the original DNA was removed. We’ve seen similar examples of vacuum changes before that could be attributed to torsion fields. (1)

DNA programming

The most astonishing experiment that was performed by Garjajev’s group is the reprogramming of the DNA codon sequences using modulated laser light. From their discovered grammatical syntax of the DNA language they were able to modulate coherent laser light and even radio waves and add semantics (meaning) to the carrier wave. In this way they were able to reprogram in vivo DNA in living organisms, by using the correct resonant frequencies of DNA. The most impressive discovery made so far is that spoken language can be modulated to the carrier wave with the same reprogramming effect. Now this is a baffling and stunning scientific discovery! Our own DNA can simply be reprogrammed by human speech, supposing that the words are modulated on the correct carrier frequencies!

Whereas western science uses complicated bio chemical processes to cut and paste DNA triplets in the DNA molecule, Russian scientist use modulated laser light to do exactly the same thing. The Russians have proven to be very successful in repairing damaged DNA material in vivo!

Laser light therapies based on Garjajev’s findings are already applied in some European academic hospitals with success on various sorts of skin cancer. The cancer is cured without any remaining scars.

When Our Cell Phones Chat with Our Genes

By Grazyna Fosar and Franz Bludorf

"...In truth, DNA is not just a blueprint for constructing the body; it is also a storage medium for optical information as well as an organ for communication.

The German biophysicist Fritz-Albert Popp spent many years studying biophoton emission, i.e., the light that the body naturally emits. Popp’s studies indicate that DNA is one of the main suppliers of biophotons. Through comprehensive studies, he discovered that DNA is a harmonic oscillator – an oscillating system with its own particular frequency, or resonating frequency. Using the length of the DNA molecule (about two meters, when stretched out), and the known speed of light, DNA’s own frequency is calculated as about 150 megahertz...

The principles have been worked out by Dr. Piotr P. Garjajev and his colleagues at the Russian Academy of Science in Moscow.

Genes Speak Our Language

Garjajev’s findings go far beyond Popp’s: According to Garjajev’s studies, DNA is not only the transmitter and receiver of electromagnetic radiation (in the form of energy), but it also absorbs information contained in the radiation and interprets it further. Thus, DNA is an extremely complex interactive optical biochip. In our book Vernetzte Intelligenz (Cross-Linked Intelligence) we wrote the following on this subject:

“For example, today we speak almost matter-of-factly about the “genetic code,” that is, about a systematic codification of information. However, genetics to date has gotten stuck at this point, and has relied exclusively on chemistry to finish the work, without even once calling in language experts.

“In Moscow, things are different. There, the genetic code was…additionally subjected to thorough examination by linguists. (Linguistics is the science of the structure and formation of languages). When studying a language, people investigate regularities such as syntax (rules for building words from letters), semantics (the study of the content meaning of words), and rules of grammar.

“When this scientific knowledge is applied to the genetic code, it can be seen that this code follows the same rules as our human languages.

“It should be noted: not the rules of a particular language (in this case, for example, the Russian language), but rather rules at a fundamental level where common features reside among all existing languages of mankind. Thus, the structure of the genetic code can be connected with every existing human language.

“Scientists have been seeking the ancestral human language for centuries – Piotr Garjajev and his colleagues may have found it.”
Quantum Physics in for Radical Revision - DNA

From the book, "Vernetzte Intelligenz"


Grazyna Fosar und Franz Bludorf

The human DNA is a biological Internet and superior in many aspects to the artificial one. The latest Russian scientific research directly or indirectly explains phenomena such as clairvoyance, intuition, spontaneous and remote acts of healing, self healing, affirmation techniques, unusual light/auras around people (namely spiritual masters), mind´s influence on weather patterns and much more. In addition, there is evidence for a whole new type of medicine in which DNA can be influenced and reprogrammed by words and frequencies WITHOUT cutting out and replacing single genes.

Only 10% of our DNA is being used for building proteins. It is this subset of DNA that is of interest to western researchers and is being examined and categorized. The other 90% are considered "junk DNA." The Russian researchers, however, convinced that nature was not dumb, joined linguists and geneticists in a venture to explore those 90% of "junk DNA." Their results, findings and conclusions are simply revolutionary!

According to them, our DNA is not only responsible for the construction of our body but also serves as data storage and in communication. The Russian linguists found that the genetic code, especially in the apparently useless 90%, follows the same rules as all our human languages. To this end they compared the rules of syntax (the way in which words are put together to form phrases and sentences), semantics (the study of meaning in language forms) and the basic rules of grammar.

They found that the alkalines of our DNA follow a regular grammar and do have set rules just like our languages. So human languages did not appear coincidentally but are a reflection of our inherent DNA.

The Russian biophysicist and molecular biologist Pjotr Garjajev and his colleagues also explored the vibrational behavior of the DNA. [For the sake of brevity I will give only a summary here. For further exploration please refer to the appendix at the end of this article.] The bottom line was: "Living chromosomes function just like solitonic/holographic computers using the endogenous DNA laser radiation." This means that they managed for example to modulate certain frequency patterns onto a laser ray and with it influenced the DNA frequency and thus the genetic information itself.

Since the basic structure of DNA-alkaline pairs and of language (as explained earlier) are of the same structure, no DNA decoding is necessary. One can simply use words and sentences of the human language! This, too, was experimentally proven! Living DNA substance (in living tissue, not in vitro) will always react to language-modulated laser rays and even to radio waves, if the proper frequencies are being used. This finally and scientifically explains why affirmations, autogenous training, hypnosis and the like can have such strong effects on humans and their bodies. It is entirely normal and natural for our DNA to react to language. While western researchers cut single genes from the DNA strands and insert them elsewhere, the Russians enthusiastically worked on devices that can influence the cellular metabolism through suitable modulated radio and light frequencies and thus repair genetic defects.

Garjajev´s research group succeeded in proving that with this method chromosomes damaged by x-rays for example can be repaired. They even captured information patterns of a particular DNA and transmitted it onto another, thus reprogramming cells to another genome. So they successfully transformed, for example, frog embryos to salamander embryos simply by transmitting the DNA information patterns! This way the entire information was transmitted without any of the side effects or disharmonies encountered when cutting out and re-introducing single genes from the DNA.

This represents an unbelievable, world-transforming revolution and sensation! All this by simply applying vibration and language instead of the archaic cutting-out procedure! This experiment points to the immense power of wave genetics, which obviously has a greater influence on the formation of organisms than the biochemical processes of alkaline sequences.

Esoteric and spiritual teachers have known for ages that our body is programmable by language, words and thought. This has now been scientifically proven and explained. Of course the frequency has to be correct. And this is why not everybody is equally successful or can do it with always the same strength. The individual person must work on the inner processes and maturity in order to establish a conscious communication with the DNA. The Russian researchers work on a method that is not dependent on these factors but will ALWAYS work, provided one uses the correct frequency.

But the higher developed an individual´s consciousness is, the less need is there for any type of device! One can achieve these results by oneself, and science will finally stop to laugh at such ideas and will confirm and explain the results. And it doesn´t end there.

The Russian scientists also found out that our DNA can cause disturbing patterns in the vacuum, thus producing magnetized wormholes! Wormholes are the microscopic equivalents of the so-called Einstein-Rosen bridges in the vicinity of black holes (left by burned-out stars). These are tunnel connections between entirely different areas in the universe through which information can be transmitted outside of space and time. The DNA attracts these bits of information and passes them on to our consciousness. This process of hypercommunication is most effective in a state of relaxation.

Stress, worries or a hyperactive intellect prevent successful hypercommunication or the information will be totally distorted and useless. In nature, hypercommunication has been successfully applied for millions of years. The organized flow of life in insect states proves this dramatically. Modern man knows it only on a much more subtle level as "intuition." But we, too, can regain full use of it...

All informations are from the book "Vernetzte Intelligenz" von Grazyna Fosar und Franz Bludorf, ISBN 3930243237, summarized and commented by Baerbel. The book is unfortunately only available in German so far. You can reach the authors here: [] [2]; Transmitted by Vitae Bergman []

Revolutionary Results of Modern Genetics

by Grazyna Fosar and Franz Bludorf

The Biological Chip in our Cells

Independent of the biochemical function as a protein producer the DNA is a complicated electronic biological chip that communicates with its environment, as latest research from Russia found out.

In the year 1990 a group of scientists got together in Moscow, for whom the study of the human Genoms was too much reduced exclusively to biochemistry. They had recognized that by this viewpoint, which is based rather on orthodox dogmatism than on objective scientific realizations a lot of information remains hidden to us.

Highly-qualified scientists belong to this group, to a large extent from the Russian Academy of Sciences. Beside physicists of the renowned Lebedev institute also molecular biologists participate, bio physicists, geneticists, embryologists and linguists. Director of the project is Dr. Pjotr Garjajev, a bio physicist and molecular biologist. He is member of the Russian Academy of Sciences as well as of the Academy of Sciences in New York.

In the eight years since establishment of the project the Muscovite group came to revolutionary realizations, which let our understanding of the DNA and the human genetics appear in a completely new light.

For example we speak today nearly naturally of the »genetic code«, thus of a systematic information coding. But the past genetics stopped here and settled the remainder of the work exclusive with the help of chemistry, instead of consulting also language experts.

Differently in Moscow. Here, as already mentioned, the genetic code was submitted an exact investigation by linguists too.

Linguistics is the science of the structure of languages. It investigates thereby not only the natural languages, which developed in the individual countries and cultures, but also artificial languages, which are used for example for programming computers and which were developed in the past decades systematically using linguistic realizations.

One examines semantics (theory of the meaning of the words) and language regularities like the syntax (rules for the setting up of words from letters), as well as the bases of the grammar.

If one uses these scientific realizations on the genetic code, then one recognizes that this code follows the same rules as our human languages.

Mind you: not the rules of a certain language (in this case e.g. the Russian one), but on such a fundamental level, where all existing languages of mankind have comparable structures. So it is possible to set the structure of the genetic code in relationship with each existing language of mankind.

For centuries scientists looked for the human original language - Pjotr Garjajev and his coworkers possibly found it.

We must turn around the relations: the structure of the DNA does not correspond to the human language structure, but the human languages follow the genetic code in their structure the rules! DNA and genetic code existed already for a long time, before first humans spoke an articulated word for the first time! Every human languages developed since that time followed the basic pattern, already existing in the structure of the genetic code.

You should not misunderstand this realization: It does not concern here an orthodox materialistic conception of the world, according to which the ability for speaking would be only a secondary effect of proteins, which are put on in some genes. The arrangement of the elementary bases in the DNA follows a grammar, an immaterial plan, which is similar to the structure of our languages.

The fact that no physical procedure is concerned here is proved by the next discovery of Garjajev's team: The analogy between the structure of the DNA and the human language is most pronounced just in the parts of the giant molecule, which are not used for protein synthesis!

For a long time one knows that only about 10 per cent of the DNA molecule are used for setting up genes. The remaining 90 per cent have a function unknown to classical science and were designated so far as »silent DNA«.

Garjajev's realization thus is a revolution for the entire area of genetics. Examining only the well-known genes calling the remainder »silent DNA«, you will miss the most important facts! It is paradoxical: just the »silent DNA« - figurativy spoken - speaks a language!

In various experiments the Muscovites group could prove that these extensive codes in the DNA are not used by any means for the synthesis of a so far unknown quantity of components of our body, as it is the case with the genes. This code is rather actually used for communication, more exactly - for hypercommunication.

Hypercommunication is a data exchange on DNA level using genetic code. Since this code possesses a structure, which is the basis of all human languages, also higher information may be transported, which is able to come up to human consciousness and to be interpreted there.

Garjajev and its colleague continued still another step. They analyzed the vibration response of the DNA and found out that it follows quite complicated laws, which are however well known in the physics for a long time.

Those are the laws of nonlinear waveform-shaping, known since center of 19 century as so-called Soliton waves. They are known from observations, but so complicated that they may be calculated only with modern computers. Soliton waves are temporally extraordinarily stable and may store information in this way for a long time.

Summarizing all these realizations, one comes to a perfectly new form of the genetic engineering, possibly even to a new gene therapy.

Concerning this Pjotr Garjajev writes: »The majority tries to understand the principles of the DNA biological computer by appointing oneself exclusively to the DNA Watson Crick Chargaff rules: A-T, G-C. That is correct, but it is so not enough! The DNA chromosomale continuum in living systems has wave attributes, which lets us derive the unknown, a computer-similar program for the setting up of the organisms. The well-known genetic code is a code for protein synthesis and nothing further. Chromosomes in vivo work as solitonic holographic computers under use of the endogenous DNA laser radiation.«

This sounds like science of the 21st century and probably is. But don't forget: Garjajevs statements are founded scientifically in theory and experiment.

The consequences of these realizations are as incomprehensible as simple and logical: If one modulates a laser beam by a frequency sample, then one may affect with this the information of the DNA waves and so the genetic information itself.

For this one does not even need to decode the language of the pairs of bases in laborious work, in order to formulate from it artificially genetic information, but one can use quite easily words and sentences of the human language! The bases of the language structures are, as we in now know, the same.

Also this astonishing conclusion the Muscovites group of researchers could prove already experimentally. DNA substance in vivo (i.e. in the living fabric, not in the test tube) reacts to language-modulated laser light, even to radio waves, if one keeps the correct resonant frequencies.

In this way unknown possibilities are opened to the medicine. One may design devices, with which through suitably modulated radio or light radiation cell metabolism may be affected, even the repair of genetic defects is possible, without all the risks and side effects of the classical-biochemical proceeding.

Garjajevs group of researchers could already prove that with this method chromosomes may be repaired, which were damaged e.g. by x-rays. The effects on medical therapy possibilities of the coming century are immense: one can develop devices for new, subtle cancer therapy, also for the treatment of aids and for the slowing down of the aging process.

Already today devices are in use also in German university clinics, with whose assistance cancer patients are exposed to frequency-modulated magnetic field irradiation. The results are promising.

We see here that the objectives of the Muscovites researchers deviate from those of the western human Genome Project in principle. While in the western science the trend is to develop new chemical medicines from as much as possible items of information from the genes - a procedure, which is however not free from substantial risks, a potential giant business -, the Russian scientists have a rather holistic understanding of the DNA leading to the development of therapy devices, which may replace some expensive and dangerous medicine in the long term.

Quite beside from the new wave theory of the genetic code still some further interesting facts follow. For example one knows for a long time that almost any bodily function, particularly also in the metabolism and in the hormone production, can be affected by suggestive strength of the spoken word, although they run perfectly autonomously, thus under elimination of the conscious will, whereupon the impact of the medical hypnosis is based. These facts are well-known, however could not be explained so far scientifically.

The medical model of the psycho neuro immunology led back the effect of hypnotic suggestions so far exclusively to control mechanisms in the brain, particularly in the regions, which are assumed to contain subconscious layers.

Now it looks that it is much simpler: the DNA is able to react directly to the spoken word.

Also different therapy procedures, whose impact was inexplicable so far, as for instance the Chinese acupunkture, may be explained with help of the DNA wave theory in Garjajev's opinion scientifically.

If we summarize the research results of Professor Popp and Professor Garjajev, then a remarkable connection results: Light actually represents an important factor in the power supply of our hereditary molecule, the DNA. It provides healthy functioning of all procedures in our cells. However it cannot form a complete replacement for material food alone.

The information, which will transfer via the light, is much more important. The DNA communicates in this way - perhaps with other organisms or with a superordinate plan - which a morphogenetic field, which could be proven by the research in Russia for the first time scientifically.

In this way the genetic information of each cell can employ comparisons of their actual condition with a specified condition each time and arrange possibly necessary repairs. This can prevent or at least stop diseases such as cancer or aids, in addition, slow down the age process.

The modern wave genetics is one of the key technologies for the coming millennium, and we can be strained, what science will discover in this area in the very near future.
I Speak of Dreams: Annals of Quackery: Hypnosis and Dyslexia

4. The press release also claims that hypnosis is a valid treatment for dyslexia based on a "scientific release" from a Russian scientist, biophysicist and molecular biologist Pjotr Garjajev, with the following claims"

"scientifically proven that affirmations along with meditation/ hypnosis (another term for meditation) will raise consciousness, well-being, and even change DNA

Garjajev has no citations in Pubmed. The claim for DNA modulation seems to come from the article entitled, "The Biological Chip in our Cells", by Grazyna Fosar and Franz Bludorf, published on their website, "German Magazine KonteXt reports on current developments within the ranges of border science and spirituality." There are a number of claims made, but no data to back up the claims. Remember, "Extraordinary claims demand extraordinary proof". We can reject the Fosar-Bludorf claims for lacking evidence...
Quantum Phenomena in Biology

1. Genetic code only half the story - DNA is a quantum mechanical biowave computer

Recent research has demonstrated that electromagentic signals are of key importance in the regulatory functioning of DNA . Part of it is based on ultraviolet luminence creating biophotons that have been experimentally demonstrated to be able to enhance metabolic reactions thousandfold (1). Another aspect is an electromagnetically mediated "language" for communication between DNA and the cells. Actually laser light generated in DNA, experimentally demonstrated by P.P. Garajev (2),(3) is a key element in this information transmission system.

Excerpt from:

Gariaev P., et al, "The DNA-wave Biocomputer" (3)

"...These assumptions produce a chromosome apparatus and fast wave genetic information channels connecting the chromosomes of the separate cells of an organism into a holistic continuum, working as the biocomputer, where one of the field types produced by the chromosomes, are their radiations. This postulated capability of such "laser radiations" from chromosomes and DNA, as will be shown, has already been demonstrated experimentally in Moscow, by the Gariaev Group. Thus it seems the accepted notions about the genetic code must change fundamentally, and in doing so it will be not only be possible to create and understand DNA as a wave biocomputer, but to gain from nature a more fundamental understanding of what information [Marcer in press] really is! For the Gariaev Group's experiments in Moscow and Toronto say that the current understanding of genomic information i.e. the genetic code, is only half the story [Marcer this volume]. "


1. Kaznacejev V. P., Michailova L. P. Ultraschwache Luminiszenz in interzellularen Interaktionen. Novosibirsk, Nauka, 1981 (in Russian.)

2. Garjajev P. P. Der wellengenetische Code. 1997, ISBN 5-7816-0022-1 (in Russian.)

3. Peter P. Gariaev, Boris I. Birshtein, Alexander M. Iarochenko, Peter J. Marcer, George G. Tertishny, Katherine A. Leonova, Uwe Kaempf, "The DNA-wave Biocomputer" at

The DNA-Wave Biocomputer

Peter P. Gariaev*, Boris I. Birshtein*, Alexander M. Iarochenko*, Peter J. Marcer**,

George G. Tertishny*, Katherine A. Leonova*, Uwe Kaempf ***.

* Institute Control of Sciences Russian Academy of Sciences,

Moscow, Russia,, and

Wave Genetics Inc. 87 Scollard Street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5R 1G4,,

**53 Old Vicarage Green, Keynsham, Bristol, BS31 2DH, UK,,

*** Institut f. Klinische, Diagnostische und Differentielle Psychologie- Am Falkenbrunnen - D-01062 Dresden TU, Dresden, Germany,


This paper reports experimental work carried out in Moscow at the Institute of Control Sciences, Wave Genetics Inc. and theoretical work from several sources. This work changes the notion about the genetic code essentially. It asserts: -

1) That the evolution of biosystems has created genetic "texts", similar to natural context dependent texts in human languages, shaping the text of these speech-like patterns.

2) That the chromosome apparatus acts simultaneously both as a source and receiver of these genetic texts, respectively decoding and encoding them, and

3) That the chromosome continuum of multicellular organisms is analogous to a static-dynamical multiplex time-space holographic grating, which comprises the space-time of an organism in a convoluted form.

That is to say, the DNA action, theory predicts and which experiment confirms,

i) is that of a "gene-sign" laser and its solitonic electro-acoustic fields, such that the gene-biocomputer "reads and understands" these texts in a manner similar to human thinking, but at its own genomic level of "reasoning". It asserts that natural human texts (irrespectively of the language used), and genetic "texts" have similar mathematical-linguistic and entropic-statistic characteristics, where these concern the fractality of the distribution of the character frequency density in the natural and genetic texts, and where in case of genetic "texts", the characters are identified with the nucleotides, and ii) that DNA molecules, conceived as a gene-sign continuum of any biosystem, are able to form holographic pre-images of biostructures and of the organism as a whole as a registry of dynamical "wave copies" or "matrixes”, succeeding each other. This continuum is the measuring, calibrating field for constructing its biosystem.

Keywords: DNA, wave-biocomputer, genetic code, human language, quantum holography.

1. What Theory Predicts.

1.1 Introduction.

How did this new theory take shape? The principle problem of the creation of the genetic code, as seen in all the approaches [Gariaev 1994; Fatmi et al. 1990; Perez 1991: Clement et al. 1993; Marcer, Schempp 1996; Patel, 2000] was to explain the mechanism by means of which a third nucleotide in an encoding triplet, is selected. To understand, what kind of mechanism resolves this typically linguistic problem of removing homonym indefiniteness, it is necessary firstly to postulate a mechanism for the context-wave orientations of ribosomes in order to resolve the problem of a precise selection of amino acid during protein synthesis [Maslow, Gariaev 1994]. This requires that some general informational intermediator function with a very small capacity, within the process of convolution versus development of sign regulative patterns of the genome-biocomputer endogenous physical fields. It lead to the conceptualization of the genome's associative-holographic memory and its quantum nonlocality. These assumptions produce a chromosome apparatus and fast wave genetic information channels connecting the chromosomes of the separate cells of an organism into a holistic continuum, working as the biocomputer, where one of the field types produced by the chromosomes, are their radiations. This postulated capability of such "laser radiations" from chromosomes and DNA, as will be shown, has already been demonstrated experimentally in Moscow, by the Gariaev Group. Thus it seems the accepted notions about the genetic code must change fundamentally, and in doing so it will be not only be possible to create and understand DNA as a wave biocomputer, but to gain from nature a more fundamental understanding of what information [Marcer in press] really is! For the Gariaev Group's experiments in Moscow and Toronto say that the current understanding of genomic information i.e. the genetic code, is only half the story [Marcer this volume].

1.2 What experiment confirms, part one.

These wave approaches all require that the fundamental property of the chromosome apparatus is the nonlocality of the genetic information. In particular, quantum nonlocality/teleportation within the framework of concepts introduced by Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen (EPR) [Sudbery 1997; Bouwmeester et al.1997]. This quantum nonlocality has now, by the experimental work of the Gariaev Group, been directly related (i) to laser radiations from chromosomes, (ii) to the ability of the chromosome to gyrate the polarization plane of its own radiated and occluded photons and (iii) to the suspected ability of chromosomes, to transform their own genetic-sign laser radiations into broadband genetic-sign radio waves. In the latter case, the polarizations of chromosome laser photons are connected nonlocally and coherently to polarizations of radio waves. Partially, this was proved during experiments in vitro, when the DNA preparations interplaying with a laser beam (=632.8nm ), organized in a certain way, polarize and convert the beam simultaneously into a radio-frequency range. In these experiments, another extremely relevant phenomenon was detected: photons, modulated within their polarization by molecules of the DNA preparation. These are found to be localized (or "recorded") in the form of a system of laser mirrors' heterogeneities. Further, this signal can "be read out" without any essential loss of the information (as theory predicts [ Gariaev 1994; Marcer, Schempp 1996]), in the form of isomorphously (in relation to photons) polarized radio waves. Both the theoretical and experimental research on the convoluted condition of localized photons therefore testifies in favour of these propositions.

These independently research approaches also lead to the postulate, that the liquid crystal phases of the chromosome apparatus (the laser mirror analogues) can be considered as a fractal environment to store the localized photons, so as to create a coherent continuum of quantum-nonlocally distributed polarized radio wave genomic information. To a certain extent, this corresponds with the idea of the genome's quantum-nonlocality, postulated earlier, or to be precise, with a variation of it.

This variation says that the genetic wave information from DNA, recorded within the polarizations of connected photons, being quantum-nonlocal, constitutes a broadband radio wave spectrum correlated - by means of polarizations - with the photons. Here, the main information channel, at least in regard to DNA, is the parameter of polarization, which is nonlocal and is the same for both photons and the radio waves. A characteristic feature is, that the Fourier-image of the radio spectra is dynamic, depending essentially on the type of matter interrogated. It can therefore be asserted, that this phenomenon concerns a new type of a computer (and biocomputer) memory, and also a new type of EPR spectroscopy,namely one featuring photon-laser-radiowave polarization spectroscopy.The fundamental notion is, that the photon-laser-radiowave features of different objects (i.e. the Fourier-spectra of the radiowaves of crystals, water, metals, DNA, etc) are stored for definite but varying times by means of laser mirrors, such that the "mirror spectra" concern chaotic attractors with a complex dynamic fractal dynamics, recurring in time. The Gariaev Group experiments are therefore not only unique in themselves, they are a first example, that a novel static storage/recording environment (laser mirrors) exists, capable of directly recording the space-time atomic/molecular rotary dynamical behaviour of objects. Further the phenomena, detected by these experiments described in part two, establish the existence of an essentially new type of radio signal, where the information is encoded by polarizations of electromagnetic vectors. This will be the basis of a new type of video recording, and will create a new form of cinema as well.

Further experimental research has revealed the high biological (genetic) activity of such radio waves, when generated under the right conditions by DNA. For example, by means of such artificially produced DNA radiations, the super fast growth of potatoes (up to 1 cm per day) has been achieved, together with dramatic changes of morphogenesis resulting in the formation of small tubers not on rootstocks but on stalks. The same radiations also turned out to be able to cause a statistically authentic "resuscitation" of dead seeds of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, which were taken from the Chernobyl area in 1987. By contrast, the monitoring of irradiations by polarized radio waves, which do not carry information from the DNA, is observed to be biologically inactive. In this sequence of experiments, additional evidence was also obtained in favour of the possibility of the existence of the genetic information in form of the polarization of a radio wave physical field. This supports the supposition that the main information channel in these experiments is the biosign modulations of polarizations mediated by some version of quantum nonlocality. A well known fact can therefore be seen in new light, namely, that the information biomacromolecules - DNA, RNA and proteins - have an outspoken capacity to optical rotatory dispersion of visible light and of circular dichroism. Similarly, the low molecular components of biosystems, such as saccharides, nucleotides, amino acids, porphyrins and other biosubstances have the same capacity; a capacity, which until now made little biological sense. Now, however, it supports, the contention that this newly detected phenomenon of quantized optical activity can be considered as the means by which the organism obtains unlimited information on its own metabolism. That is, such information is read by endogenous laser radiations of chromosomes, which, in their turn, produce the regulative ("semantic") radio emission of the genome biocomputer. Furthermore, the apparent inconsistency between the wavelengths of such radiations and the sizes of organisms, cells and subcell structures is abrogated, since the semantic resonances in the biosystems' space are realized not at the wavelength level, but at the level of frequencies and angles of twist of the polarization modes. This mechanism is the basis for the artificial laser-radio-wave vitro-in vivo scanning of the organism and its components.

However, chromosome quantum nonlocality as a phenomenon of the genetic information is seen as particularly important in multicellular organisms and as applying on various levels.

The 1-st level is that the organism as a whole. Here nonlocality is reflected in the capacity for regeneration, such that any part of the body recreates the whole organism, as, for example, in case of the worm Planaria. That is to say, any local limiting of the genetic information to any part of a biosystem is totally absent. The same concerns the vegetative reproduction of plants.

The 2nd level is the cellular level. Here it is possible to grow a whole organism out of a single cell. However with highly evolved animal biosystems, this will be a complex matter.

The 3rd level is the cellular-nuclear level. The enucleation of nuclei from somatic and sexual cells and the subsequent introduction into them of other nuclei does not impede the development of a normal organism. Cloning of this kind has already been carried out on higher biosystems, for example, sheep.

The 4th level is the molecular level: here, the ribosome "would read" mRNA not only on the separate codons, but also on the whole and in consideration of context.

The 5th level is the chromosome-holographic: at this level, a gene has a holographic memory, which is typically distributed, associative, and nonlocal, where the holograms "are read" by electromagnetic or acoustic fields. These carry the gene-wave information out beyond the limits of the chromosome structure. Thus, at this and subsequent levels, the nonlocality takes on its dualistic material-wave nature, as may also be true for the holographic memory of the cerebral cortex [ Pribram 1991; Schempp 1992; 1993; Marcer, Schempp 1997; 1998]

The 6th level concerns the genome's quantum nonlocality. Up to the 6th level, the nonlocality of bio-information is realized within the space of an organism. The 6th level has, however, a special nature; not only because it is realized at a quantum level, but also because it works both throughout the space of a biosystem and in a biosystems own time frame. The billions of an organism's cells therefore "know" about each other instantaneously, allowing the cell set is to regulate and coordinate its metabolism and its own functions. Thus, nonlocality can be postulated to be the key factor explaining the astonishing evolutionary achievement of multicellular biosystems. This factor says that bioinformatic events, can be instantaneously coordinated, taking place "here and there simultaneously", and that in such situations the concept of "cause and effect" loses any sense. This is of a great importance! The intercellular diffusion of signal substances and of the nervous processes is far too inertial for this purpose. Even if it is conceded that intercellular transmissions take place electro-magnetically at light speeds, this would still be insufficient to explain how highly evolved, highly complex biosystems work in real time [Gariaev 1994; Ho 1993]. The apparatus of quantum nonlocality and holography is in authors' view, indispensable to a proper explanation of such real time working. The 6th level therefore says, the genes can act as quantum objects, and that, it is the phenomenon of quantum non-locality/teleportation, that ensures the organism's super coherency, information super redundancy, super knowledge, cohesion and, as a totality or whole, the organism's integrity (viability).

Indeed it can be said that this new understanding of biocomputers, constitutes a further step in a development of computer technology in general. An understanding that will bring about a total change of the constituent basis of that technology, in the history of analogue > to > digital > to > now, the figurative semantic (nonlocal) wave computer or biocomputer. This biocomputer will be based on new understanding of the higher forms of the DNA memory, and the chromosome apparatus, as the recording, storaging, transducing and transmitting system for genetic information, that must be considered simultaneously both at the level of matter and at the level of physical fields. The latter fields, having been just studied, as showed experimentally in this research, are carriers of genetic and general regulative information, operating on a continuum of genetic molecules (DNA, RNA, proteins, etc). Here, previously unknown types of memory (soliton, holographic, polarization) and also the DNA molecule, work both as biolasers and as a recording environment for these laser signals. The genetic code, considered from such a point of view, will be essentially different from today's generally accepted but incomplete model. This, the wave-biocomputer model asserts, only begins to explain the apparatus of protein biosynthesis of living organisms, providing an important interpretation for the initial stages within this new proposed composite hierarchic chain of material and field, sign, holographic, semiotic-semantic and, in the general case, of figurative encoding and deciphering chromosome functions. Here the DNA molecules, conceived as a gene-sign continuum of any biosystem, are able to form pre-images of biostructures and of the organism as a whole as a registry of dynamical "wave copies" or "matrixes", succeeding each other. This continuum is the measuring, calibrating field for constructing any biosystem.

1.3 Features of the Wave Model

Adleman [1994], for example, has used the mechanism for fast and precise mutual recognition between the DNA anti-parallels half-chains to solve the "the travelling salesman's problem". However in the wave model of biosystems, this is only one aspect of the self-organization taking place. For here, as the experimental evidence now confirms, the mutual recognition of one DNA anti parallel half chain (+) by the other (-) concerns special super persistent/resonant acoustic-electromagnetic waves or solitons. Such DNA solitons have two connected types of memory. The first is typical of the phenomenon discovered by Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) [Fermi, 1972]. It concerns the capability of non-linear systems to remember initial modes of energisation and to periodically repeat them [Dubois 1992]. The DNA liquid crystals within the chromosome structure form such a non-linear system. The second is that of the DNA-continuum in an organism. Such memory is an aspect of the genome's nonlocality. It is quasi-holographic/fractal, and relates, as is the case for any hologram or fractal, to the fundamental property of biosystems i.e. to their ability to restore the whole out of a part. This property is well known (grafting of plants, regeneration of a lizard's tail, regeneration of a whole organism from the oocyte). And a higher form of such a biological memory would be a holographic (associative) memory of the brain cortex, i.e. of its neural network [Pribram 1991; Schempp 1992; Marcer Schempp 1997, 1998; Sutherland 1999]. Such wave sign encoding/decoding therefore, like DNA's ability to resolve "the traveling salesman's problem", is, it can be hypothesized, an integral part of DNA's computational biofunctionality. Indeed DNA solitary waves (solitons), and in particular, the nucleotide waves of oscillatory rotation, "read" the genome's sign patterns, so that such sign vibratory dynamics may be considered as one of many genomic non-linear dynamic semiotic processes. The expression "DNA's texts";, borrowed earlier as a metaphor from the linguists, is it turns out therefore related directly to actual human speech. For as mathematical-linguistic research into DNA and human speech textual patterns, shows [Maslow, Gariaev 1994] the key parameter of both such patterns is fractality. It can therefore be hypothesized that the grammar of genetic texts is a special case of the general grammar of all human languages.

Returning however to DNA computation based on matter-wave sign functions with a view to realizing its wave coding capabilities, as distinct those used by Adleman, which might be termed its matter capabilities. Such true wave control capabilities of the DNA or chromosomes are, we hypothesize, those conditions that apply inside the living cell, i.e. in an aqueous solution but which correspond to a liquid-crystal condition as well. For under such conditions, in the unique circumstances of cell division, the living cell has the ability to replicate itself, and has the property of what in relation to a self replicating automaton, von Neumann [1966] called "universal computer construction" so that we may say that the living cell is such a computer based on DNA [Marcer Schempp 1997a]. And while the artificial cloning of a single cell is not yet feasible, what we have been able to do, is to record the DNA-wave information appropriate to these wave sign conditions of the DNA in a cell on laser mirrors, and to use, for example, the recorded DNA-wave information from living seeds in the form of radio waves to resuscitate the corresponding "dead" seeds damaged by radioactivity.

The next step forward is therefore to bring into general use, such wave information and memory as now newly identified in relation to DNA and gene structure. Such applications could be on the basis of, for example,

i) The FPU-recurrence phenomenon, and/or,

ii) The ability to record holograms, as well as,

iii) The recording the polarization-wave DNA's information onto localized photons.

Regarding volume and speed, such memory could exceed many times over the now available magnetic and optical disks, as well as current classical holographic systems. But in particular, such applications may employ the principles of quantum nonlocality. For DNA and the genome have now been identified as active "laser-like" environments, where, as experimentally shown, chromosome preparations may act as a memory and as "lasers", with the abilities i), ii) and iii) above. And finally there are the quasi-speech features of the DNA, as these concern both natural gene texts, and artificial (synthesized) sign sequences of polynucleotides, which emulate natural quasi-speech gene programs. However, we believe this maybe a rather dangerous path, where a regulatory system of prohibitions on artificial wave genes is indispensable. The reason is that such an approach to DNA-wave biocomputation means entering new semiotic areas of the human genome and the biosphere in general; areas, which are used by the Nature to create humankind. This thought follows from the theoretical studies on a collective symmetry of the genetic code as carried out by the Eigen's laboratory [Scherbak, 1988] at the Max Planck Institute in Germany. This research shows, that the key part of the information, already recorded and still being recorded as quasi-speech in the chromosomes of all organisms on our planet, may concern semantic exobiological influences, since in regard to DNA-wave biocomputation, DNA acts as a kind of aerial open to the reception of not only the internal influences and changes within the organism but to those outside it as well. Indeed we regard this as one of our primary findings, which in view of quantum nonlocality of organisms extends not only to the organism's local environment, but also beyond it to the extent of the entire universe.

With reference to what we have said already, it is possible to offer the following perspectives on the sign manipulations with gene structures.

1.Creation of artificial memory on genetic molecules, which will indeed possess both fantastic volume and speed.

2.Creation of biocomputers, based on these totally new principles of DNA-wave biocomputation, which use quantum teleportation [Sudbury 1997] and can be compared to the human brain regarding methods of data processing and functional capabilities.

3.The implementation of a remote monitoring of key information processes inside biosystems by means of such artificial biocomputers, resulting in treatments for cancer, AIDS, genetic deformities, control over socio-genetic processes and eventually prolongation of the human life time.

4.Active protection against destructive wave effects, thanks to wave-information channel detectors.

5.Establishing exobiological contacts.

2. What Experiment Confirms, part two, the Experiments

Some of the experiments and computer simulations carried out in Moscow are now described. They set out in more detail how the understanding in sections 1. was arrived at. These descriptions concern the specific apparatus used and results obtained, together with computer simulations carried out to validate specific aspects of the developing understanding,
Photograph 1. This first picture shows a photograph of the experimental apparatus. The principal elements are a laser, the light of which is directed through a lens system and a DNA sandwich sample as shown diagrammatically below

Diagram 1. Illustrates the workings of the experiment which employs a dynamic light scattering system of the type Malvern.

This understanding is then compared in section 3 with an entirely independently researched prospective obtained by Marcer, and Schempp [1996].

This shows the scattering by the DNA sample of the laser light, which is then guided through another lens system into the type Malvern analysing device, which counts the photons registered in different serial channels.The results of two experiments are shown at end of paper: the first entitled "Background - Empty Space", done without a DNA sample, and the second, with it in place, entitled "Physical DNA in SSC Solution".

The latter has the typical form of a periodically reoccurring pattern, which is of the same functional type as found in an autocorrelation. Such regularly occurring periodic patterns have an interpretation in terms of the phenomenon of so-called Fermi-Pasta-Ulam recurrence, which concerns solitonic waves. That is to say, this interpretation says that roughly speaking, the DNA, considered as a liquid-crystal gel-like state, acts on the incoming light in the manner of a solitonic Fermi-Pasta-Ulam lattice, as illustrated here:


The leading question, if this is the case, is what could such action achieve? The starting idea was that it must be concerned with the reading of the genetic texts encoded in the DNA, where however this language metaphor is now applied directly to these texts. That is to say, rather than the usual analogy taking such texts as a digital computer language or symbolic instruction code, such texts are considered instead as having the semantic and generative grammatical features of a spoken or written context dependent human language. That is, we conceived of the DNA acting in the same way as the human would, when presented with a text from a good book on a fascinating theme, which, as it is read, invokes actual 3 dimensional pictures/images in the mind's eye.

The reason for this choice concerned the problem in DNA coding raised by the question of synonymy and homonymy as it applies to the third element/codon of the codon triplets. For while, see figure below, synonymy even seems to provide a kind of redundancy, homonymy constitutes a serious difficulty under the often proposed postulate that only the first two elements of the DNA codon triplet (standing for a particular protein- the picture in the mind's eye, so to speak) are the significant ones. That is to say, how does the reading ribosome know which protein has to be generated, if the third nucleotide in codon's triplet does not of itself provide the answer with total certainty? The proposed answer was, that this ambiguity might be resolved by some kind of context dependent reading similar to that inherent in human speech and language understanding.
Figure: Synonymy versus Homonymy

Satisfyingly, this need to explain how such context-dependent reading might be implemented in the DNA reduplication/reading process, as will be shown, led back to the experimental evidence as presented above, for it supports the postulate that such context dependent reading of the DNA is indeed best understood in the framework of a biosolitonic process model.

A soliton is an ultra stable wave train often with a seemly simple closed shape, which can arise in the context of non-linear wave oscillations. It actually consists of a rather complexly interrelated assembly of sub wave structures, which keep the whole solitonic process in a stationary state over a comparatively long time. In the literature, a soliton is often described as an entity, which is neither a particle nor a wave in much the same way as is a quantum, for it, too has wave/particle duality. It can also be a means to carry information. Solitonic processing in DNA, would therefore, it was hypothesized, relate, in one of its aspects, the reading of the codons, to quantum computing [Patel 2000], and this could therefore concern the soliton viewed as the travelling "window", that opens in the double helix structure as the reading takes place, as is illustrated below:

It was therefore decided to model this reading process as a complex mechanical oscillator [Gariaev 1994], capable of producing solitonic wave transmissions, which takes the form of a system of rotary pendulums, like those in a certain type of pendulum clock, as illustrated,

to see if the computer simulations could shed more light on just what might be happening in the DNA. In the basic model, illustrated and shown below, each of the oscillatory movements of each element of the linked chain of oscillators depends heavily on the motion of its neighbours, and on the differences in the specific weights of the elements. Imagine now that the DNA forms such a kind of pendulum, whilst the intertwined helices/chains are opened at one particular section to provide the travelling window, as in the previous figure. That is to say, the model to be simulated is a chain of non-linear oscillators, the four types of which can be identified with the Adenine (A), Cytosine (C), Guanine (G), and Thymine (T) or Uracil (C) components DNA, all having different spatial structures and masses, and where there is a travelling window opened in the double helix. Such a model allows a rather complex pattern of oscillation in the DNA chain of elements, depending on the actual layout of the elements as specified by the actual genetic code sequence involved. The window as it travels, is therefore highly context dependent.

Starting at the following sequence:
Oh!!! And RE-Oh!!!!
The whole post is not passed :lol2:

Starting at the following sequence:


the figures, which follow, are those of the computer simulation of this process of the travelling window, carried out in relation to a particular fragment of viral DNA. The first two figures with respect to the simulation, where the vertical is the time axis, show what would happen, in case of a context dependent reading beginning from two different nucleotides of the DNA chain, namely the 400th and the 450th respectively. In both cases these concern activity in the form of a "kink", which runs through the chain of nucleotides, A, C, G, T. The second two figures show even more sophisticated types of context dependent effects. These concern the complex dynamic patterns, which arise when also taking into account the non-linear covalent connections between the nucleotides.

Thus subject to the assumption that DNA is a certain kind of liquid crystal structure with dynamic properties, where the interrelated solitonic activities are linked, as may be supposed, together to form a highly coherent wave structure, then:-

i) The masses of the nucleotides and other parameters show that these oscillatory activities should be located somewhere together in the "acoustic" wave domain, and

ii) That, as a liquid crystal, the DNA could influence the polarization of the weak light emission known to exist in cells, the so called "biophotons". This kind of emitted light in cells was first discovered by the Russian investigator Alexander Gurwitsch [1923], who called it the "mitogenic radiation". Today it is known from the work of Fritz Albert Popp [Popp, 2000], that such biophotonic or mitogenic light, while being ultraweak, is however on the other hand, highly coherent, so that it has an inherent laser-like light quality.

The experimental setting and the resulting simulations therefore say that:-

iii) The experimental laser beam is simply a substitute for the endogenous intracellular coherent light emitted by the DNA molecule itself, and that

iv) The superimposed coherent waves of different types in the cells are interacting to form diffraction patterns, firstly in the "acoustic" domain, and secondly in the electromagnetic domain. Furthermore such diffraction patterns are by definition (and as is known for example from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) [Binz, Schempp 2000a,b] a kind of quantum hologram. Thus, it seems that our original picture is confirmed and that the considered interaction between solitonic oscillations in the liquid crystal structure of DNA, and the polarization vector of the ultraweak biophotonic highly coherent light, could indeed be hypothetically understood as a mechanism of translation between holograms in the "acoustic" frequency domain, which concerns rather short range effects and those in the electromagnetic domain and vice versa.

The basis of such an hypothetical mechanism as a translation process, between acoustic and optical holograms, can be easily illustrated in the laboratory, where, as shown below, there is a fish illuminated in water by means of the acoustic radiation, in such a way that on the surface of the water an interference pattern or hologram forms, such that when this interference pattern is illuminated from above in the right way, by light of a high laser quality, a virtual visual image of the fish appears above the water. It shows that the hologram in question acts as a holographic transducer between the acoustic and electromagnetic domains.
Laboratory illustration of a holographic transducer between the acoustic and electromagnetic domains

This illustrated transduction when described in terms of the formalization of Huygens' principle of secondary sources [Jessel 1954], has been used as the basis of a new topological computing principle [Fatmi, Resconi 1988] which defines entire classes of non-commutative control structures, Fatmi et al [1990]. It was applied to DNA. and more recently to the brain [Clement et al. 1999].

3. Another Theoretical but Experimentally Validated Perspective - Quantum Holography

Sections 1 and 2 are in excellent agreement with the independently researched model of DNA produced by Marcer and Schempp [1996]. This explains the workings of the DNA-wave biocomputer in terms of a quantum mechanical theory called quantum holography

[Schempp 1992] used by Schempp [1998] and Binz and Schempp [2000a,b; 1999] to correctly predict the workings of MRI. These two DNA-wave biocomputer models are also, as cited, in good agreement with qubit model explanation of DNA more recently published by Patel [2000], and earlier independent researched models by Clement et al [1993] and Perez [1991].

The quantum holographic DNA-wave biocomputer model describes the morphology and dynamics of DNA, as a self-calibrating antenna working by phase conjugate adaptive resonance capable of both receiving and transmitting quantum holographic information stored in the form of diffraction patterns (which in MRI can be shown to be quantum holograms). The model describes how during the development of the embryo of the DNA's organism, these holographic patterns carry the essential holographic information necessary for that development. This would explain the almost miraculous way the multiplying assembly of individual cells is coordinated across the entire organism throughout every stage of its development - in complete agreement with the explanation arrived at in Moscow by Gariaev and his co-workers

The quantum holographic theory requires that the DNA consists of two antiparallel (phase conjugate) helices, between which (in conformity with DNA's known structure, ie the planes on which the base pairing takes place) the theory says, are located hologram planes/holographic gratings, where the necessary 3 spatial dimensional holographic image data of the organism is stored in agreement with the Gariaev group's hypothesis. It says, as described in relation to laser illumination of a DNA sample, that such illumination can be expected to turn the DNA into a series of active adaptive phase conjugate mirrors (see figure below)/holographic transducers (see figure of laboratory illustration earlier), from which would resonantly emerge a beam of radiation, on which is carried the holographic information as encoded in the DNA. As indeed is the case in the Gariaev group experiments already described. These experiments thus confirm the quantum holographic prediction that DNA functions an antenna capable of both encoding and decoding holographic information. This functionality is also in good agreement with the findings of Schempp [1986] that quantum holography is capable of modelling antennae such as synthetic aperture radars, and that this mathematical description of radar can be applied [Marcer and Schempp 1997] to a model, working by quantum holography, of the neuron. This model is in good accord with the biological neuron's information processing morphology and signal dynamics. As indeed are the quantum holographic models of the brain as a conscious system, and of the prokaryote cell [Marcer, Schempp 1996, 1997a]. It is a viewpoint originally voiced by de Broglie, who presciently pictured the electron as being guided by its own pilot wave or radar! These examples including MRI all demonstrate that quantum holograph does indeed incorporate signal theory into quantum physics and it can be hypothesized biocomputation.

Phase conjugate mechanism or mirror in the laboratory. Action of an active adaptive phase conjugate mirror

Furthermore, quantum holography predicts that the planes, in which the base pairing takes place, constitute a "paged" associative holographic memory and filter bank (carrying holograms which can be written and read) and which has no cross talk between the pages. The orthogonality of the holograms encoded on these pages, arises as the result of the sharp frequency adaptive coupling conditions (1), which specify very narrow spectral windows, i.e. the "pages".

(1) <Hv(a,b; x,y)| Hv(c,d ; x,y)> = 0 when frequency v is not equal v'

<Hv(a,b; x,y)| Hv(c,d ; x,y)> = <aOb | cOd> when v = v'

for non-degenerate four wavelet mixing where a,b,c,d are the corresponding wave functions of the mixing; Hv(a,b; x,y) is the holographic transform which in quantum holography defines the probability of detecting a wave quantum frequency v within a unit area attached to the point (x,y) of the hologram plane, where the wavelet mixing aOb takes place and is described in terms of a tensor multiplication O. The orthogonality condition (1) can be seen therefore as specifying a set of diagonal elements or trace Tr in a unit matrix in the frequency domain. It implies, as can be shown, that the Shannon encoding schema employed in DNA is optimally efficient, which following a billion or more years of evolution, in DNA could be expected to be the case.

The conditions (1) are therefore in excellent agreement with Gariaev group's conclusion. It confirms that the planes on which the base pairing takes places, concerns two quantum holograms, ie the wavelet mixings aOb and cOd, where each specifies a "context", one for the other. Further quantum holography predicts, based on the symmetries of the 3 dimensional representation of the Heisenberg Lie group G, that in relation to the quantum hologram defined by a wavelet mixing aOb, the coherent wavelet packet densities a(t)dt and b(t')dt' are indistinguishable by means of relative time and phase corrections applied to the respective wavelet pathways (x,y) in the hologram plane. That is, to say, the tensor operation O, in the case of quantum holography, describes a quantum entanglement, even though aOb defines a quantum hologram, from which quantum holography shows and MRI proves, holographic information can be both written/encoded and read/decoded.

Thus, mathematically, DNA can on the basis of quantum holography be thought of represented quantum mechanically very simply by the trace

Tr < a,b | c,d >

such that when the double helix is opened, in accordance with the Gariaev description above, this corresponds to the representation

< a,b | >< | c,d >

The process of completed duplication of DNA can therefore represented as

Tr<a,b | c,d>< a,b | c,d >

because as it is crucial to understand in the case of DNA, the two strands of the double helix are, quantum holography shows, not the same but phase conjugate, ie what biologists call complementary/antiparallel, and so must be represented within the context of DNA itself by a,b and c,d respectively. These pairs differ quantum holographyshows, constituting covariant and contragrediant representations, which are essentially topologically cohomologous [Marcer 2000]. It could explain why to quote de Duve [1984], just the two elementary base-pairing {A,U/T}and {G,C} of respectively the nucleotides Adenine and Uracil/Thymine together with Guanine and Cytosine, are needed, to "govern through the two relatively fragile structures they embody, the whole of information transfer throughout the biosphere". That is to say, in DNA, these two nucleotide base pairings are the universal chemical mechanisms producing the wavelet mixing O on the hologram planes (which they also define) such that DNA can then be given a shorthand description in terms of context dependent genetic texts written in the four letters A,T,G,C.

The topological differentiation referred to above follows from the fact that, while in quantum mechanics, a wave function is only determined up to an arbitrary phase, phase difference is of physical significance (as in holography), because there exists a class of quantum observables, which are the gauge invariant geometric phases of the state vector or wave function [Resta 1997; Schempp 1992; Anandan 1992]. These observables must therefore be distinguished from those which are the eigenvalues of some operator, usually the Hamiltonian or energy function. Such a state vector description (with gauge invariant phases) by means of which each DNA molecule can clearly be expected to be described, would explain the difference between the nature of quantum interference and quantum self interference, which DNA from its double helical structure can thus be recognized to concern.

In the above means of representing DNA therefore, | >< | represents by the quantum correspondence principle, the quantum soliton control [see also, Denschlag et al, 2000] or wavepacket activity rather than its classical soliton counterpart, which was the subject of the Moscow computer simulations. These all confirm the Gariaev group's conclusions reached as a result of their experiments, that DNA functions as a quantum coherent system/assembly (of now quantum oscillators) or whole, by means of quantum entanglement. A whole, where as (1) shows, this may be decomposed into an orthogonal family of holographically encoded 3 spatial dimensional images in line with the usual description of a quantum mechanical diagonalization. It also says in line with the Gariaev group's findings that DNA can be described as an "autocorrelation", where as shown here, this is an optimally efficient decomposition into a decorrelated family of holographic code primitives /holograms, and that this, as Schempp[1992] shows, follows from the fact a quantum mechanical harmonic oscillator (in this case the highly complex DNA molecule itself) is equivalent to an assembly of bosons each having one polarization state. The latter substantiates the Gariaev group conclusion that they have indeed discovered an entirely new form of electromagnetic vector by means of which holographic images are carried in the form of a polarization state, suitable for a new form of cinema, video and computer.

Quantum holography says that DNA satisfies the principle of computer construction [Von Neumann, 1966], since it carries a copy of itself, and is

(a) its own blueprint written in the genetic texts, where the mechanism engineering the DNA replication is the biophotonic electromagnetic field, while the "letters" of the genetic texts A, G, C, U are held invariant, but where,

(b) in the case of the replication of the organism, for which DNA is the blueprint written in the holographic information, the reverse is the case. That is, it is the "acoustic field" in this case, which mechanically constructs/engineers the organism out of the available matter, in accordance with the information held in the electromagnetic field holograms (these being held invariant in this case). This must therefore mean that Adenine, Uracil, Guanine, and Cytosine are invariants structures/weightings in both the acoustic and electromagnetic field domains. These mechanisms therefore correspond with the know basic features of quantum communication/information transfer known as quantum teleportation, which consists of two inseparable signal processes one classical, one quantum. The latter is instantaneous transmission from X to Y (unlimited in principle as to distance), but which cannot be used without the other, which is transmission from X to Y by conventional means at the speed of light or lower. In the case of DNA, therefore, it is the existence of the genetic text of the organism itself which constitutes the classical signal process of quantum teleportation, able to facilitate the quantum mechanical signal processes of both the copying of the DNA as its own blueprint, and of the construction of the organism (for which DNA is the blueprint) in a massively parallel way by the means of quantum teleportation.]

Remarkably too, quantum holography also confirms and is confirmed by another astonishing experimental finding. This is the so-called "DNA-Phantom-Effect" [Gariaev, Junin, 1989; Gariaev et al, 1991; Gariaev, 1994], a very intriguing phenomenon, widely discussed, when it was first found by Peter Gariaev. Later similar phenomenon termed 'mimicking the effect of dust' [Allison et al, 1990]. was detected by group of R.Pecora. This is the discovery that the pattern below, found in the first experiment described, when a laser illuminated DNA, does not immediately disappear if the DNA samples are removed from the apparatus. It continues in different form for sometime. An explanation would be that quantum holography defines an admitter/absorber quantum vacuum model of quantum mechanics in terms of annihilation/creation operators [Schempp 1993], implying that DNA does indeed behave like a single quantum, which induces a "hole" temporarily in the vacuum by its removal.

Graphs (a), (b), and (c) : 'Background – Empty Space', 'Physical DNA in SSC Solution', and 'Phantom DNA' respectively
Graphs (a), (b), and (c) Background – Empty Space, Physical DNA in SSC Solution, and Phantom DNA” respectively


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Journal of Non-Locality and Remote Mental Interactions Vol. I Nr. 2

The Wave, Probabilistic and Linguistic Representations of Cancer and HIV


Peter P. Gariaev*, George G. Tertishny, Katherine A. Leonova

*Chief Scientific Officer, Wave Genetics Inc.,
907 Alness Street, North York, ON M3J 2N2, Toronto, Canada.
(416) 6616614

Abstract: The basic assumptions of our work include the following: 1. the genome has a capacity for quasi-consciousness so that DNA “words” produce and help in the recognition of “semantically meaningful phrases”; 2. the DNA of chromosomes control fundamental programs of life in a dual way: as chemical matrixes and as a source of wave function and holographic memory; 3. processes in the substance-wave structures of the genome can be observed and registered through the dispersion and absorption of a bipolar laser beam. The present article brings forward considerable theoretical and experimental evidence in support of this model, and discusses its practical applications with respect to cancer and HIV therapeutic strategies.

I. The nature of HIV and cancer: problems in interpretation.

The challenge of HIV and cancer and the essence of Life both lie on the same plane. As of now, we still don't understand the most crucial facts about Life: how did it appear on earth and in which way it is coded in chromosomes? Several hypotheses are available, and each of them at best represents just a piece of reality. This is where the theoretical and biological difficulties in interpreting the HIV and cancer phenomena come from - and the price we are paying for this misunderstanding are the mistakes emerging in the treatment of these diseases. Both pathologies affect the most vital part in any biological system, namely, its genetic apparatus - the organism’s “self-knowledge”. And this is the paradox: we seem to know quite enough about chromosomes and DNA - oncogenes have already been found, the HIV genome has been studied, and it’s clear how these informational structures function in chromosomes. The genetic code and ribosome operation principles also seem to have been investigated in detail. But for some reason all this information is not enough to develop universal methods for a successful intervention against cancer and HIV.
A half-lie is the worst lie, because people have reason to believe it - and this is especially true with respect to the genetic coding paradigm. In this field, everything is an impregnable bastion for critics, and everything is ruled by dogma. Even the key definition, the strategic scheme of genetic coding (DNA-> RNA-> protein), is called “the Central Dogma”. Until recently, all attacks on this dogma seemed trivial and doomed to failure. That was an incorrect assumption, as it turned out. The accuracy and effectiveness of research strategies dealing with HIV, cancer and many other pathologies depend on whether we orderly understand the genetic coding mechanism. The discovery of reverse transcriptase was the first spectacular breach in this dogma, which as a result was re-assigned a more discreet, working-hypothesis status: DNA Û RNA--> protein. However, our ideas on protein biosynthesis are gradually eroding: each new model is just an approach to the truth, to the understanding of the genome language-image pluralism as coding tool for the spatiotemporal structure of biosystems [32, 33].

II. What do we want to prove?

In this paper we intend to propose ideas which are not aimed at the final destruction of the so-called genetic code “canonical” triplet model, but at the development and establishment of its exact position in the knowledge basis of the chromosome operational principles. Yes, it’s possible to state that the triplet code is the truth. However, this truth is as correct as the statement that we could write a word using an alphabet. That statement is certainly right. But if we try, based only on this knowledge, to go further and vouch that by means of this alphabet we can compile grammatically-correct sentences, this new statement won’t be accurate. Such a statement is incorrect, in fact, because for the compilation of human speech laws of syntax, logic and grammar have to be applied. As for the genome, it’s a very speech-like and logical structure, but its fundamental features are not the only way to express genome associative-semantic structures. Furthermore, we are inclined to agree with V.V.Nalimov’s ideas [43] leading us to the conclusion that a genome possesses quasi-conscious abilities. The logic we use and the models we developed are only an attempt to obtain higher-level understanding of laws pertaining to genetic text structuring or to other genome vital structures - knowledge which is now just beginning to emerge. The Russian researchers A.G.Gurwitch [38], V.N.Beklemishev [29] and A.A.Lyubitchev [41] laid the foundation of this science in the late 1920s.

What type of approaches might enrich the commonly-accepted genetic coding theory and how can these innovations assist in resolving the HIV and cancer issues, in particular? Let’s assume, until getting a final proof, three "axioms" which have already gotten definite theoretical and experimental confirmation [8, 32, 33, 37]:

DNA molecules, included in chromosomes, possess a substance--wave duality which is similar to the dualism of elementary particles. In accordance with it, DNA codes an organism in two ways, both with the assistance of DNA matter and by DNA sign wave functions, including coding at its own laser radiation level - [28].

The genetic apparatus can be non-local at the molecular level (holographic memory of a chromosome continuum) and at the same time quantum mechanically non-local in compliance with the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen effect [4]. The latter means that the genome genetic and other regulatory wave information is recorded at the polarization level of its photons and is non-locally (everywhere and in no time) transferred (plays out) throughout the entire space of a biosystem by the polarization code parameter. This helps to set a quick-response information contact among the billions of cells constituting an organism.

The genome on the whole and the individual nucleus of cells can generate and recognize text-associative regulatory structures with the application of a background principle, holography and quantum non-locality.

III. What’s the next step?

Let’s assume that final proofs of the above-mentioned statements have been obtained. Then the problem of HIV and cancer rises to an altogether different intellectual dimension.

For instance, what does the “DNA matter-wave dualism” mean - and in which way is it linked with the chromosome's numerous code functions? (Note: by code function we understand processes which are dramatically differed from the known triplet genetic code) In some sense, the genome operates like a complex multiwave laser with adjustable frequencies. It emits DNA light which is gene- and sign-modulated by amplitude, phase, frequency and polarization. Moreover, the genome is also likely to be a radio wave emitter converting a wide spectrum of coherent sign-polarized radio bands [37] (P.P. Gariaev, G.G.Tertyshniy, Ye.A. Leonova, etc. Radio wave spectroscopy of local photons: exit to quantum non-local bioinformational processes. Sensors and Systems (2000, N9, pp. 2-13). The genome is also a dynamical multiple hologram which is able to produce light and radio wave images [37] which carry out management functions by the biosystem. These structures are also the carriers of electromagnetic marking schemes (calibration fields) of biosystems’ space and time organization. And finally, the genome is a quasi-text form possessing elements of quantum non-locality, which can without any time delay “read” itself in billions of cells and use information, thereby received, as a control blueprint for living functions and structural organization [8, 37]. Many biologists and geneticists, let alone doctors, are likely to consider these new concepts of genome organization as extremely complicated. However, not all of them will: these ideas, whose seeds were first planted in Russia in the 1920s, have seen a dramatic and accelerating development over the last decade.

This clearly suggests that it’s necessary to modify our strategy in searching for HIV and cancer cures, as the traditional approaches to solving this issue increasingly resemble the wish to produce a good harvest, having planted an asphalt road. The new strategy has to be based on fundamental investigations of substance-wave duality and quasi-speech attributes of a higher system genome. Let’s stress once again that we consider a chromosome continuum as a sign laser & radio wave emitter [8, 33, 37], and direct experimental evidences allows us to think so. For instance, to demonstrate laser abilities of genetic structures, we showed that DNA and chromatin in vitro could be pumped as a laser-active medium for a consequent laser light generation [28].

If we accept these vital characteristics of a genome, then new specific issues arise: for example, does the sign character of chromosome laser & radio wave radiation change when a xenobiotic HIV genome inserts itself into it? And, at the same time, what happens to the radiation “semantics” during a transposition of oncogenes or any other mobile polynucleotide sequences as well as during B<--> Z and other conformational transitions of DNA in-vivo? Are these changes linked to an alteration of quasi- and real holographic programs, i.e. are new programs created and old ones changed, or are these programs erased, and so on? Does the radiation polarization parameter retain, in semiotic sense, its dynamic properties in the process of genome reorganization? Do all these changes influence ribosome operation? Further questions may arise. The answer to any of them can play a key role in interpreting the nature of HIV and cancer.

IV. Theoretical structures - more details

Let’s take another fundamental problem. Oncogene and HIV genomes, occupying certain positions in a 3D space of master cell chromosomes, do not express themselves as pathogenic factors until a certain time. In this sense, the behavior of HIV in the infected patient’s organism is unpredictable. HIV's latency period may vary from a week to 10 years. A specific mechanism of HIV-infection induction from the latent (sleeping) condition is thought to exist, but this mechanism is still misunderstood and, therefore, the opportunity to make HIV viruses permanently latent in the human organism is being missed. In this condition, the organism and the cells simply “don’t notice” them or even, as in the case of oncogenes, use them for their own benefit as a reproduction factor. Why does an organism adequately accept and contain them until a certain time X, and why they are semantically reborn, causing a management catastrophe in cell, after the X-time has come? Following our logic, it’s possible to think that both in the pathologic and normal state four factors are engaged, at least: genome “holography” and “linguistics”, genome background (context) self-organization, and its quantum non-locality.

In the course of evolution, biosystems have produced their own genetic “texts” and a biocomputing genome as a quasi- intelligent “subject” which “reads and understands” these texts at its level. The fact that natural human texts (it doesn’t matter what the language is) and genetic “texts” have similar mathematical & linguistic and entropy-statistical characteristics is extremely important for the genome elementary “intelligence”. This relates, in particular, to concepts such as the fractality of letters' occurrence frequency density distribution (in genetic “texts”, nucleotides execute function of letters) [21].

American researchers obtained another confirmation of the genome coding function linguistic interpretation [20]. Dealing with the “coding” and “non-coding” eukaryote DNA sequences [(in the framework of old concepts of a gene), they came to a conclusion which was similar with ours and which conflicted with the central dogma that meaningful functions are concentrated only in the protein-coding DNA sections. The researchers applied a statistical analysis method for studying natural and musical texts, known as Zipf-Mandelbrot’s law, as well as the known Shannon postulate of text information redundancy calculated as a text entropy (more information about text entropy and statistics of words distribution in texts is given in [1, 25, 27, 31]). As a result, they found that DNA “non-coding” areas (space, intronic and others) had more in common with natural languages than the “coding” ones. Taking this for granted, the authors inferred that “non-coding” sequences of genetic molecules were the basis for one or more biological languages. Furthermore, the authors developed a statistical algorithm for searching DNA coding sequences; the algorithm they developed demonstrated that protein-coding areas had significantly fewer long-distance correlations, compared with areas separating these sequences. The DNA-sequence distribution was so sophisticated that the methods the researchers applied stopped working satisfactorily at distances of over 10^3-10^2 base pairs. Zipf-Mandelbrot’s distribution for “words” occurrence frequency, where the number of nucleotides ranged from 3 to 8, demonstrated that natural language had more in common with the non-coding sequences, than with the coding ones. It’s worth noting that the authors considered the coding only as a record of amino acid sequence information. And that was a paradox which made them state that DNA non-coding areas were not merely “junk”, but the lingual structures designed for reaching some still unknown goals. Despite the discovery of hidden complexity in these non-coding areas, the authors didn’t understand the implications of the long-distance correlations characterizing these structures. (They illustrated the process based on a family of genomes of the myosin heavy chain and assigned it to the evolutionary transition from lower taxons to higher taxons). The data presented in [20] is in full compliance with the ideas we had independently put forward [32, 33]; according to our point of view, DNA non-coding sequences, or approximately 95-98% of a genome, are a strategic informational content of chromosomes. The said context has a substance-wave nature and, therefore, is multidimensional and functions as a holographic associative-image and semantic program of embryological origin, the semantic continuation and the logic end of any biosystem. Having intuitively understood that the old genetic coding model led to a dead-end, the authors [20] said a nostalgic good-bye to this now-obsolete paradigm, but didn’t propose anything to replace it.

V. Homonymous-synonymous ambiguities of genetic texts. What does an organism need them for?

Text homonymy and synonymy are the common fundamental semantic properties of natural and genetic texts. These features provide chromosomes, natural texts and speech with redundant and multivalent information and, thus, ensure some adaptive flexibility. Ambivalent genetic texts acquire their monosemantic meaning owing to a variation of DNA sequence position in genome space through their transpositions and/or a transposition of their environment. This resembles the situation with natural texts and speech, in which homonymous-synonymous ambiguities of a semantic field are eliminated by the context (this background principle is described in [44]). Homonymies of coding doublets are easily found in the traditional genetic code triplet model. The meaning of these homonymies is still misunderstood and isn’t taken into account, with some exceptions [33, 35]. The perplexing issue of mRNA codon homonymies emerged with the creation of the triplet model of amino acid coding in the process of protein biosynthesis. It immediately became a “time-bomb”, since the correct explanation of a biological (informational) meaning of these homonymies automatically leads to the necessity of significant correction or complete revision of the triplet model. How are codons homonymies produced? A set of different amino acids is coded in mRNA codons by similar doublets; the third nucleotides in codons can relocate chaotically: they are wobbling and may become any of the four canonical ones. As a result, they don’t correlate with the coding amino acids [3, 11]. That’s why semantic ambiguity appears regarding the ribosome’s choice of amino acid-carrying-tRNA anti-codons. For instance, each synonymous codon of the standard code of higher biosystems (AGT and AGC) codes for serine, while each synonymous AGA and AGG codon codes for arginine. Thus, the third nucleotides of mRNA codons in combination with a sign doublet don’t have exact amino acid correlates; at the same time, the first two sign codon nucleotides are similar with one another, yet code different amino acids - hence the ambiguity in selecting tRNA anti-codons. In other words, a ribosome may take serine or arginine tRNA with an equal probability ; such an outcome can initiate synthesis of abnormal proteins. In fact, these mistake don’t occur and the precision of the protein synthesis process is extremely high. These mistakes appear only in some metabolically abnormal situations (the presence of some antibiotics, a lack of amino acids, etc.). Usually a ribosome somehow correctly chooses the tRNA anti-codons out of the homonymous doublets.

We think that the correct choice out of doublet anti-codon-homonyms is realized through a resonant-wave or context (associative, holographic) and/or “background” mechanisms. Amino acid code homonymity can be overcome in the same way as they are in natural languages - by the placement of a homonym in a complete phrase; the homonym decodes the context and attaches a unique meaning to it, thus resolving the ambiguity. That’s why mRNA, acting as a “phrase”, should operate in the protein synthesis process as an integral coding system, non-locally determining the sequence of amino acids at the level of tRNA aminoacylated associates, which interact in a global and complementary way with the entire mRNA molecule. Macrosteric disagreement between mRNA and tRNA continuums could be eliminated due to a conformational lability of macromolecules. The A-P sections of a ribosome are responsible for accepting these associated amino acids, with their consequent enzymatic sewing into peptide chains. In this case, a context-oriented unambiguous choice and elimination of the doublet-anticodon homonymy will occur. Considering the above, it’s possible to predict that the interaction of aminoacylated tRNAs with mRNAs has a collective phase character and is effected by a type of re-association (“annealing”) of one-string DNA upon the temperature reduction after melting of a native polynucleotide. Does any experimental evidence for this contention exist? Yes. A great deal of such information is available and collected in the analytical review [45]. Here we will only present some of the data. For example, the correctness of terminating codons recognition by tRNA molecules is known to depend on their context (that’s a confirmation of our theoretical model), in particular, on the existence of a uridine after the stop codon. In Paper [9] the following information is presented: the insertion of a line consisting of nine rarely-used CUA-leucine codons in the position after the 13th one (in the compound of 313 codons of the tested mRNA) resulted in active inhibition of their translation, yet did not notably influence the translation of other CUA-codon-containing mRNAs. Here, the translation context effect is clearly seen as a strategic influence of distant mRNA codons on the inclusion (or non-inclusion) of certain amino acids in the composition of a protein being synthesized. This is a remote influence, connected with the protein synthesis continuum; it’s also an example of the genetic apparatus’ non-local functions, whereby the protein-synthesizing apparatus recognizes mRNA not only in parts (by nucleotides, locally), but in one piece (non-locally) as well. However, in the work being cited this key phenomenon is only stated and remains inexplicable to the researchers; and probably for this reason they don’t even discuss it. Similar results continue to appear in the literature at an increasing rate. In the work under discussion the authors refer to half a dozen analogous situations, whose explanation in the classical interpretation is rather difficult. This obviously points to inconsistencies in the genetic code triplet model. The model also fails to explain the existence of unusually swollen anticodons. When they are involved in protein synthesis, the number of base pairs in the ribosome A-site exceeds 3 [45]. This finding challenges the dogmatic postulate of code triplets . Furthermore, studies of tRNA-tRNA interactions on ribosomes are presented in [45]; they offer full confirmation of our model, in which we consider an amino-acid-loaded tRNA complex as the predecessor of a protein. In [45] an important idea, very close to ours, was put forward: the influence of the mRNA context on monosemantic incorporation of amino acids into a peptide chain reflects some basic, still unstudied, laws of genetic information coding in the protein synthesis process. It’s worth remembering that genetic information about protein synthesis occupies only some 1% of a chromosome's total volume. The remaining 98.5% of the whole contain programs of a significantly higher level.

VI. Prions: the last blow to the central dogma of molecular biology

As we can see, the previously-existing hypotheses regarding the genetic code and the operation of the protein-synthesis apparatus have been grossly simplified. The prion phenomenon is likely to be the last argument in favor of a final revision of the molecular biology central dogma.

Prions are low-weight molecular parasitic proteins (PrPsc) targeting the brains of animals (mad-cow disease) and human beings (Alzheimer’s, Kreutzfeld-Jacob’s syndrome, etc.). Virus-like strain-specificity is an inexplicable feature of prions. This strain-specificity is only attributed to microorganisms or viruses which have a genetic apparatus. And yet, it’s thought that prions don’t have a genome, since all efforts to find traces of DNA or RNA in them have failed. An acute contradiction, which once again discredits the molecular biology central dogma, arises: prions don’t have a genome, but genetic signs are present. Some scientists, unable to explain this phenomenon and trying to “save” the central dogma, nevertheless suppose that DNA or RNA traces are hidden in the prion molecule’s wrinkles [10]. However, investigations carried out in this field over decades and endorsed by the Nobel prize awarded to Stanley Prusiner in 1997, reliably demonstrated that prions had neither nucleic acids nor a genome [23]. How are we to resolve this contradiction? If we admit that the central dogma is correct, then this is impossible. Having rejected this dogma, we can imagine the following prion biogenesis scenario [34]: in this model, a “prion virtual genome”, i.e. a provisional genome "borrowed" from the master cells for a given time, is the chief player. To put it more exactly, this is a protein-synthesizing apparatus of master cells. Prions are likely to have retained the paleogenetic way as their way of reproduction; in some cases this breeding method enables prions not to use genes encoded in chromosomes, but to self-reproduce in another way, ignoring the central dogma of molecular biology and genetics. To synthesize prions, a cell has to address their genes: it’s a progressive, but, at the same time, organizationally and energetically difficult method. Prions can simplify this procedure.

We believe that PrPsc (Prion-Protein-scrapy) NH-group peptide bonds can react with the OH-groups of ribose remains of accepting CCA-sequences of respective tRNAs. In the course of a hypothetical fermentative reaction, an emerging poly-tRNA-complex, the collinear PrPsc, pairwisely in space draws together anticodons and forms a covalent and discrete “information RNA analog ” (iaRNA). This stage is practically a reverse process of the protein synthesis on a ribosome. The process is likely to take place on the ribosome’s A- and P-sites. Then, the synthesis of RNA on iaRNA takes place. For this purpose, a respective RNA polymerase, which can work with an iaRNA covalently-discrete matrix, is required. That’s the mechanism of “mutual usage” of the protein-synthesizing apparatus during the prion reproduction period. This impermanence creates the illusion that prions don’t possess a genetic apparatus. In this process, prion peptide chains are used as matrices on which poly-tRNA-continua in pairs arrange themselves on the ribosome’s A-P sections, forming discrete polyanticodons. The latter, joining in pairs , either become a direct matrix for the prion’s RNA-dependent mRNA synthesis, or (in the other case) polyanticodons may be specifically spliced and then alloyed in a covalently-undisrupted mRNA matrix of prions. Thus, prion’s mRNA polymerizes prions on a ribosome. That means that the ribosome operates in the reverse direction, being a “prion-polyanticodon-dependent mRNA polymerase” in the process. And, therefore, violating the dogma, information is transferred from a protein to RNA. Thus, the scheme of the DNA>RNA>Protein dogma completely changes. In this case, it isn’t the dogma any longer, but only a working model which needs further clarification and development. In accordance with this view on prion biogenesis, the prion stain-specificity is explained by peculiarities of reverse operation of ribosomes, temporarily recruited during the synthesis of each prion strain. These peculiarities reflect a taxonomic position of prion-producing biosystems. Now, back to the basic postulates of the genetic code model, still widely-accepted: the genetic code is a triplet, unoverlapped, degenerated and doesn’t have “commas”, i.e. codons are not separated from each other. Information flows from DNA through RNA to a protein. And finally, the code is universal. In light of the preceding arguments, what’s left out of the initial postulates? Nothing, essentially. Indeed, the code is likely to be a multi-letter fractal and heteromultiplet structure coding both individual proteins and functionally-linked protein associates. It has overlaps formed due to a shift in the ribosome’s reading frames. It has commas, since heterocodons can be isolated from one another by sequences with other functions, including punctuation functions. The code is not universal: in 14 cases, it is differed from the standard code of higher-level biosystems. The mitochondrial, yeast, micoplasm, trematodian and other lower organisms’ codes are included in these cases [5, 6].

And finally: a protein can be a matrix for RNA, as we can see from the prion example. How should we understand an actual protein code, taking into account all the above-mentioned contradictions and in line with our theory? It is possible to postulate a qualitative, simplified, initial version of substance-wave control over the amino acids' line-up order, dictated by the associates of aminoacylated tRNA, the predecessors of proteins. Having admitted this assumption, it’s easier to understand the operation of the protein code and consider it as a hierarchically-structured program of the substance-wave biosystem organization. In this sense, the code is the first stage in a chromosome’s plan of building a biosystem, since the genome language is multidimensional and pluralistic and is capable of setting up more than just a protein synthesis task. The basic statements of this proposed preliminary model of matter-wave sign processes in protein biosynthesis are as follows:

Multicomponent ribonucleoproteid protein-synthesizing apparatus is a system which generates highly organized sign radiation of acoustic-electromagnetic fields which strategically regulate its self-organization and the order of inclusion of amino acids in a polypeptide chain.

Aminoacylated tRNAs are assembled in sequences, which are the precursors of protein synthesis. This assembling is realized before the contact with the A-P ribosome site. The resulting continuum of tRNA anticodons pool is complementary to the complete mRNA, excluding dislocations determined by the availability of non-canonical nucleotide pairs.

The sequence of aminoacylated tRNA in associates-protein precursors is determined by the sign collective resonance of all the participants involved in the amino acid sequence synthesis. In this process, pre-mRNA and mRNA, which function as an integral continuum (macrocontext) of heteropolycodons variously scaled by length (including an intronic fraction pre-mRNA) are the key wave matrices. The main function of the wave matrices is an associative-context orientation of the aminoacylated tRNA sequence; this orientation works on a global scale, compared to F.Crick's “wobble-hypothesis”, superseding the rules of canonical pairing of nucleotides in the unidimensional space mRNA-tRNA. Laser-like radiations, emitted by the participants in this process and correcting the order of insertion of the amino acid components into a peptide, also function on the ribosome in addition to and/or together with the resonance regulations of a mutual dislocation of the codon-anticodon continuums. A ribosome enzymatically “de jure” fixes the peptide covalent bonds of amino acid sequences, selected “de facto” in a polyaminoacid-poly-tRNA-associate, the predecessor of the protein.

The resonance-wave “censorship” of the order of inclusion of amino acids in a peptide chain emends the potential semantic disorder in the creation of false protein “proposals” following from the homonymy of codon families, and ensures their correct “amino acid conceptualization” due to the context lift of the homonymy of multisided even doublets in codons The same mechanism is engaged in a higher-ranked ambiguity when the number of codons is (n+1).

Genetic code degeneration is necessary for pre-mRNA-mRNA-dependent, context-oriented exact matching of aminoacylated tRNAs, determined by the nature of wave associative resonance interactions in a protein-synthesizing apparatus.

The mechanism of generating the correct sequences of aminoacylated tRNAs on the wave matrixes of pre-mRNA-mRNA may be considered as a particular case of a partially complementary re-association of one-string DNA-DNA and RNA-DNA or, in general, as a self-assembly process known to characterize ribosomes, chromosomes, membranes and other molecular- and super-molecular cellular structures.

Ribosome can facilitate RNA synthesis on a protein matrix.

Thus, the role the mRNA plays is many-sided and dualistic. This molecule, like DNA, is a cornerstone in the evolutionary process and is marked by the mutually-dependent, synergistic unity of material and wave genetic information. An ambiguity of the material (substantial) coding is resolved by the precision of the wave information, which is likely to be realized through the mechanisms of collective resonance and laser-holographic (associative, contextual and background) effects in the cellular-tissue continuum. A jump to a more advanced level of wave regulation of the RNA-->Protein translation is accompanied by a partial or complete departure from the canonical laws of pairing of adenine with uracil (thymine) and of guanine with cytosine, which were attributable to the early (and simpler) evolutionary stages of DNA replication and RNA transcription. Such a refusal is informationally necessary, unavoidable and energetically preferable at a higher biosystem level. It’s worth stressing once again that the context associative-holographic mechanisms of operation of an organism’s protein-synthesizing system are tightly linked with the so-called “background principle” [44] and also with a multivector and multisided logic of a sophisticated system management (Gerhard Thomas’ kenogrammer) [26]. From this point of view, macrocontexts of pre-informational and contexts of informational RNA might be considered as a background which in this particular case is an “information noise source”. This permits to significantly amplify a signal under which the correct choice (wave identification) is made of one in two homonymous aminoacylated tRNAs, where only one of the two is to be incorporated in a protein correct “phrase”. This selection is only possible after a ribosome has managed to split a coherent component in the form of repeats of the same recognitions of one of the two similar doublets in codons. The following simplified example can explain the situation. Let’s suppose that it’s necessary to select one of two words (analogues of codons with doublets-homonyms). The words are “cow” and “bow”. It’s clear that the choice depends on the entire sentence, or on the context which helps to identify a signal, the correct word. If the sentence is “A good cow gives lots of milk”, then the replacement of “cow” with the word “bow” is equal to noise generation and to losing the signal. Pre-informational RNA and introns are likely to play a similar part; they are different levels of contexts which a live cell and its ribosome apparatus have to read and conceptualize to take a precise decision on tRNA anticodon selection in homonymy situation.

A family of various solitons (optical, acoustic, conformational, rotational-oscillating, etc.) excited in polynucleotides can become an apparatus for continual (non-local) “reading” of context RNA sequences on a whole. These solitons help gather semantic information on RNA contexts and then associatively regulate codon-anticodon sign interrelations. Genomes-biocomputers of cells carry out semantic estimates. Soliton reading, scanning the RNA surface, is a method of polynucleotide continual reading. For instance, the solitons of rotating torque vibrations of nucleotides on a sugar-phosphate axis we physically and mathematically considered for one-chain RNA-like DNA segments [30, 36]. These solitons respond to the nucleotide sequence alteration by the modulation of their dynamic behavior which acquires sign features and can probably be transmitted remotely, or over distances significantly exceeding the hydrogen bond length. Without a remote (wave, continual) migration of a signal containing information about the whole system, i.e. about pre-mRNA-mRNA-sequences, it isn’t possible to realize associative-context protein synthesis regulation. For this purpose, the wave capability of solitons (as well as of holographic memory) to deal both with separate parts and integral system as a whole, is required. This continuity or non-locality (which is the same) ensures that the ribosome apparatus recognizes and correctly chooses an actual codon from the two available doublet-homonymous ones, the codon, pseudo-noised with a background (context).

VII. Practical applications of genetic text linguistic ambiguities

What is the link between the above discussion and the problem of HIV and cancer research? Obviously, the link is direct. The HIV genome and oncogenes as well as other DNA structures, pseudogenes for instance, “are silent” (as factors of destruction), and this silence continues until a certain time. This key moment for initiation of a genome's pathological condition in cells, potentially inclined to abnormal development, is determined by transpositions of oncogenes and the HIV genome, or by transpositions of their polynucleotide surroundings in the chromosomal space and time structure. In both cases, the context environment of the pathogenic genome changes. The latter is no longer homonymous, unrecognizable or acceptable as a normal one by the cell. Other signals aimed at HIV reproduction are turned on (“are read and conceptualized”). A cell under the new context recognizes oncogenes as factors having other (pathological) command functions. The changed background (context) identifies and amplifies in the new polynucleotide situation potential signals and other meanings, which were hidden so far. The situation looks like that taking place in protein synthesis (choosing a correct codon out of the homonymic codons). Under this new context, cells are “confused in giving meanings” of DNA sequences and take-in wrong “decisions” as correct; this results in the complete shift of metabolism and its re-adjustment to a “cancer/viral way” - to reproduce the HIV genome. Here, a dualistic situation occurs: the new decisions are wrong in relation to the organism, but are right pertaining to the HIV reproduction. That’s how pathogens identify themselves and uncover their real “targets”, keeping and multiplying themselves as allogenic particles through the destruction of a biosystem as a whole. The problem of the DNA sequences migration in chromosomes may be discussed more globally (onco
I just realize that the whole post is not still passed ! :whistle:

(oncogenes, HIV genome or any other transposons whose purposes are still unclear for us). Moving along a genome as if over a context continuum, they obtain new meanings and other semantics which depend on their location in a 3D space of interphase chromosomes. The same logic is also true for “genetically-engineered” transgenesises of plants and animals. A growing number of artificial transgenetic organisms threatens with a global and rapid degeneration of all creatures living on Earth, because an uncontrolled automatic sign reconstruction of higher-ranked genetic codes, occurring after the introduction of foreign DNA molecules, isn’t taken into consideration. Practically uncontrolled intertaxonic transfer of foreign DNA-sequences, an avalanche-like semantic chaos in chromosomes and metabolic chaos in all biosystems (including human beings) will be the result of these genetically-engineered manipulations. It’s becoming hard to slur over the first alarming signals.

The rather abstract theoretical structures of genetic material transpositions we propose are confirmed not only by the example of transgenetic biosystems, but also by R.B.Hesin’s fundamental work [47]. Euchromatic genes, moving to an intercalar heterochromatin, produce a positioning effect, i.e. they are inactivated in some somatic cells and continue to function in others. Oncogenic cellular sequences are able to build-in in retroviral structures which didn’t originally have their own oncogenes. As a result, relatively non-hazardous viruses sometimes become tumorigenic. For instance, the RaLV rat virus might transform, having included master’s determinants in the genome, into the RaSV sarcoma virus. Cellular oncogenes, like viral ones, acquire a transforming activity if the lengthy repeated viral end sequences (LTR) are alloyed to oncogenes’ 5’-ends. In appropriate surroundings, proviruses including HIV viruses (as we think) are converted into latent (“silent”) genetic elements. They can persist in a master’s genome without producing any harm to it namely owing to the cellular DNA’s neighboring sequences repressing their activity. Taking into account this statement of Hesin’s, it’s possible to imagine a reverse situation, namely, the HIV genome activation in an environment of other DNA sequences when a cell in another DNA context already interprets HIV as a hostile semantic structure, but can do nothing to defend itself. However, as Mr. Hesin stresses, both peculiarities of the chromosomal DNA adjacent sections and operational principle which determine a provirus activity, are still a mystery. The mystery will remain unresolved, unless we apply new measurement criteria (semantically-vocal, wave or image measurements, i.e. the criteria we propose) to the genome. In this aspect, an interesting comparison of chromosome semantic and holographic information appears. A higher biosystem genome has several levels of information non-locality, “smearing” and redundancy, with a chromosome continuum holographic memory being one of them. Information locality and unambiguity of the genome’s mobile elements, the transposons, is contraposed to it; however, the multi-vector meanings of this information are developed dependent on a changing context of the transposon context surrounding; at the same time, transposons themselves are the triggers initiating the appearance, disappearance and repetition of the texts. A context “game” (combinatorial analysis) depends on current metabolic requirements of cells, tissues and an organism. The difference between a text and a context is conditional and depends on the domain of a part and an integer in a genome. The boundaries between the part and the integer are conditional and are likely to have a morpho-functional character which depends on an organism’s part differentiation at the cell, tissue, organ and biosystem levels. A finer ranking - by functional and metabolic areas of a cell which are controlled by certain chromosome sections (up to protein-genetic and exon-intronic splitting) - may also exist. Each of these quanta is an integral system in relation to itself, and just a part if the division rank is higher. Is it here that metabolic pathologies and herontologic manifestations are rooted when a biosystem stops identifying and differentiating many-sided patterns of a part and an integer? The HIV genome, like a transposon and a conditional part, might be invisible for a cell under some DNA contexts of master chromosomes . This is the way in which molecular-semantic mimicry of pathogenic chromosome structures is produced. Each coding-noncoding homonymous (or synonymous) and any other DNA sequence can be considered as a potentially multi-meaning pseudo-noised signal (signals) or as an image (images) which has to be identified and understood on the background of other dynamic gene images. The genetic apparatus amplifies each image signal and picks up the amplified signals out of the background (context, noise) not through the noise suppression procedure. On the contrary, a cell, a tissue and an organism use the background changing context as a means of extraction, amplification and to understand the meaning of each of these available image signals. It’s also logical to discuss in the same way the role of 3’- and 5’ - flanking sequences of protein genes highlighting one or another meaning. If we realized that the proposed mechanism of the dynamic game of genetic text meanings could play an important role in HIV and cancer development and in an organism’s entire metabolic status on the whole and if we accepted the idea that the comparison of a genome with natural texts and images wasn’t just a poetic metaphor, then real opportunities for the creation of a new biosystem management strategy, including management of viruses and oncogenes behavior, would emerge.

VIII. Is it possible to apply a probabilistic approach to identify individual (including pathogenic) meanings in a changing polysemantic genome continuum?

We have already mentioned some similarities between the Background Principle and Gerhard Thomas’ multi-vector logic (keno-grammar) and the prospects of these methodologies for the extraction and recognition of genetic or even metabolic vectors of multicellular organisms’ live functions. There’s one other direction in the natural languages theory, which, we hope, is applicable to genetic linguistic. This direction was developed by V.V.Nalimov and is linked with a probabilistic approach to understanding a language [22, 43]. V.V.Nalimov proposed that the semantics of any actual text (including a genetic one, we believe) could be described by its own distribution function (probability density), r (m ). Text revision and evolution are linked with a spontaneous manifestation of the filter r (y/m ), multiplicatively interacting with the initial function r (m ), in a certain situation y. We consider a “y-change” in a genetic text to be the natural transpositions of the DNA mobile elements, recombinations, the slicing and the alloying. The incorrect (for a biosystem) transpositions of its own (or foreign) DNA mobile elements, mutations and artificial transgenic manipulations are considered “unnatural changes”. An introduction of viral genomes, the HIV genome for instance, into a biosystem’s chromosome material, relates to a “specific class of unnatural changes”. The interaction of the r (y/m ) filter with the initial function r (m ) is ruled by known Buys’ formula:

r (m/y) = kr(m ) r(y/m ),


r (m/y) = distribution function determining the semantic of a new text after the “y-changes”

k = normalization constant.

According to V.V.Nalimov, Buys’ formula comes forward as a syllogism: based on the two statements -
r (m) and r (m/ y), a text with a new semantic r (m/ y) comes to life. Let’s assume that Buys-Nalimov’s logic is applicable to genetic “texts”. Then the “idea” of these “texts” taken as a whole is determined by 3 weight correlations which the r (m ) function specifies. “Meanings”, being a qualitative parameter in nature, obtain a new quantitative characteristic. With the help of the conditional distribution function r (m/y) V.V.Nalimov presents a new interpretation, somewhat different from that used in Buys’ statistics. In his theory, r (m/y) shows the distribution density of a random value y under the given value m . Therefore, not y, but m can be considered as an argument of for the r (m/y) function which plays the role of a filter. We think that the “y-changes” factor, initiating and exciting a new semantic situation, is a key element in this model. Namely this factor stimulates the unfolding of an increasing number of alternative and new meanings, as well as of holographic and other images in a variable semantic space of mobile DNAs in a multicellular organism’s genome. The genome-carrying continuum passes through the dynamic filter r (y/m) responding to it by dramatic “y-changes”. It is significant that V.V.Nalimov had been puzzled by the question of what permitted the reproduction of the non-trivial r (y/m ) filters, but didn’t find an answer. Nevertheless, at the same time he put forward an idea about the role played by the environment and about a variety of situations which could act as a source and a reason for adequate filter formation. Here, V.V.Nalimov practically came up to the above-discussed Background Principle. After the unification and combination of Nalimov’s model and the Background Principle statements it’s logical to consider that the y-factor is nothing but a context (background) mechanism of switching on the r (y/m ) filters. These filters pick up the semantic loading and meaning which are determined by an actual metabolic, including genetic, situation: for instance - the necessity for a cell to synthesize a huge amount of catalase at a given moment, a process which is accompanied by a choice and the expression of the catalase gene from a gene multi-meaning continuum. Herein another, and perhaps the key mechanism of genome differential activation to produce different proteins, is seen. Therefore, the Background Principle and Buys-Nalimov’s logic became linked by identical natural definitions. G.Thomas’ keno-grammar [26], which is largely based on context orientations in choosing priorities to manage complicated situations, is likely convergent with the above-mentioned ideas.

Now back to the “genetic engineering”. Let’s also remind of the “chromosomal engineering”, when large blocks of a genome are used for production of useful hybrids. From the probabilistic approach to the mobile polysemantic chromosomal continuum, these “engineering” seem rather gloomy. Any manipulation here is an instant (as compared to the evolution pace) creation of new y-factors by people (and not by the evolution) and therefore, a mutation of the r (y/m ) purporting filters, unhampered by any time (evolutionary) frames. That’s the Earth’s genetic fund forthcoming chaos.

IX. The genetic apparatus paradox

The paradox of the genetic apparatus lies in the combination of two normally opposite properties - the stability of the information transferred from one generation to another, and the genome's volatility [47]. Genomic mobility is provided by polynucleotide transpositions, soliton-like non-linear dynamics (electric acoustic), and conformative and halogen restructuring. These non-random (programmed) movements of a chromosome continuum in live tissues are subtly and extensively distributed in a biosystem's space-time. The said dynamics is a means of the wave management of re-distribution of an organism’s various parts among each other. At the same time, it’s a method of metabolic event sequence organization. This strong sign chromosomal non-linear dynamics, which is easily found even in vitro, is realized through its isomorphous image in an organism’s space and time structure [32]. As a result, in a chromosomal continuum, as in a polysemantic and multiplex holographic formation, a permanent and variable semantic “game” of meanings goes on. Some kind of “endogenous semiotic show” of optical-acoustic regulatory (sign) images, which also have variable meanings, takes place. One of these chromosome images was experimentally found in many laboratories and is generally known as the phantom leaf effect (ref. to [32]). The phantom leaf effect theory is based on the principles of holography [32, 37]. It’s possible to say that the “game of meanings” is a function of sign dynamics of interphase chromosomes. This is a prerequisite for storing and processing vast volumes of information when a super-small volume of zygote mesomorphic chromosomes is able to operate a multi-vector and many-sided logic of development of extremely sophisticated biological systems. This is the origin of the idea that an essentially novel approach strategy to HIV and cancer treatment presumes the understanding and the possibility of managing a multi-vector genome logic. If we manage, applying genetic engineering methods, to purposefully and site-specifically introduce certain context DNA sequences to the 3’ and 5’ ends of oncogenes or HIV-genome, then it’s reasonable to expect the inactivation of their pathologic expression. On the other side, if we know the principles of ribosome operation in a context orientation mode, then we can successfully fight HIV in a ribosomal wave (laser, solitonic, polarization and radio wave) regulation zone. Ribosomes, synthesizing HIV proteins, must have thin wave vectors for management through context-background paths. Knowing them, it’s possible to suppress viral protein synthesis by external artificial modified fields similar to those normal cells use.

X. Genetic apparatus non-locality levels. Preliminary experiments.

Now, let’s turn to another genome operation phenomenon - that is, a supposed effect of quantum non-locality of chromosome sign conditions, which we have more or less experimentally confirmed [8, 37]. The idea of quantum non-locality was proposed by Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen [4] (EPR-effect). This effect is well in line with quantum physics experimental evidence. In short, the EPR-effect states that elementary particles, two photons for instance, which have initially been in a so-called “entangled” state, retain a mutual bond (this bond may be called “informational”) by quantum parameters (for example, by polarization), even if these elementary particles are removed from one another by any arbitrary distance. If the polarization of one of the particles has changed for any reason (for example, the photon passed through an optically-active layer and recorded the polarization modulations, then this photon disappears, but it manages to instantly transfer the recorded polarization information to another photon. To be more correct, it’s not a “transfer”, it’s a transition of one photon into another by means of a permissive teleportation mechanism. The first changed photon turns into the second one, independent of the distance between them. The second photon becomes a complete analogue of the first one. If this situation is in some way reflected in the genetic apparatus, then we rocket to new and higher orbits in understanding a metabolic processes and the Life phenomenon as a whole. In strictly physical terms, the EPR effect as a phenomenon of photon teleportation was correctly confirmed only in 1997 [2].

Other researchers soon obtained similar results, and not only based on photons. Multi-frequency physical fields are now teleported. Based on this data, it’s possible to suppose that photon fields, emitted by chromosomes as sign fields, can be teleported within or even outside the organism’s space. The same is true for wave photon fronts, which were read from the chromosome continuum similar to reading from a multiplex hologram. If photons are transformed into radio waves (the situation we found - ref. to [8, 33, 37]) through the EPR-mechanism, then this phenomenon is vital. In fact, the importance of quantum non-locality existence for a genome is hard to overestimate. We put forward and published this idea when we identified, with the help of the equipment we had developed, what was probably a more sophisticated variant of the EPR-effect. The said equipment includes a specially-designed laser which is capable of transforming its own photons into radio waves [46, 37, 8, 34]. The laser features a unique light beam dynamic polarization which could in some way simulate a dynamic polarization of chromosome laser radiations. It converts its photons (l =632.8 nm) into kHz-MHz-band radio waves upon the interaction of its beam with matter and the introduction of probing photons back in the laser resonator. Under these conditions, we suppose, pairs of entangled photons born in a gaseous phase of the laser optic resonator are transformed during their splitting and interaction with any body, including the laser mirrors, into radio waves. Photons were found to be able to localize in fractal clusters of the laser metal mirrors. If photons are probing an outer object, then the mirrors “store” its spectral characteristics. In such a way we have managed to record polarization & radio wave information of DNA preparations. This information carries morphogenetic signals. This fact enabled us to develop a fundamentally new type of dynamic polarization laser-radio wave spectroscopy and to investigate quantum non-local (teleportative) genetic processes.

We’d like to make some additional comments on the importance of quantum teleportation of genetic & metabolic information for biology on the whole. Quantum non-locality of genetic (chromosomal) information as a method of manifestation of its wave total distribution (continuity) in the space of multicellular biosystems seems to be just a particular case. In biosystems, there are at least six non-locality levels:

The first level is the constitutional (organism) level. Here, non-locality is expressed through the regeneration ability that organisms such as the planarium worms possess. After sectioning off any part, the worms’ body is able to reproduce an entire organism through regeneration. In other words, in this case there’s no link point between the genetic information common pool and a part of a biosystem. The same is also applicable to vegetative reproduction of plants.

The second level is the cellular level. It is possible to grow an entire organism from each cell (not only from a zygote). Despite the difficulties, it’s also possible for animal biosystems. Each cell is a potential continuum of an organism.

The third level is a cellular-nuclear level. Removal of nucleus from somatic and reproductive cells with a consequent introduction of another nucleus inside doesn’t impede a normal organism development. Such type of cloning has already been carried out at a higher biosystem level, on sheep for instance. Each nucleus of a cell is also a potential continuum of a biosystem. There’s no localization of genetic potencies at the level of individual cells.

The fourth level is a molecular level. The ribosome “reads” informational RNA either by individual codons, or on the whole, with the consideration of context, i.e. non-locally and continuously.

The fifth level is a chromosomal-holographic level. A genome possesses a holographic memory [37] which in nature is a typically-distributed (non-local) associative memory. At this and the next level non-locality obtains a new feature - a dualistic substance-wave character, since electromagnetic and/or acoustic fields, bringing out gene-wave information outside chromosomal material, “read” holograms as a substance. A physical field (or fields), marking the organism’s prospective space (calibration), comes on scene. The brain cortex holographic memory, establishing mental, semantic and image spaces calibrating potential actions of higher biosystems, is likely to belong to this category. In this way, social and genetic processes are alike.

The sixth level is a genome quantum non-locality. At the levels of up to 6th, genetic information non-locality is realized in an organism’s space. The 6th level is of a special nature, since it acquires a new quality. It’s manifested within the frames of one of the quantum non-locality forms, namely, in the permissive form we postulate in the current paper. In this case, non-locality is realized both by biosystem space and by its own, shrinkable to zero, time. Gene-wave programs, instantly spreading in such a way, simultaneously operate in an organism “here and there” and therefore, the semantic construction “now and then” loses its meaning. And this is a strategic factor and a vital evolutionary achievement of multicellular biosystems. Billions of organism’s cells have to instantly “know” a lot of information about each other. Without the “wave information instancy” phenomenon, a giant multicellular continuum of higher biosystems won’t be able to completely coordinate a metabolic process and its physiological and other functions. The intercellular diffusion of signal substances and nerve processes are too inert for this purpose. Even if we assume that sign electromagnetic fields are involved in an intercellular transfer process occurring with the speed of light (this assumption is quite reasonable), it’s not enough. A quantum non-locality mechanism, applicable to the genetic apparatus and which can act as an instantly-distributed quantum (wave) object isomorphous with substantial chromosomes, is required. Using non-locality, the genetic apparatus of higher biosystems creates an unparalleled phenomenon, where for certain intervals of time the “here and there” and “now and then” structures operate within the biosystems’ “closed” space-time as a continuity providing the organism with intrinsic super-coherence, information overredundance, a super-informativity and linkage and, as a result, proper integrity (survival). The ability of lower organisms’ (hydros, worms, amphibian, lizards, crustaceans) tissues and organs to regenerate (people have largely lost this ability ) is a manifestation of this phenomenon. But, considering the biosystem wave self-organization principles we are developing, it can be re-activated. The world’s first successful adaptation of donor tissues implanted to a blind man, which helped to return sight function to the patient, is a good example of regeneration. The principles behind this surgical operation and regeneration process is described in [33-35].

At the same time, theoretical and experimental research in this field is just emerging and needs further physical and mathematical understanding and development.

XI. Possible mechanism of recording information on laser mirrors

Now, let’s return to some features of the phenomenon of long-term recording of dynamic photon polarization-radio wave information on laser mirrors. We think this is linked with the phenomenon of photon fields localization (compression) in the system of correlated dispersers of laser mirrors. Given that the disperser material possesses a low radiation absorption ability, the external light field is capable to persist in the system for a long time without dissipation into other forms of energy. The reason for localization is connected with the interference of many times-diffracted waves. An external electromagnetic signal (in our case, it’s a laser beam modulated by polarization, for instance, by a DNA preparation) is localized (“recorded”) in the system of non-uniform laser mirrors. Later, the signal can be “read” without a significant loss of information in the form of isomorphously (in relation to photons) polarized radio waves. Theoretical research on a strain state of localized photons [12, 14-19, 24] seem to support these ideas. If this opinion is correct, then a chromosomal apparatus may also be considered as a fractal medium of localized photons accumulation, creating a coherent continuum with a quantum-nonlocally-distributed polarization radio wave genetic information. To some extent, this is in correspondence with our idea of genome quantum non-locality manifesting in one of its forms - ref. to [8, 34, 37]. It’s possible that the apoptosis phenomenon, which is likely to be involved in the regulation of multicellular creatures’ life time, is connected with an abnormal compression of photons by the nucleus of a cell, which are accumulated to a maximal value and then destroy the nucleus. The background principle of gene operation (including anti-oncogenes) may be another supplemental apoptosis regulation mechanism. For instance, an anti-oncogene coding the p53 protein could be controlled through the introduction of the DNA artificial flanking contexts from 3’-and 5’-ends of the p53 gene.

XII. Analysis of experimental evidences of gene wave forms existence

We are unaware (with some exceptions, of course) of modern publications on wave genetic theory and practice, as available in the major scientific journals. In the 1920-1940s, A.G.Gurwitch, A.A.Lyubitchev and V.N.Beklemishev, who developed the first theoretical models, were pioneers in this field; their ideas are described in detail in [32, 33]. In this paper, we are trying to produce more developed opinions of some possible synthesis mechanisms and functions of wave genetic structures, attributable to higher biosystems, as well as of the methods applicable for simulation of sign wave processes in chromosomes and model units simulating chromosome field functions and transferring wave genes. A publication and a patent, granted for the development of a device for the transfer of wave genes from a donor biosystem to an accepting one, are worth mentioning as an example of a rarely-appearing event. The said research was carried out by Yu.V.Dzang Kangeng [39, 40]. Kangeng’s device for a directed wave transmission of oncologic, including genetic, information to change hereditary characteristics of a biological accepting object is of a special interest. Unfortunately, there’s no theoretical interpretation of the device operation principles. Kangeng’s device has some common functional features with the equipment we developed and whose operation is based on similar principles. Kangeng’s device includes space elements (forms) which make it possible to split the radiation of a high-frequency SHF electromagnetic field generator into two orthogonally-polarized beams which repeatedly, as in our installation (in our case, it’s a laser beam transforming into radio waves), were passing through a donor biosystem and an accepting biosystem. Dzang Kangeng used a hexahedron, a cone, a sphere and a parabolic-reflector aerial as types of special forms. These forms provide a specific spinning (polarization) of the SHF (super-high frequency) field electromagnetic vectors. In our laser design, one of the mirrors used also had the form of a parabolic-reflector aerial directed to a resonator. During numerous repeated passes through an optically-active (an electromagnetic wave polarization rotating plane) hetero-liquid-crystalline donor biosystem, the organism’s tissues modulate the radiation (in our case, this is laser-radio wave radiation) by polarization, which is strengthened owing to repeated passes and is repeatedly and over a long time delivered to the accepting biosystem. In this process, the generator electromagnetic field “stores” the donor biosystem gene-sign polarization modulations in its “memory” then resonantly interacts with gene-sign polarization distribution of the accepting biosystem electromagnetic field. If the donor biosystem is at an early morphogenesis stage accompanied by an intense cell fission rate, it can’t be excluded that the supposed polarization resonances are also of a holographic nature. This many times-amplified signal, carrying the wave information that was “read” from the donor biosystem chromosome continuum, passes through the substance-wave structure of the accepting biosystem and makes it execute new gene-wave-polarization programs by means of the variation of their differential polarization structure. Changes in the accepting biosystem's gene-wave-polarization structure induced by the donor in the process of the field integration (“wave heterosis”) leads to a restructuring of its morphologic (genetic and phenotypic) characteristics. Shear wave correlations of polarization angles during the donor-accepting mixing of physical waves resulted in the acquisition of new morpho-genetic and biological properties from the accepting organism, are one of the most important quantum-electrodynamic events of the “wave hybridization” process. This fact allowed Dzang Kangeng with the help of the wave method to transfer genetic information from ducks to hens, for instance. Hybrid chickens of hens had typical features of a duck - a flat beak, an elongated neck, larger internal organs ( heart, liver, stomach and bowels). The weight of a one-year-old hen-duck hybrid was 70% higher than the weight of hens grown from irradiated eggs. The second generation of the hen-duck hybrids retained all changes, which were obtained in the first generation, even without further re-radiation. A wave transfer of peanuts’ features to sunflower seeds resulted in the change of form, taste and odor of a hybrid plant, which became similar to those of peanuts. Productivity grew by 1.8-fold; new features are transferred from one generation to another even without further re-radiation.

Let’s highlight some common features of the experiments Dzang Kangeng and we independently carried out: first and foremost, they demonstrate the possibility of genetic information existence in a wave form. This similarity is in the polarization modulation of the radiation orthogonal beams with intensity re-distribution in primary orthogonal beams with a frequency secured in the radio wave spectrum we register, by a donor organism. The spinning polarization planes here act as gene-semiotic structures whose biological meanings are identified and coded by angular and intensity shifts by a frequency spectrum. Similarly-polarized waves are known to be able to interfere, while orthogonally-polarized waves do not interfere at all. Waves with a partially-coinciding polarization produce, dependent on their polarization coincidence degree, a more or less sharp contrast interference picture. In other words, an angle cosine of each vector in relation to their registration plane or to the wave interference plane is a crucial factor.

Biology, including genetics and embryology, has already come to a turning point in its development, which is similar to the period when physics first admitted the idea that the properties of waves and particles didn’t contradict each other and were even complementary in quantum objects. A huge number of facts and scientific research outcomes available in modern molecular biology, genetics and embryology, can’t be understood without such a definition as physical fields, for instance, or without the application of quantum electrodynamics principles. The idea of lingual attributes of higher biosystems’ genome is a kind of humanitarian counterweight to an apparently excessive physical interpretation of basic Life function phenomena. The pace at which this idea is gaining acceptance by society is rather slow - in fact furious resistance has been encountered from certain circles. The current situation is easy to explain: the subject of Life is too complicated. Nevertheless, the time has come. If we are too late understanding the wave gene-sign functions of biosystems, it is possible that such diseases as cancer and HIV will destroy our society, or at least cause irreversible damage. We’ll also lose the opportunity for a mighty jump in biotechnology and biocomputing. Last but not least, we’ll also lose an opportunity to purposefully, rationally and positively influence sociogenetic and demographic processes. Following the above-described logic, we are coming to the conclusion that human speech structures, which provide the major information influx for mankind, possess fractally-scaled supergenetic properties. Evolution of society is similar to an organism’s morphogenesis. Books, libraries, movies, computer memory and people’s live speech in the end are the functional analogues of a cell chromosomal apparatus. The aim of these chromosomes is to control the creation of society space (houses, roads, oil- and gas pipelines, telephony, the Internet) and to arrange functional and structural relationships among the people inside it. Chromosomal sign properties, which have a lot in common with organisms, have a substance-wave nature. For instance, a movie showing an ideal model of a social structure and people’s relations within its frames is a substantial (material) formation (video tapes). However, it uses a mental-wave method to input information (light, sound, speech, idea, image). That’s the method chromosomes apply. The latter produce marking and calibration fields to arrange the organism’s space and also control information & metabolic relations, using, in particular, quasi-speech methods (let’s remember context orientations in the protein synthesis and function of oncogenes and HIV). Therefore, people ought to carefully study the operational principles of their own genetic apparatus and the “tricks” HIVs play to “mislead” our chromosomes. This kind of study is especially crucial today when Russia, and not only Russia, could face a demographic and social collapse within the next 5 to 10 years.

We have declared the theoretical approach to describe the logic of sign speech-wave relationships between HIV genomes and a master cell as well as the oncogene behavior logic. However, it’s not enough. We must obtain a set of key tools which will enable us to follow up at least the simplest wave command biocomputing functions of our chromosomes (1) and the reprogramming of our chromosomes by nucleotide sequences of HIVs and oncogenes. We have already developed this set of tools - it’s a laser uniquely reflecting coherent polarization-laser-radio wave (PLRW) quantum-non-local sign processes in chromosomes. Physico-mathematical formalism characterizing the PLRW-quantum processes in such appliances is presented in our research ( 2). PLRW-spectroscopy is the basis of wave information recording on laser mirrors - the phenomenon we have discovered. We have also managed to record information from specially prepared mesomorphic DNA matrixes, to broadcast it in a waveform at a distance of 1 m and to introduce it in accepting biosystems. As an accepting biosystem, we took plant seeds. Using this phenomenon, we effected a “wave reparation” of a genome of radioactively-damaged old seeds of Athaliana gathered in the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant area in 1987, and initiated drastic changes in stem and tuber phenotype in the second generation of the Solanum tuberosum plant. These biological influences don’t have the nature of mutations, they only have a sense meaning and are just another evidence that genetic information can exist in the form of electromagnetic fields.

No less important is the fact that genetic information can be recorded, stored, read, transmitted and introduced in accepting biosystems. Here, two vital factors emerge. The first one is that the recording of vast information volumes (including the genetic one) is an unparalleled event which confirms that it’s possible to develop principally new carriers of the dynamic super-capacity analog memory (images, texts). This is rather important for future biocomputing. The second factor is that owing to the PLRW phenomenon we enter a huge area of genetico-metabolic wave sign processes. Numerous and unclear events of distant “recognition” of the antigene-antibody and tRNA anticodon-iRNA codon pairs, as well as complementary mutual recognitions of DNA single chains, self-construction of ribosomes, recognition sites of ferments, careful piloting and landing of transposons in the DNA and so on, are also well contained within the frames of these processes. None of these phenomena can be explained by only Brownian movement and adjacent van der Waals, ion, hydrogen and electrostatic interactions.

And finally, the most important thing for us in the context of the ideas we propose is a wave and sign behavior of viruses, HIV or influenza, for instance. Viruses can be considered as “orphaned” cells which retained a minimum of chromosomal information required for a wave search of landing site on a master cell and exact place to cut-in own DNA as a transposon in the master cell’s DNA with consequent possible precise re-transpositions. Wave “languages”, which viruses use during the information contact with a cell’s surface and its genome, are the most vulnerable parts of a virus. Viruses use these “languages” to enter the semantic space of a cell and then to “mislead” the cell; after that, they undergo mimicry and are reprogrammed, reproduced and thus survive in the end. Cells are likely to be able to “mislead” viruses as well, creating a kind of “wave immunity”. That’s why a certain balance of powers in the fight exists; the said balance can shift in favor of a virus - for instance, in favor of influenza virus if the temperature starts fluctuating. Cooling of a blood circulation in nose mucosa capillaries changes the temperature of liquid crystals in chromosome blood cells. At the same time, protective wave programs recorded on high topologies of chromosome mesomorphic phases can only be slightly distorted. As a result, the “cold temperature information breach” appears and is used by influenza virus to reproduce. As a response to this action, a compensatory reaction evolves in the organism, i.e. the body temperature goes up to a sub-lethal level of 41° C. According to our thinking, this reaction is designed to “submelt” mesomorphic phases of the virus nucleic acid and, therefore, to produce noise or completely erase virus wave programs which it needs to attack the organism’s wave semantic space, thus to kill the growing number of its cells. Virus genome acoustic fields tightly linked with photon ones might act as wave bioprograms. Using the method of correlative laser spectroscopy, we demonstrated drastic changes in acoustic performance of the DNA liquid crystals in vitro at temperatures of 40-41° C; the results obtained partially confirmed our suppositions. And that’s only an example of wave sign processes in the relationship between the influenza virus and the human organism. Similar sense relationships exist between HIV and human cells, and the same issues arise - how to correctly find a landing site on a cell’s surface and precisely build-in the DNA (reverse transcriptasal copy of a viral RNA) as a mimicking transposon into the master cell DNA. Thereafter, the task is to get accurately re-transposed in a proper place on a chromosome and to detect and realize itself as a reproducing pathogen.

For now we can initially list the bottlenecks of HIV wave programs and name countermeasures to eliminate the problems:

Searching and recognition of HIV on a landing site (by altering the radiation nature of a virus and/or sites of landing on a cell, it’s necessary to distort the system of resonance-wave recognition mechanisms).

Searching and recognition of a viral DNA on the landing site by the master cell’s DNA (altering the radiation nature of a virus and/or sites of landing on the cell’s DNA, it’s necessary to distort the system of resonance-wave recognition mechanisms).

Searching and mutual recognition: protein's mRNAs of HIV«tRNAs (codon-anticodon recognitions) and proteins of HIV«RNA of HIV (self-assemble) for wave distortion of this process.

Any violation of even small wave sign resonances in this triad will result in the loss of infectious ability of HIV and other viruses, and Nature has created an example. As it was already mentioned, it’s an organism’s temperature mode. In ways similar to the one found by Nature it’ll become possible to design a simple “wave” vaccine against HIV and other viruses and bacteria. Our goal is to study the “alphabet” and “grammar” of wave “languages” of viruses’ genomes. And the foundation for this study has already been laid. A laser capable to “read” PLRW-wave genetico-metabolic information has been developed. However, the research in this field is rather difficult due to intrinsically natural inertia of the material understanding of genetic and metabolic information. Technical issues also exist. The laser we use generates only red photons, while the chromosomal apparatus of human beings and viruses uses a wide spectrum of coherent radiation ranged from 250 nm to 800 nm. Therefore, it’s necessary to design lasers which function in a full span of the spectrum visible area. This aim is technically feasible, but significant investments are needed to achieve it. In our opinion, all attempts to produce a material vaccine or other drugs to fight against the HIV or influenza virus will fail. Viruses continuously change their antigenic composition and thus bury all efforts of immunologists and other scientists engaged in the vaccine development. Efforts to chemically block certain stages of virus morphogenesis are inefficient and only poison human organisms. Wave vaccine is a reality. This vaccine would be non-invasive and environmentally-friendly, since it touches only a narrow area of wave sign relations between a virus and a cell.
Link and Literature
Now that the whole post is finally passed in three movements, it can be a good idea to read
the followings links with in the mind this whole post, at least this passage:
"Scientists have conducted much research on the origins of human languages and the origins of the grammatical rules that are so essential to all human languages; however they have always failed to find the source. But now for the first time in history the origins of language may be surprisingly attributed to DNA. The language of the genes is much, much older than any human language that was ever uttered on this globe. It is even conceivable that the DNA grammar itself served as the blueprint for the development of human speech."

There we go !

Q: (L) What was the event a hundred or so years after the flood of Noah that was described as the confusing of languages, or the tower of Babel?

A: Spiritual confluence.

Q: (L) What purpose did the individuals who came together to build the tower intend for said tower?

A: Electromagnetic concentration of all gravity waves.

Q: (L) And what did they intend to do with these concentrated waves?

A: Mind alteration of masses.

Q: (L) What intention did they have in altering the mind of the masses?

A: Spiritual unification of the masses.

Q: (L) Who were the "gods" that looked down on the tower of Babel, at those who were building it with the intention of unification, and decided to destroy their works?

A: Lizards.

Q: (L) Okay, so the Lizzies blew up the tower of Babel. What else did they do to the minds of mankind; did they do something causing literal disruption of their understanding of language?

A: Close.

Q: (L) What tool did they use to accomplish this divisiveness?

A: Brainwashing of masses.

Q: (L) Did they do this through implants and abduction?

A: Partly.

Q: (L) What is the true meaning, the original meaning, of the Hebrew word "shem"?

A: Purity.

Q: (L) Why was this word related to the obelisks or standing stones later called "shems" by the Hebrews?

A: Symbolic of purity: unification. Uniformity.

Q: (L) Did these stones themselves actually possess any power?

A: Residual.

Q: (L) What object were the ancients going to place in the tower of Babel to...

A: Crystal.

Q: (L) Is "shem" also synonymous with "crystal"?

A: Close.

Q: (L) Shem, the son of Noah, was the ancestor of the group that built the tower, is this correct?

A: Yes.

{Z. Sitchen writes: The Mesopotamian texts that refer to the inner enclosures of temples, or to the heavenly journeys of the gods, or even to instances where mortals ascended to the heavens, employ the Sumerian term mu or its Semitic derivatives shu-mu ("that shich is a mu"), sham, or shem. Because the term alos connoted "that by which one is remembered," the word has come to be taken as meaning "name." But the universal application of "name" to early texts that spoke of an object used in flying has obscured the true meaning of the ancient records. Thus G.A. Barton (The Royal Inscriptions of Sumer and Akkad) established the unchallenged translation of Gudea's temple inscription - that "Its MU shall hug the lands from horizon to horizon" - that "Its name shall fill the lands." A hymn to Ishkur, extolling his "ray-emitting MU" that could attain the heights of Heave, was likewise rendered: "Thy name is radiant, it reaches Heaven's zenith." Sensing, however, that mu or shem may nean an object and not "name," some scholars have treated the term as a suffix or grammatical phenomenon not requiring translation and have thereby avoided the issue altogether. It is not too difficult to trace the etymology of the term, and the route by which the "sky chamber" assumed the meaning of "name." Sculptures have been found that show a god inside a rocket-shaped chamber, as in this object of extreme antiquity [...] where the celestial nature of the chamber is attested by the twelve gloves decorating it. Many seals similarly depict a god (and sometimes tow) within such oval "divine chambers"; in most instances these gods within their sacred ovals were depicted as objects of veneration. ...The ancient peoples developed the custom of setting up imitations of the god within his divine "sky chamber." Stone pillars shaped to simulate the oval vehicle were erected at selected sites... That the purpose of the commemorative stone pillars was to simulat a iery skyship can further be gloeaned from the term by which such stone stelae were known in antiquity. The Sumerians called then NA.RU ("stones that rise"). The Akkadians, Babylonians, and Assyrians called them naru ("objects that give off light"). The Amurru called them nuras ("fiery objects" - in Hebrew, ner still means a pillar that emits light...). "The 12th Planet, " Avon Books, New York, 1978. So, we see where Sitchin is going: a shem is a rocket ship. Never mind the fact that the descriptions in the ancient writings fit much better with the Cassiopaean explanation.}

Q: (L) How were Sodom and Gomorrah destroyed and the other cities of the plain? And by whom?

A: Nuclear; EM pulse. Who else?

Q: (L) The lizzies?

A: Yes.

Q: (L) Why?

A: To implant fear and obedience.

Q: (L) Weren't the Sodom and Gomorrans really evil and bad doing sodomy and Gomorrahy? {Well, the word Sodom has been used to coin the word "sodomy," so why not Gomorrahy? I have NO idea what it might be, so the reader can use their imagination.}

A: That is a deception of history.

Q: (L) Did Lot's wife get turned into a pillar of salt?

A: No.

Q: (L) Is there any symbolism in that particular story for us today?

A: No.

Q: (L) Was the god who communicated with Abraham one of the Lizzies?

A: Yes.

Q: (L) Was the pact that Abraham made with the Lizzies?

A: Yes. Not directly.

Q: (L) Was Melchizidek a priest of the Lizzies?

A: No.

Q: (L) Did Melchizidek give Abraham the true information?

A: Close.

Q: (L) Is the Kaballah the true teachings of the good guys?

A: Close.

Q: (L) Is the Osirian cycle the exemplification of the action of the Lizzies upon mankind in terms of the cutting up of Osiris' body as the breaking apart of the strands of DNA?

A: Close.

Q: (L) What was the Fruit of the tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil that was supposedly eaten by Eve and then offered to Adam?

A: Knowledge restriction. Encoding.

Q: (L) What did it mean when it said Eve ate of the fruit of the tree of knowledge? What act did she perform to do that?

A: Consorted with wrong side.

Q: (L) What does consorted mean?

A: Eve is symbolic.

Q: (L) Symbolic of what?

A: Female energy.

Q: (L) The female energy did what when it consorted?

A: Lost some knowledge and power.,22347.msg351176.html#msg351176 and,42494.50.html
Citation de: Marcus Aurelius le juillet 21, 2010, 10:18:36 pm

Lately, I came accross again the excerpt from Session 941005 in which questions have been asked about what these guys intended to do and this prompted some thinking which are still in my mind. here is the excerpt:
Citation de: Session 941005

Q: (L) What was the event a hundred or so years after the flood of Noah that was described as the confusing of languages, or the tower of Babel?
A: Spiritual confluence.
Q: (L) What purpose did the individuals who came together to build the tower intend for said tower?
A: Electromagnetic concentration of all gravity waves.
Q: (L) And what did they intend to do with these concentrated waves?
A: Mind alteration of masses.
Q: (L) What intention did they have in altering the mind of the masses?
A: Spiritual unification of the masses.
Q: (L) Who were the "gods" that looked down on the tower of Babel, at those who were building it with the intention of unification, and decided to destroy
their works?
A: Lizards.
Q: (L) Okay, so the Lizzies blew up the tower of Babel. What else did they do to the minds of mankind; did they do something causing literal disruption of their
understanding of language?
A: Close.
Q: (L) What tool did they use to accomplish this divisiveness?
A: Brainwashing of masses.
Q: (L) Did they do this through implants and abduction?
A: Partly.

I assume that for these people to come together and attempt to do this, they should have had a quite good understanding of the reality in which humanity was in. They knew that humanity was spiritually divided and they knew of a way to change this. And I assume that the technique they tried to use was already no more accessible to humans at that time, so they should have received or learned it from some higher source.
So the question that keeps coming in my mind is how these guys, with all the knowledge and understanding they had, have still been defeated by Lizards. I mean, the simple fact that they understood that humans were divided should have directed them to some dividers, and from what they tried to do, I suppose that they knew of Lizards existence. If yes, the fact that they carried their project on the right track to some extend suppose they set some quite good protections against them! But still, they have been defeated. What could have not been right with them and their attempt that opened them up to 4D STS attacks?
We'll perhaps never know, but does this prevent us to discuss possibilities? Any thought?

I lenghtly thought and am still thinking why this question wasn't leaving my head before posting it, perhaps to distract me (and others by this very act of posting it) from thinking about the present, working on myself and so on or perhaps, most likely, it is releated to my understanding of humanity probable future. From what I can currently see about humanity condition, a bright future seems impossible without something like a new Tower of Babel.
And perhaps this post will prompt some good replies that will give me a new and better understanding or will point some gaps in my current knowledge. I hope so!

Q: (L) What did the tower of Babel look like?

A: Looked very similar to your Washington monument. Which re-creation is an ongoing replication of a soul memory.,26046.msg310541.html#msg310541

Q: (L) Who were the original inhabitants of the city of Jericho?

A: Aramaic.

Q: (L) There was a stone tower at one of the lower levels, what was it built for?

A: Energy disbursement. Attempt to duplicate tower of Babel and Atlantean crystal towers.
Q: (L) What is the origin of the Sanskrit language?

A: Atlantis.

Q: (L) When the Aryans were brought here, were they brought to Atlantis?

A: No. The Aryans were different from the Atlanteans.

Q: (L) Is there any language in existence today that is descended from the Aryan language? Or, that has remained more similar in development from Indo-European?

A: Yes. All Germanic.

Q: (L) Is Celtic considered to be one of these?

A: Yes.,28371.msg353139.html#msg353139
Q: (L) At the time of the tower of Babel it says that the Nephilim looked on the daughters of men and took wives as if there were some friendly interaction of some sort... does this mean they broke ranks and had feelings for their human "wives"?

A: No. Another deception of history. Picturesque way of describing genetic experiments.

Q: (L) Why did the sphinx look like a feline human?

A: Symbolism of feline energy.

Q: (L) Was this why the Egyptians worshipped cats or held cats in such high regard?

A: At root of this.

Q: (L) What was the origin of this feline god?

A: Atlantean tradition.

Q: (L) Where did the Atlantean tradition of the feline god originate?

A: Superstition.

Q: (L) What was the superstition about?

A: Not important.

Q: (L) Well, it is possibly important because such an enormous monument was built to honor this god and I am sure the world would like to know what is at the root of this.

A: What is at root of Statue of Liberty?

Q: (L) A principle. So, a feline principle is at the root of the sphinx?

A: Close.,28379.msg353158.html#msg353158
I have to find the time to read the whole links of this thread, BUT keep on going !
Genome evolution and language evolution have a lot in common. Both processes entail evolving elements—genes or words—that are inherited from ancestors to their descendants. The parallels between biological and linguistic evolution were evident both to Charles Darwin, who briefly addressed the topic of language evolution in The origin of species [1], and to the linguist August Schleicher, who in an open letter to Ernst Haeckel discussed the similarities between language classification and species evolution [2]. Computational methods that are currently used to reconstruct genome phylogenies can also be used to reconstruct evolutionary trees of languages [3,4]. However, approaches to language phylogeny that are based on bifurcating trees recover vertical inheritance only [3,5–7], neglecting the horizontal component of language evolution (borrowing). Horizontal interactions during language evolution can range from the exchange of just a few words to deep interference [8]. In previous investigations, which focused only on the component of language evolution that is described by a bifurcating tree [3,5–7], the extent of borrowing might therefore have been overlooked.

Objective language thread :
our thoughts don't just shape our language. Our language may also shape our thoughts. For example, one 2009 study asked high-school students to read a passage in English, Spanish or French. English is a "natural gender" language, meaning that speakers use gender-specific pronouns, but nouns do not have gender. Spanish and French are "gendered" languages, in which nouns are assigned as masculine and feminine. In Spanish, for example "la fruita" (the fruit) is feminine, but "el dia" (daytime) is masculine.

Compared with the students who read the passages in English, those who read in gendered languages responded with higher levels of sexism to a questionnaire they took after the study. ...

On average, countries where gendered languages are spoken ranked lowest on the scale of gender equality, researchers reported in the journal Sex Roles. But surprisingly, genderless languages didn't fare as well as natural gender languages such as English (though they did fare better than gendered languages). ..."Being able to use gendered pronouns, things like 'he' or 'she,' and being able to modify the language could actually have a function," Prewitt-Freilino said.
Today, however, the world is being jeopardized by a phenomenon which cannot be understood nor described by means of such a natural conceptual language; this kind of egotism thus becomes a dangerous factor stifling the possibility of objective counteractive measures. Developing and popularizing the objective psychological world view could thus significantly expand the scope of dealing with evil, via sensible action and pinpointed countermeasures.

The objective psychological language, based on mature philosophical criteria, must meet the requirements derived from its theoretical foundations, and meet the needs of individual and macrosocial practice. It should be evaluated fully on the basis of biological realities and constitute an extension of the analogous conceptual language elaborated by the older naturalistic sciences, particularly medicine. Its range of applicability should cover all those facts and phenomena conditioned upon cognizable biological factors for which this natural language has proved inadequate. It should, within this framework, allow sufficient understanding of the contents, and varied causes, for the genesis of the above-mentioned deviant world views.

Elaborating such a conceptual language, being far beyond the individual scope of any scientist, is a step-by-step affair; by means of the contribution of many researchers, it matures to the point when it could be organized under philosophical supervision in the light of above-mentioned foundations. Such a task would greatly contribute to the development of all bio-humanistic and social sciences by liberating them from the limitations and erroneous tendencies imposed by the overly great influence of the natural language of psychological imagination, especially when combined with an excessive component of egotism.

Most of the questions dealt with in this book are beyond the scope of applicability of the natural language. The fifth chapter shall deal with a macrosocial phenomenon which has rendered our traditional scientific language completely deceptive. Understanding these phenomena thus requires consistent separation from the habits of that method of thinking and the use of the most objective system of concepts possible. For this purpose, it proves necessary to develop the contents, organize them, and familiarize the readers with them as well.

In a sense, then, linguistic diversity can be another obstacle from achieving this objective language, and in spite of superficial cultural differences and ways of thinking (interesting as they are), ALL countries are ponerized to a great extent, so you could say there is only one culture: The culture of ignorance.

Thanks to Lobaczeski's work and the research done in English, the translations this network has made available, etc., this "objective language" is a bit better known and further developed, even in other languages. But still, English is the only language fairy well equipped to speak about what really is wrong with this world (because most of the research has been done IN English). Yes, it's a product of modern Imperialism, but linguistic diversity creates division and ignorance, and psychopaths have a ball with that. If all humanity spoke the same language, it might come to an understanding, or at least it would have a better chance to do so, MAYBE. So, Babel is a curse today, I think.

I still find languages fascinating, though! But I wish they were just something one could learn for fun and to further develop his/her brain capabilities and knowledge of the world, and not a limiting factor in this ponerized world where it's already hard to separate the wheat from the chaff in one language, and much more when clues are hidden in others too.

Citation de: lake_george le juillet 03, 2012, 11:14:44 pm

Regarding the idea of an objective language, see "In Search of the Miraculous," page 70:

"For exact understanding exact language is necessary. And the study of systems of ancient knowledge begins with the study of a language which will make it possible to establish at once exactly what is being said, from what point of view, and in what connection. This new language contains hardly any new terms or new nomenclature, but it bases the construction of speech upon a new principle, namely, the principle of relativity; that is to say, it introduces relativity into all concepts and thus makes possible an accurate determination of the angle of thought—for what precisely ordinary language lacks are expressions of relativity.
"When a man has mastered this language, then, with its help, there can be transmitted and communicated to him a great deal of knowledge and information which cannot be transmitted in ordinary language even by using all possible scientific and philosophical terms.
"The fundamental property of the new language is that all ideas in it are concentrated round one idea, that is, they are taken in their mutual relationship from the point of view of one idea. This idea is the idea of evolution. Of course, not evolution in the sense of mechanical evolution, because such an evolution does not exist, but in the sense of a conscious and volitional evolution, which alone is possible."

When your language routinely obliges you to specify certain types of information, it forces you to be attentive to certain details in the world and to certain aspects of experience that speakers of other languages may not be required to think about all the time. And since such habits of speech are cultivated from the earliest age, it is only natural that they can settle into habits of mind that go beyond language itself, affecting your experiences, perceptions, associations, feelings, memories and orientation in the world.

BUT IS THERE any evidence for this happening in practice?

Let’s take genders again. Languages like Spanish, French, German and Russian not only oblige you to think about the sex of friends and neighbors, but they also assign a male or female gender to a whole range of inanimate objects quite at whim. What, for instance, is particularly feminine about a Frenchman’s beard (la barbe)? Why is Russian water a she, and why does she become a he once you have dipped a tea bag into her? Mark Twain famously lamented such erratic genders as female turnips and neuter maidens in his rant “The Awful German Language.” But whereas he claimed that there was something particularly perverse about the German gender system, it is in fact English that is unusual, at least among European languages, in not treating turnips and tea cups as masculine or feminine. Languages that treat an inanimate object as a he or a she force their speakers to talk about such an object as if it were a man or a woman. And as anyone whose mother tongue has a gender system will tell you, once the habit has taken hold, it is all but impossible to shake off. When I speak English, I may say about a bed that “it” is too soft, but as a native Hebrew speaker, I actually feel “she” is too soft. “She” stays feminine all the way from the lungs up to the glottis and is neutered only when she reaches the tip of the tongue.

In recent years, various experiments have shown that grammatical genders can shape the feelings and associations of speakers toward objects around them.
You can read the entire link brought by Chu: Does Your Language Shape How You Think?

Well now i can say something like this: "There 's another step to the destruction of the Babel's Tower, with the genders
stuff "confusion", as talked in those threads:,43095.0.html and,44248.0.html
Some more:
Citation de: Perceval le juillet 04, 2012, 05:55:29 pm

"Our study suggests humans may be genetically pre-disposed to the influence by geomagnetic flux as it relates to the Earth's magnetic field and charged particles such as solar flares, coronal mass ejections, gamma rays, and galactic cosmic rays."

Aha! Interesting, indeed. It makes you wonder how many things like this are actually "hard-wired" in us, but due to our limited languages, they are never put to use. I would imagine that some of it has to do with the focus a certain linguistic group puts into observing a particular part of the environment, even at an unconscious level (as in the case of the Guugu Yimithirr people not being able to actually explain how they know why such and such object is pointing to a specific cardinal point).

There seems to be a clue in the fact that when one observes reality as it is, or at least part of it depending where one is at in terms of Seeing, it then becomes "second nature". And the same could be said of an "objective language", if, for example, people observe something previously "unseen" -let's say, pathology in government-, after spotting it a few times they can see it every time it's present, and hence, their language develops as they learn to describe it? Hmm... Would this be, at least partially, related to what happens if one is able to gain knowledge and as a consequence activate "untapped DNA"?
Citation de: Ailén le juillet 04, 2012, 02:02:50 pm
In particular, Whorf announced, Native American languages impose on their speakers a picture of reality that is totally different from ours, so their speakers would simply not be able to understand some of our most basic concepts, like the flow of time or the distinction between objects (like “stone”) and actions (like “fall”). For decades, Whorf’s theory dazzled both academics and the general public alike. In his shadow, others made a whole range of imaginative claims about the supposed power of language, from the assertion that Native American languages instill in their speakers an intuitive understanding of Einstein’s concept of time as a fourth dimension to the theory that the nature of the Jewish religion was determined by the tense system of ancient Hebrew.

This is very interesting since I was thinking that language itself is like a kind of genetic code that makes it possible for accurate information and knowledge of the deeper realities to manifest itself into this reality via the power of speech and the written word. So (just speculating here) an accurate language can more accurately reflect our inner life and, with our deeper conscious realization of this, along with our increasingly greater conscious recognition of the deeper meanings behind things that comes along with it, then this will help guide our own evolution (at all levels) just as the genetic code of a plant will outwardly, accurately, reflect the inner life of a plant and it's possibilities, allowing it's inner life to manifest in this world in it's growth, maybe even its 'evolution.' So let's say you have an accurate language. Then accurate information, intuitive knowledge of the universe can now have a better possibility of coming thru undistorted into this reality and be made manifest. Then that happens and our understanding increases. Then our understanding increases and then our DNA is changed accordingly. So, possibly, this greater understanding might even change our own DNA to reflect this deeper understanding of our inner life (or something like that)? And then this process kinda evolves? Diet is important too of course. Just speculating here!
(Petty Tyrants, Chapter 47, page 323):
"...The greater the number of words for any given object, the more precise a definition can be made about it in terms of content continuum. If there are a thousand ways to say apple, by knowing all the associations, we can access the higher realm of thought from whence the idea of an apple has a deeper meaning for man. In this sense, all languages are necessary because they are all complementary. They all tell us about the extraordinary wealth and diversity and limitless possibilities of the Universe in which we exist. What is more, such study of words enables us to interact dynamically with the surrounding reality itself. Word studies develop hyperdimensional awareness which binds us to higher planes."
Getting back to the language problem: language can shape perception in ways that people are not aware of. Barbara Oakley, in her book "Evil Genes", points out that people who grow up speaking Chinese process mathematics in different areas of the brain than those who grow up speaking English. Both groups use the inferior parietal cortex, but Chinese speakers also use a visual processing areas, while English speakers use a language processing area.

This is important to know because it tells us something about the pathways in the brain that underlie some of the differences between Asians and Westerners in thought patterns. Different languages can cause anatomical differences in our brains. People who speak different languages literally see the world differently from one another.

That is larger scale effect between different languages.

There is a more subtle effect between individuals who speak the same language cause by different understandings of words and meanings. We've seen some examples of this in this very thread.

Language and culture act to structure the neurologically based lens that people use to perceive reality. Within a single language group, differences between people arise from family upbringing, religion, political persuasion, educatioal background, work experience, and so on. These all create different frames of reference.

James Surowiecki's book, The Wisdom of Crowds, suggests that multiple viewpoints from individuals with a wide range of backgrounds, rather than the restricted viewpoints of experts or specialists, are crucial in reaching informed decisions on complex topics. Oakley comments that getting input from a broad variety of people is like getting input from a wide variety of devices such as microscopes, telescopes, litmus paper, tensile testors, ultrasound devices, scales, and so on.

In French:
« Tout est dans le mot... Une idée entière se modifie parce qu'un mot a changé de place ou parce qu'un autre mot s'est assis comme un petit roi dans une phrase qui ne l'attendait pas et lui a obéi... Ils ont l'ombre, la transparence, le poids, les plumes, le poil, ils ont tout ce qui s'est ajouté à eux à force de rouler dans la rivière, de changer de patrie, d'être des racines... Ils sont à la fois très anciens et très nouveaux... »

-Pablo Neruda-
« La science moderne n'a pas encore produit de médicament tranquillisant aussi efficace que quelques mots bienveillants ».

-Sigmund Freud-

« Si vous n'êtes pas heureux dans votre vie, il pourrait être sage de faire un inventaire des mots que vous prononcez. »

-Joyce Meyer-
Today i am free of "baby sitting", more jumping and running than sitting :), so keep on going !

Green Language:
In alchemical discourse, the Green Language (also called the "language of the birds") refers to the generally opaque and confusing way the few texts there are are written.

As Fulcanelli puts it, the alchemists of old had to resort to this means in order to obscure from one that which was to be disclosed to the other.

The language plays with phonetic analogies, plays on etymologies and symbols. It may be that the very mental exercise of making sense of the writings in itself is a preparatory exercise in expanding one's mind towards being able to grasp the actual mysteries.

In Fulcanelli's own writings, we have allusions to double meanings, where the seeker of literal transformation of lead into gold will simply get lost whereas the seeker of knowledge not concerned with material wealth or service to self will find keys to a new life, i.e. ascension to a multidimensional state of being, the Great Work.

For examples, see Fulcanelli's Mystery of the Cathedrals and Dwellings of the Philosophers. Also, Mark Hedsel discusses the Green Language in The Zelator, edited by David Ovason.

From The Zelator:

Almost all esoteric systems have developed one form or other of what is called 'The Language of the Birds', or the 'Green Language', as a means of communication.' This is an arcane tongue which permits initiates, and those on the Path, to com- municate secrets to one another in a form which is incomprehensible to those not versed in the language.


There are no words for the higher experiences – only symbols. There is a limit to what one can say with words. Once you step beyond the boundary of the ordinary, and wish to communicate what you have seen, then you have to speak in poetry or symbols. 'Yet even the poetic frenzy will only take you so far. As you continue on the visionary Path, even the rules of art begin to break down. You might, like Dante, make flights of poetic symbolism so sublime that they have the power to carry even the most obtuse reader beyond the familiar, into the Spiritual." Or you might, like Rabelais, throw yourself into a buffoon's burlesque, fooling your way with an arcane language which few even recognize as arcane. You might even, like Mozart, break into music so exquisite that its beams of sunlight touch levels where few men have ever been...Yet, in spite of this, there is a point beyond which art cannot go.

Cabala vs. Kabbalah:
Cabala is Fulcanelli's term for a special use of language, drawing on phonetic similarities and other symbolic techniques for expanding the expressive reach of words. This is related to the Green Language or Language of the Birds of the alchemists.

Kabbalah is the Hebrew body of mystical tradition which contains techniques such as gematria, notariqon and temura, drawing on numeric equivalences of letters, numerology, permutations of letters, forming new texts by picking first letters of words and other such text manipulation. The Tree of Life and its sefirath are also part of this tradition. Kabbalah is most often applied to the Hebrew text of the Torah.

After a fashion, both are techniques for deriving additional meaning from text. However, practicing each draws on a radically different faculty of the mind. Kabbalah is mechanical and rigidly formal, whereas cabala is unpredictable, creative, rich in texture of symbolic meaning.

In Gurdjieff's terminology, Kabbalah can be practiced by the formatory apparatus, whereas cabala requires the interplay of abstract thought and visual, auditory and emotional functions.

Fulcanelli writes that phonetic cabala is the key to understanding alchemical texts and symbols. Cabala combined with study of word roots configures the mind so as to have a richer set of associations to draw from and expands the semantic space open for contemplation.

Ultimately, this expansion of the faculty of language can reverse the 'babel' effect of confusion of tongues by connecting to a level of thought from which individual languages are only partial projections.

In contrast with this, Kabbalah occupies one with tedious calculations which can just as easily be performed by computer. This has indeed been done, with the result of finding all kinds of 'hidden content' from the Bible, as well as from any other large body of text. The findings seem to be artifacts of probability and involve no particular conscious work. From a nearly forgotten practice, Kabbalah rose in the 12-13th centuries to a prominent status in Western esoteric circles. Laura Knight-Jadczyk suggests that this may have been a deliberate maneuver to send centuries worth of seekers chasing their tails.

The practice of cabala can disclose meaning in alchemical text, but what may be even more important, it is an exercise which is its own reward, as it generally enhances one's language abilities and enriches one's semantic space. This is a part of connecting the human mind to the Platonic plane of ideas.

The notion of semantic continuum is discussed in Laura Knight-Jadczyk's article series "The Grail Quest and the Destiny of Man", as well as her The Wave Series books. Fulcanelli's books are prime examples of multilayered language and cabala.

Alchemical terminology:
Due to some zealous persecution and a little jealous secrecy over the ages, alchemists hid their esoteric work under various obscure terms and expressions. The resulting confusion from the various cloaking, red herrings and dead ends, leaves the student puzzled as to the true meaning of most of the alchemical terms.

Deciphering these terms, thinking about them and seeking out those who can help is all part of the alchemical process. This frustrating and sometimes infuriating process sorts the wheat from the chaff.

Fortunately we have Gurdjieff and Mouravieff who clear up some of the confusion. The parallels between alchemy, the Fourth Way and Sufism are no accident.

Let's start with the basics: Salt, Mercury & Sulfur.

Mercury: The Thinking or Intellectual Centre.
Salt: The Motor Centre.
Sulfur: The Emotional Centre.

Working on these "elements", begins the "The Great Work" which hopefully results in the formation of the Philosopher's Stone. The Philosopher's Stone is another way of describing the Magnetic Center and the formation of a permanent "Real I." Accomplishing the "Great Work" probably refers to the totality of development possible to the human form, eventually leading to "graduation" to a higher density.

Knowing the above elementary definitions makes reading alchemical text a little easier.

There are various animals used as similes, describing effects and divisions; mainly of the emotional and intellectual centers. These include the crow, the swan, the eagle, the red lion, the green lion, the salamander, the bull, the ram, the peacock, the cock, the phoenix, the pelican and the fox.

There are also plant terms used such as the oak, the rose, the lily. These are more than likely a substitution for the salt/sulfur/mercury trio.

Other important terms include: The Prime Matter (prima materia), The Black Cloud, The Virgin's Milk, The Secret Stream, The Philosopher's Dew, the sun, the moon, the stars, Universal Spirit, iron, gold, silver, lead.
By pulling on my "fil d'Ariane" i am back in the CassWiki's cave:

In the context of the brain, we look at various views on how biology and consciousness may be linked, then look at possible correspondences between physical processes and mental practices.

In general we could say that the brain plays a role in mediating between the physical world and consciousness.

Strict materialists would say that intelligence, self-awareness and consciousness in general is a byproduct of a biological system. When a system is complex enough, some form of consciousness emerges by itself, then is shaped by processes of adaptation.

The reverse view would be that the brain is only a receiver and that any animating intelligence or consciousness is external to it.

The materialistic view has problems accounting for psychic occurrences such as reports of near-death experiences, probable cases of reincarnation with checkable memories of would be past lives, etc.

Consciousness is not independent of the brain either. The fact that personality changes take place as a result of brain damage, that drugs affect mental processes, that mental states reflect in metabolic and electrical activity of the brain offer ample evidence of tight coupling between brain and anything we could call consciousness.

So, if consciousness is both within and without the brain, something must mediate between these states. Heimerov and Penrose have proposed that quantum level processes inside neurons would provide a gateway between the physical world and an 'implicate order' which guides the apparent randomness of single quantum events. Cells contain hundreds of thousands of so-called microtubules which form a sort of receiver sensitive to quantum effects. The quantum nondeterministic motion of an electron inside the microtubule can affect the chemical and electrical brain activity.

So, "spirit" would tweak the functioning of matter by playing on probabilities of detecting an electron in one place or another. Matter would conversely inform spirit by a 'back action' through this same gateway.

Another proposed link between matter and a world of information is the morphogenetic field proposed by Rupert Sheldrake. In Sheldrake's model, similar structures of matter are linked through time and space by virtue of their similarity. The reason why the human perceives time as a continuous sequence is the fact that its immediate past is the closest thing in terms of structure to its present. But forms exist outside of time and space and by having a certain structure one can 'tune in' to these forms and receive information. The link between 'soul' and body could be seen as a special case of such a process. The morphogenetic field gives a nice conceptual model for events such as apparent species level learning by animals, independent emergence of similar ideas, even phenomena in formation of crystals etc but fails to make testable predictions.

Attempts at formalizing a link between the different levels of existence intuited by humans throughout the ages has thus far not been successful.

Psychic research and the experience with the so-called spirit attachment phenomenon give us more ideas about the survival of consciousness and its relation with matter. We cannot however reconcile these with laws of physics as we generally understand these. The spirit attachment phenomenon takes place when a recently deceased soul attaches itself to a living body occupied by another soul. There are numerous cases of making contact with such attached disincarnates through hypnosis of the subject of attachment. The attachments often say that the host must have a certain 'frequency,' be somehow structurally compatible with the attaching spirit.

Anyhow, if the brain is a receiver, as this phenomenon would suggest, then we need to explain why it primarily receives the incarnate 'soul' and not every other one. Genetics may form a sort of tuner for this but are not in themselves sufficient for explaining all. Identical twins for example are not the same entity, even though they often have a certain psychic affinity.

Many occult practices assign importance to genetics as a link between physicality and spirit. Also, psychic sensitivity seems in large measure to be a hereditary trait.

In terms of work on the self, we may first look at learning in general. The brain seems to form connections between things which occur together. Even the simplest animals can be conditioned. If a dog gets an electric shock when hearing a sound, the dog will react to the sound as if shocked even if there is no electric shock. (See classical conditioning.) The effect wears slowly off with time. Dissensitizing occurs more slowly than sensitizing. The same can be observed with very primitive animals.

We can begin to draw rough parallels between what we know of the brain and the various concepts of the 4th Way and other methods of self-development. We do not expect to find precise correspondences between phenomenology and physiology or anatomy but can make some general observations and identify special cases.

The little 'I' most likely corresponds to a set of neural circuits. Different 'I's are associated to different aspects of different centers. The centers (thinking, feeling, moving) clearly have a rough representation in the brain anatomy but the concept of center is somewhat broader and encompasses more than the neural circuits associated with some area of functioning.

We could imagine the little 'I' as a frequent pattern of simultaneous activation of groups of neurons. Such a pattern could be seen in a PET scan of the brain as increased metabolic activity in the areas concerned. Such frequent joint activation causes information paths to be strengthened between the parts concerned. In this way, a pattern of habit can acquire an electrochemical and maybe even anatomical representation.

A buffer on the other hand could be represent as relative scarcity of connections between such connected islands. Also the phenomenon of state dependent recall may play a role in this process. Certain memories may only become accessible when the brain chemical state is similar to the state in effect when the memory was formed. Thus emotional states may block and enable entire areas of memory. Emotional states have a rough correspondence with levels of dopamine, serotonin and other neurotransmitters. The concept of repressed memory is a special case of a strong buffer and is likely represented by severing connections between frontal cortex cognitive functions and the structure of long term memory corresponding to the experience. The experience may however be stored as a second copy in the amygdala, thus activating generalized anxiety, fear or aggression when exposed to some stimulus of which there is no conscious recall. Consciously reprogramming this is not possible if there is no link to conscious function to start with, so new connections cannot be drawn if the thread is lost.

The practice of self-remembering consists of being simultaneously aware of the state of self and of environment. As a constant practice, this may increase connections between the sensory, thinking, emotional and motor areas of the brain. Learning at the physiological level is after all based on things occurring together. By observing the body, emotions and environment, the functions corresponding to self-awareness get exercised and the connections to other functions strengthened. Self-awareness becomes physically more rooted in reality, so to speak.

Still, such work is only seen as preparatory and is not the same thing as connecting to the real I or "higher centers". Still, even if these processes are not physical per se, to the extent they involve an incarnate human being, they most likely have some sort of neurological representation and do not occur independently of it.

We could think that exercise of self-remembering reduces the fragmentation of the brain, even in a physical sense. If the brain is then seen as a receiver for contents of a sort of idea world, then a minimum coherence should exist in the brain before such contents can be received and picked out from the noise. Work on the self may thus open doors to new possibilities by preparing the ground.

It is conceivable that there exist two possible but in a sense opposite ways of creating a certain coherence in the brain. The way discussed here which has to do with seeking multifaceted and within limits of possibility objective understanding of self and the world and another way which has to do with single-minded focus on belief and shutting out all which does not conform to this. Practices of magic or 'you create your own reality' may for example fall in the second category. These ways correspond with objectivity and subjectivity in their more focused forms, which both may open doors to 'higher' states of consciousness but then for a fundamentally different purpose.

Being mentation
This is a term used by Gurdjieff referring to thinking beyond the passive associative mechanism of the brain by the effort of the will. Being-mentation is not just thinking with the brain but it is thinking with one's entire presence.

Being-mentation cannot be done theoretically, it must be done actively by the use of one's will. This activity puts the thinker into a proper relationship with his own thoughts. The thinker now becomes the active participant in this relationship rather then just a passive instrument. It puts the thinker more in touch with who he is, his essential nature. It allows the thinker to think beyond the automatic associative thinking mechanism of the physical brain allowing for spontaneous or creative thinking.

Active being-mentation allows for the proper digestion and assimilation of experience. This is comparable to the digestion of food. Food may enter the organism but a long digestive process goes on before this food is sufficiently refined to enter the bloodstream and thus become inseparably absorbed into the organism. Until this happens the food is not part of the eater: He may lose it altogether by getting sick. Active being mentation is the process which facilitates the digestion of experience and allows it to become part of one's own essence.

Being-mentation is the thinker thinking with the brain rather then the brain thinking for the thinker. It is thinking as thinking would be in man if he were as he ought to be. An example of active being-mentation is the type of thinking that was used by those who passed on information through the use of allegories, myths, and fairy tales.

Thinking with a hammer

The term thinking with a hammer was first introduced in Mark Hedsel's book The Zelator:

The alchemists insisted that one should heat the retort many times before making the final distillation. This is an emblem of true thought: one must pass one's thinking through the furnace many times, to be sure. One should think with a hammer, rather than with a brain, as one shapes our thought from dross matter.' As though imitating the hammer blows of Vulcan, he tapped his stick on top of the balustrade. 'Iron, you see. Cast iron. Yet it looks like stone. That is the true Philosopher's stone, which never appears to be what it is.

We note that Fulcanelli literally means "Little Vulcan", the smith of the gods.

In FotCM usage, the term "thinking with a hammer" means approaching the object of thought from all angles. The hammer also implies hammering against one's beliefs and prejudices, creating internal friction by being critical of the thought process itself.

Thinking with a hammer is, in a sense, the opposite of habitual thinking. Thinking with a hammer means forging new paths and connections as opposed to forcing things to fit within the grooves of existing categories. It is expanding one's mind to be at the measure of the questions instead of shrinking the questions to fit the mind's habits. Thinking with a hammer cannot take place in a state of sleep. It needs an application of will and going against one's internal resistance.

Formatory thinking
The formatory apparatus is Ouspensky's term for the mechanical aspect of the lower intellectual center.

The natural function of this center is storage of information and its associative retrieval. The term "formatory thinking" Is used when this function replaces the less mechanical aspects of thinking. Formatory thinking is characterized by insensitivity to context, black and white statements or strictly agreeing or disagreeing. Repeating by rote and not taking specific circumstance into account are the main characteristics of formatory thinking.

Mouravieff states the the human intellect is blind to the 'third force.' This is specially true of formatory thinking.

Law of Three
The Law of Three is fundamental to Fourth Way cosmology, where each phenomenon springs from the interaction of three forces. The idea is also central to the Cassiopaean Experiment, where context or consciousness determines alignment in relation to the fundamental duality of the cosmos.


In Fourth Way cosmology, the fundamental law is called the Law of Three, or the law of the three principles or the three forces. According to this law, every phenomenon – from the cosmic to the sub-atomic – is the result of the converging action of three forces:

The active force, also called the Holy Affirming.
The passive force, also called the Holy Denying.
The neutralizing force, also called the Holy Reconciling.

The human mind is geared towards thinking in terms of a single force or at most two. People are generally unaware of the 'third force' or 'third principle' in a given phenomenon or situation, and as such they are not able to form an objective understanding of it. Rigid 'formatory' or 'mechanical' thinking tends to only see 'yes' and 'no', 'true' and 'false', or 'good' and 'bad'. Introducing the notion of third force as a representative of context or consciousness can broaden the mental process.

Still, we may not give fixed meanings to the three forces. The three forces are active, passive and neutralizing only with respect to the phenomenon at hand. Thus one and the same force may play very different roles in different phenomena and no phenomenon is isolated. The Law of Three deals with the single occurrence, but no single occurrence occurs that is not part of some process. The Law of Seven deals with how a process moves through distinct stages in time.

George Gurdjieff describes the Law of Three and the question of the third force as follows[1]:

Contemporary thought realizes the existence of two forces and the necessity of these two forces for the production of a phenomenon: force and resistance, positive and negative magnetism, positive and negative electricity, male and female cells, and so on. But it does not observe even these two forces always and everywhere. No question has ever been raised as to the third, or if it has been raised it has scarcely been heard.

According to real, exact knowledge, one force, or two forces, can never produce a phenomenon. The presence of a third force is necessary, for it is only with the help of a third force that the first two can produce what may be called a phenomenon, no matter in what sphere.

The teaching of the three forces is at the root of all ancient systems. The first force may be called active or positive; the second, passive or negative; the third, neutralizing. But these are merely names, for in reality all three forces are equally active and appear as active, passive, and neutralizing, only at their meeting points, that is to say, only in relation to one another at a given moment. The first two forces are more or less comprehensible to man and the third may sometimes be discovered either at the point of application of the forces, or in the 'medium,' or in the 'result.' But, speaking in general, the third force is not easily accessible to direct observation and understanding. The reason for this is to be found in the functional limitations of man's ordinary psychological activity and in the fundamental categories of our perception of the phenomenal world, that is, in our sensation of space and time resulting from these limitations. People cannot perceive and observe the third force directly any more than they can spatially perceive the 'fourth dimension.'

Gurdjieff goes on to describe the Ray of Creation, wherein the three forces of the Absolute meet, creating worlds where the three forces no longer act as one. In a repeating process, the three forces then meet, giving rise to the next order of worlds, wherein the number of forces is doubled. This process proceeds to create a series of seven cosmoses (beginning with the Absolute as the first), where the number of forces acting on a cosmos is also the number of laws to which it is subject. The more laws, the more mechanical the worlds of a cosmos.

Boris Mouravieff, in his Gnosis trilogy, also relates the three forces to the creation of the world. Emerging with the creation of the Universe, each force represents one of the three conditions conceived by the non-manifest Divinity before the creation of the Universe:

The passive force corresponds to the static condition.
The active force corresponds to the dynamic condition.
The neutralizing force ensures the maintenance or equilibrium of creation.

In the first volume of Gnosis, Mouravieff writes:

Life in the universe is nothing but a perpetual process of creation in every domain, on every plane, and at every step. In addition, for every event, large or small, important or insignificant, an act analogous to the First Creation of the entire Universe is produced, with all proportions maintained. In this act, the three forces act as a replica of the three conditions which conceived the created universe before the manifestation.


The formulation 'The higher blends with the lower in order to actualise the middle' , is clear in the following: the sperm merges with the ovum to create the embryo or alternatively the sexual drive is inhibited, giving rise to ‘sublimation' or ‘complex', a teacher relates with a pupil ensuring transmission, etc.

In other examples, the third force is a catalyst or arbiter which determines the outcome of the encounter of the active and passive forces. For example, flour and water become bread only when bonded by fire, plaintiff and defendant have their case resolved only through a judge, the soul in potential asserts itself over the body through the application of the Work.
Work on the self

The Law of Three is of practical importance in self-Work. By studying onseself, one can learn to distinguish the three forces in the functioning of one's machine. One can also recognize the absense of the third force by inertia in one's life – by observing that one is stuck. Such observation shows the need for a new element which can enter as the third force. It could be knowledge, it could be work on one's body or emotions; or, it could be that the need to "pay all in advance" is not being fulfilled, and must be before further progress is possible.

George Gurdjieff describes self-study and self-Work in relation to the Law of Three as follows[1]:

[...] by studying himself, the manifestations of his thought, consciousness, activity—his habits, his desires, and so on—man may learn to observe and to see in himself the action of the three forces. Let us suppose, for instance, that a man wants to work on himself in order to change certain of his characteristics, to attain a higher level of being. His desire, his initiative, is the active force. The inertia of all his habitual psychological life which shows opposition to his initiative will be the passive or the negative force. The two forces will either counterbalance one another, or one will completely conquer the other, but, at the same time, it will become too weak for any further action. Thus the two forces will, as it were, revolve one around the other, one absorbing the other and producing no result whatever. This may continue for a lifetime. A man may feel desire and initiative. But all this initiative may be absorbed in overcoming the habitual inertia of life, leaving nothing for the purpose towards which the initiative ought to be directed. And so it may go on until the third force makes its appearance, in the form, for instance, of new knowledge, showing at once the advantage or the necessity of work on oneself and, in this way, supporting and strengthening the initiative. Then the initiative, with the support of this third force, may conquer inertia and the man becomes active in the desired direction.

Examples of the action of the three forces, and the moments of entry of the third force, may be discovered in all manifestations of our psychic life, in all phenomena of the life of human communities and of humanity as a whole, and in all the phenomena of nature around us.

But at the beginning it is enough to understand the general principle: every phenomenon, of whatever magnitude it may be, is inevitably the manifestation of three forces; one or two forces cannot produce a phenomenon, and if we observe a stoppage in anything, or an endless hesitation at the same place, we can say that, at the given place, the third force is lacking. In trying to understand this it must be remembered at the same time that people cannot observe phenomena as manifestations of three forces because we cannot observe the objective world in our subjective states of consciousness. And in the subjectively observed phenomenal world we see in phenomena only the manifestation of one or two forces. If we could see the manifestation of three forces in every action, we should then see the world as it is (things in themselves). Only it must here be remembered that a phenomenon which appears to be simple may actually be very complicated, that is, it may be a very complex combination of trinities. But we know that we cannot observe the world as it is and this should help us to understand why we cannot see the third force. The third force is a property of the real world. The subjective or phenomenal world of our observation is only relatively real, at any rate it is not complete.

The Cassiopaeans stress the need for giving back in order to receive. Taking without giving eventually results in a blockage, regardless of the amount of energy expended in other ways. Relating this to the above quote, it is an instance of the third force being missing. Giving back can take many forms – it depends on what is asked for. In the context of this group, a large part is helping out with our common projects – e.g. discussing and sharing information on the Cassiopaea Forum, editing Signs of the Times to help keep it active as a lighthouse for the world, contributing to other projects – or helping to provide the means which others can use to do so. It can also be a matter of dedication – of not being able to receive more until one puts in practice, or sincerely utilizes, what one has already been given.
Duality, context, and choice

In relation to the fundamental duality of the cosmos, the third force is the context which determines how something aligns with either side. The duality can be expressed in various terms, including:

Being vs. non-being
Creativity vs. entropy
Service to others vs. service to self

There is good (the creative principle or STO), evil (the entropic principle or STS), and the specific context that determines which is which. While in a given situation, a particular action may align with one of the polarities, in another situation it may correspond to the other. In any given situation, discerning the context is the basis of making an unweighed choice between the two natures.

Laura Knight-Jadczyk illustrates this in part of her article series "Jupiter, Nostradamus, Edgar Cayce, and the Return of the Mongols"[2]:

There are those who think that truth or lies are always static, that a lie is a lie is a lie and that to be "good," one must ALWAYS tell the "truth." However, it is not always that easy. For example, consider France during the Nazi occupation. Undoubtedly, many of those involved in the resistance lied daily and regularly about their plans and activities. What was different about their lies was the INTENT and the SPECIFIC SITUATION. In such a situation, speaking the truth to a Nazi soldier who would use that truth to destroy one's fellow resistance fighters would be "evil," so to say, and lying would be "good." The greater truth that the lie served was Freedom from Tyranny. The "observer" of the situation knew the objective truth that revealing his plans or betraying his brothers would bring their deaths. The reality of the Nazis was based on subjective lies, and by responding to these lies leading to tyranny with an opposite lie that led to freedom was then an effective canceling of the subjectivity leaving the field clear for objectivity. This simple example ought to give the reader much to think about in terms of the socialized belief in a "black and white" exposition of "truth or lies" and "good and evil".

Attempting to define rigid, context-free rules of 'good' and 'evil' does not approach any real understanding, and the instilling of such mechanical morality is part of the formation of false personality. Ultimately, no dogmas can replace the development of consciousness and conscience in guiding the decisions of one involved in the Work. Consciousness allows discernment of the nature of choices, and the development of conscience leads to a kind of universal morality which is independent of cultural values and programming, and which is able to take context into account.

An awareness of context in judging the rightness of actions is an inherent part of the practice of external considering and strategic enclosure.

Another example of the 'third principle' in ethics is the Buddhist notion of the middle path. For example, the extremes of asceticism and gluttony can be reconciled to right action by the Dharma, thus moving on from the body-centricity implicit in the original tension between deprivation and indulgence.

See also
Being vs. non-being
Unweighted choice
Realm of the three
Law of Seven
Then now in the thread Does lying and believing lies damage the brain?, we have the following:
Thus, whenever we observe some group member being treated with no critical distance, although he betrays one of the psychological anomalies familiar to us, and his opinions being treated as at least equal to those of normal people, although they are based on a characteristically different view of human matters, we must derive the conclusion that this human group is affected by a ponerogenic process and if measures are not taken the process shall continue to its logical conclusion. We shall treat this in accordance with the above described first criterion of ponerology, which retains its validity regardless of the qualitative and quantitative features of such a union: the atrophy of natural critical faculties with respect to pathological individuals becomes an opening to their activities, and, at the same time, a criterion for recognizing the association in concern as ponerogenic. [...]
One of the reasons this particular point is so interesting to me is because we (myself, fellow researchers and editors of have observed this "turning into half-wits" over and over again. It's the damnedest thing! The instant an individual makes a decision to believe a lie, it's as though their ability to use accurate reasoning about anything else - not just a contentious item - grinds to a halt.

Most often, this sort of dynamic occurs in very emotional situations where the individual is heavily invested in NOT seeing the truth about a person or a situation for any number of reasons. They may be involved in a close relationship with the person, they may be brought up to "believe" a certain way and, in spite of evidence that their faith is misplaced, refuse to accept the facts.

Which, of course, leads to the consideration of Faith itself. Soren Kierkegaard suggested that religion is, of its essence, not persuasion of the truth of a doctrine, but commitment to a position which is inherently absurd. Human beings attain their identity by believing something that deeply offends their minds (or others). To exist, he says, we must believe, and to really believe means to believe something that is dreadfully hard to believe. You can't just believe something plausible because that is easy... So, for some people, it may be that believing lies is some kind of proof that they are in control of their choices, they aren't being pushed around or dominated by irritating things like facts and evidence. (Sounds really rather childish, doesn't it?)

When subjects lied, the scans revealed increased activity in several regions of the brain, including the anterior cingulate gyrus, which is implicated in conflict monitoring, attention and response inhibition. Head researcher Daniel Langleben, M.D., a professor of psychiatry at the University of Pennsylvania, says this confirms that the brain's "default" response is to tell the truth. "No area of the brain works harder to tell the truth than to lie" says Langleben.

There were some other interesting possible clues, but right now, I just wonder if lying, holding onto a lie, even if one is only lying to the self, causes some kind of damage to this area of the brain? Or, if not actual damage, just sets up a pattern of activity that affects other areas of the brain in a detrimental way? One suspects that even when people believe a lie that some part of their brain knows the truth and they know, at some level, that they are lying or believing lies (which amounts to lying to the self).

I also wonder what kinds of results would show up doing these kinds of scans on psychopaths? Do psychopaths know they are lying in all cases? And if that is the case, does it have the same physiological effect on them as it does on an individual with a conscience?
What came out was an unusual finding in the field that must be credited to Yaling Yang, who took the lead on this study. [...] The volume of white matter in the prefrontal cortex was greater in pathological liars than in both control groups. They had a 22 percent volume increase compared with normal controls, and a 26 percent increase compared with criminal controls. The white matter volume increase was particularly true of the more ventral, lower areas of the prefrontal cortex. As you might expect, liars also had significantly higher verbal IQs than the other two groups, but this did not explain away the structural brain differences. As Sean Spence, a leading expert on lying, commented in his editorial on this work, the white matter increase is very unusual, as virtually no other clinical disorder has been associated with this abnormality.

[…] Lying is a complex executive function that requires a lot of frontal lobe processing. Telling the truth is easy. Lying is much harder and requires more processing resources. We think that increased prefrontal white matter provides the individual with a boost in the cognitive capacity to lie because it reflects greater connectivity between subregions both within the prefrontal cortex and in other brain areas. Let’s consider lying a little more.

Lying involves theory of mind. When I lie to you about where I was at eleven p.m. on Wednesday, January 7, I need to have an understanding of what you know about the facts of the case –and what you do not know. I need to have a sense of what you think is plausible, and what is not. For this “mind reading” we need to involve other subregions in the temporal and parietal lobes and connect them to the prefrontal cortex. We have discussed the behavioral cues that are bad signs of when people lie. But extensive studies also show that during lie-telling, individuals suppress unnecessary body movements. When I’m telling you the truth about where I was on the night of January 7 and I have nothing to hide, I may gesture with my hands, raise my eyebrows when making a point in the story, and look up into space for a second or two.

Liars tend to not do that. They sit still and suppress motor activity because they are cognitively focusing on their story. All of their processing resources are going into this activity. Suppression requires prefrontal regulation of the motor and somatosensory areas of the brain that control motor and body movements. Greater white-matter connectivity will facilitate that. While liars are busy building the believable façade of their story, they also have to take care not to look too nervous. This involves suppression of limbic emotional regions that include the amygdala. So again, prefrontal-limbic connectivity is important. The more white-matter wiring there is in the prefrontal cortex, the better all these functions can be subserved.

We think that the cause of the greater white-matter volumes in pathological liars is neurodevelopmental. Again, we are talking about an increase in volume, rather than a decrease. From a neurodevelopmental perspective, throughout childhood there is massive expansion of brain size. Brain weight reaches adult values between the ages of ten and twelve, with a very significant increase in the absolute volume of white matter by this age. We also know that children become most adept at lying at the same time –by then years of age. Interestingly, then, the neurodevelopmental increase in white matter parallels developmental changes in the ability of children to lie. This suggests that the increased white matter we find in pathological liars does indeed facilitate their ability to lie. Based on this perspective, we think that the increased prefrontal white matter found in adult psychopathic liars predisposes them to deception and cunning.

The increase in white matter, then, might “cause” pathological lying. But could it be the other way around? You’ll likely recall from your childhood the late-nineteenth-century Italian children’s story about Pinocchio, the puppet whose nose grew every time he told a lie. Could it be that the act of pathological lying causes the physical increase in white matter in the prefrontal cortex?

This “Pinocchio’s nose” hypothesis is not as ridiculous as it may sound. It’s the concept of brain plasticity. The more time that musicians spend in practicing the piano, the greater the development of their white matter, especially in childhood. Practicing lying in childhood might particularly enhance prefrontal white matter. But even in adults, extensive practice has been found to correlate with brain structure. London taxi drivers have to undergo three years of extensive training to learn their way around 25,000 convoluted city streets. MRI studies have shown that these taxi drivers have a greater volume of the hippocampus compared with matched controls, and also compared with London bus drivers, who do not undergo such extensive training. Just as working in the gym can build up your muscles, mental effort can flex your brain.

In the case of pathological liars, it’s as it a criminal lifestyle makes for a criminal brain. It’s a different story from the one Lombroso was telling in Italy in the nineteenth century –the idea that brain impairment causes crime. But we cannot yet discount the alternative environmental explanation that lying causes brain change.

Anterior cingulate cortex
Studying the effects of damage to the ACC provides insights into the type of functions it serves in the intact brain. Behavior that is associated with lesions in the ACC includes: inability to detect errors, severe difficulty with resolving stimulus conflict in a Stroop task, emotional instability, inattention, and akinetic mutism.[29][4][5] There is evidence that damage to ACC is present in patients with schizophrenia, where studies have shown patients have difficulty in dealing with conflicting spatial locations in a Stroop-like task and having abnormal ERNs.[5][15] Participants with ADHD were found to have reduced activation in the dorsal area of the ACC when performing the Stroop task.[30] Together, these findings corroborate results from imaging and electrical studies about the variety of functions attributed to the ACC.

There is evidence that this area may have a role in obsessive–compulsive disorder due to the fact that what appears to be an unnaturally low level of glutamate activity in this region has been observed in patients with the disorder,[31] in contrast to many other brain regions that are thought to have excessive glutamate activity in OCD. Recent SDM meta-analyses of voxel-based morphometry studies comparing people with OCD and healthy controls has found people with OCD to have increased grey matter volumes in bilateral lenticular nuclei, extending to the caudate nuclei, while decreased grey matter volumes in bilateral dorsal medial frontal/anterior cingulate cortex.[32][33] These findings contrast with those in people with other anxiety disorders, who evince decreased (rather than increased) grey matter volumes in bilateral lenticular / caudate nuclei, while also decreased grey matter volumes in bilateral dorsal medial frontal / anterior cingulate gyri.[33]

The ACC has been suggested to have possible links with Social Anxiety, along with the amygdala part of the brain, but this research is still in its early stages.[34] A more recent study, by the Wake Forest Baptist Medical Centre, confirms the relationship between the ACC and anxiety regulation, by revealing mindfulness practice as a mediator for anxiety precisely through the ACC.

The adjacent subcallosal cingulate gyrus has been implicated in major depression and research indicates that deep-brain stimulation of the region could act to alleviate depressive symptoms.[36] Although people suffering from depression had smaller subgenual ACCs,[37] their ACCs were more active when adjusted for size. This correlates well with increased subgenual ACC activity during sadness in healthy people,[38] and normalization of activity after successful treatment.[39] Of note, the activity of the subgenual cingulate cortex correlates with individual differences in negative affect during the baseline resting state; in other words, the greater the subgenual activity, the greater the negative affectivity in temperament.

A study of brain MRIs taken on adults that had previously participated in the Cincinnati Lead Study found that people that had suffered higher levels of lead exposure as children had decreased brain size as adults. This effect was most pronounced in the ACC (Cecil et al., 2008)[41] and is thought to relate to the cognitive and behavioral deficits of affected individuals.

Impairments in the development of the anterior cingulate, together with impairments in the dorsal medial-frontal cortex, may constitute a neural substrate for socio-cognitive deficits in autism, such as social orienting and joint attention. and

From Sott:
The team scanned volunteers' brains while they took part in tasks where they could lie for personal gain. They found that the amygdala, a part of the brain associated with emotion, was most active when people first lied for personal gain. The amygdala's response to lying declined with every lie while the magnitude of the lies escalated.
Crucially, the researchers found that larger drops in amygdala activity predicted bigger lies in future.

What is the Amygdala?
The amygdalae (singular: amygdala; /əˈmɪɡdələ/; also corpus amygdaloideum; Latin, from Greek ἀμυγδαλή, amygdalē, ‘almond’, ‘tonsil’), listed in the Gray’s Anatomy textbook as the nucleus amygdalæ, are two almond-shaped groups of nuclei located deep and medially within the temporal lobes of the brain in complex vertebrates, including humans. Shown in research to perform a primary role in the processing of memory, decision-making, and emotional reactions, the amygdalae are considered part of the limbic system.

The regions described as amygdala nuclei encompass several structures with distinct connectional and functional characteristics in humans and other animals. Among these nuclei are the basolateral complex, the cortical nucleus, the medial nucleus, the central nucleus, and the intercalated cell clusters . The basolateral complex can be further subdivided into the lateral, the basal, and the accessory basal nuclei.

There are functional differences between the right and left amygdala. In one study, electrical stimulations of the right amygdala induced negative emotions, especially fear and sadness. In contrast, stimulation of the left amygdala was able to induce either pleasant (happiness) or unpleasant (fear, anxiety, sadness) emotions. Other evidence suggests that the left amygdala plays a role in the brain’s reward system.

Each side holds a specific function in how we perceive and process emotion. The right and left portions of the amygdala have independent memory systems, but work together to store, encode, and interpret emotion.

The right hemisphere of the amygdala is associated with negative emotion. It plays a role in the expression of fear and in the processing of fear-inducing stimuli. Fear conditioning, which is when a neutral stimulus acquires aversive properties, occurs within the right hemisphere.

When an individual is presented with a conditioned, aversive stimulus, it is processed within the right amygdala, producing an unpleasant or fearful response. This emotional response conditions the individual to avoid fear-inducing stimuli.

The right hemisphere is also linked to declarative memory, which consists of information that can be consciously recalled. It also plays a significant role in the retention of episodic memory. Episodic memory consists of the autobiographical aspects of memory. The right amygdala plays a role in the association of time and places with emotional properties.

The amygdala is one of the best understood brain regions with regard to differences between the sexes. Larger male than female amygdalae have been demonstrated in children ages 7–11, in adult humans, and in adult rats.

In addition to size, other differences between men and women exist with regards to the amygdala. Subjects’ amygdala activation was observed when watching a horror film. The results of the study showed a different lateralization of the amygdala in men and women.

Enhanced memory for the film was related to enhanced activity of the left, but not the right, amygdala in women, whereas it was related to enhanced activity of the right, but not the left, amygdala in men. One study found evidence that on average, women tend to retain stronger memories for emotional events than men.

The right amygdala is also linked with taking action as well as being linked to negative emotions, which may help explain why males tend to respond to emotionally stressful stimuli physically. The left amygdala allows for the recall of details, but it also results in more thought rather than action in response to emotionally stressful stimuli, which may explain the absence of physical response in women.

Amygdala Function
The amygdala sends projections to the hypothalamus, the dorsomedial thalamus, the thalamic reticular nucleus, the nuclei of the trigeminal nerve and the facial nerve, the ventral tegmental area, the locus coeruleus, and the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus.

The medial nucleus is involved in the sense of smell and pheromone-processing. It receives input from the olfactory bulb and olfactory cortex. The lateral amygdalae, which send impulses to the rest of the basolateral complexes and to the centromedial nuclei, receive input from the sensory systems. The centromedial nuclei are the main outputs for the basolateral complexes, and are involved in emotional arousal in rats and cats.

Emotional Learning
In complex vertebrates, including humans, the amygdalae perform primary roles in the formation and storage of memories associated with emotional events. Research indicates that, during fear conditioning, sensory stimuli reach the basolateral complexes of the amygdalae, particularly the lateral nuclei, where they form associations with memories of the stimuli. The association between stimuli and the aversive events they predict may be mediated by long-term potentiation, a sustained enhancement of signaling between affected neurons.

There have been studies that show that damage to the amygdala can interfere with memory that is strengthened by emotion. One study examined a patient with bilateral degeneration of the amygdala. He was told a violent story accompanied by matching pictures and was observed based on how much he could recall from the story. The patient had less recollection of the story than patients with functional amygdala, showing that the amygdala has a strong connection with emotional learning.

Memories of emotional experiences imprinted in reactions of synapses in the lateral nuclei elicit fear behavior through neuronal connections with the central nucleus of the amygdalae and the bed nuclei of the stria terminalis (BNST). The axon terminals from sensory neurons form synapses with dendritic spines on neurons from the central nucleus.

The central nuclei are involved in the genesis of many fear responses such as defensive behavior (freezing or escape responses), autonomic nervous system responses (changes in blood pressure and heart rate/tachycardia), neuroendocrine responses (stress-hormone release), etc. Damage to the amygdalae impairs both the acquisition and expression of Pavlovian fear conditioning, a form of classical conditioning of emotional responses.

The amygdalae are also involved in appetitive (positive) conditioning. It seems that distinct neurons respond to positive and negative stimuli, but there is no clustering of these distinct neurons into clear anatomical nuclei. However, lesions of the central nucleus in the amygdala have been shown to reduce appetitive learning in rats. Lesions of the basolateral regions do not exhibit the same effect. Research like this indicates that different nuclei within the amygdala have different functions in appetitive conditioning.

The amygdala is also involved in the modulation of memory consolidation. Following any learning event, the long-term memory for the event is not formed instantaneously. Rather, information regarding the event is slowly assimilated into long-term (potentially lifelong) storage over time, possibly via long-term potentiation.

Recent studies suggest that the amygdala regulates memory consolidation in other brain regions. Also, fear conditioning, a type of memory that is impaired following amygdala damage, is mediated in part by long-term potentiation.

During the consolidation period, the memory can be modulated. In particular, it appears that emotional arousal following the learning event influences the strength of the subsequent memory for that event. Greater emotional arousal following a learning event enhances a person’s retention of that event. Experiments have shown that administration of stress hormones to mice immediately after they learn something enhances their retention when they are tested two days later.

The amygdala, especially the basolateral nuclei, are involved in mediating the effects of emotional arousal on the strength of the memory for the event, as shown by many laboratories including that of James McGaugh. These laboratories have trained animals on a variety of learning tasks and found that drugs injected into the amygdala after training affect the animals’ subsequent retention of the task.

These tasks include basic classical conditioning tasks such as inhibitory avoidance, where a rat learns to associate a mild footshock with a particular compartment of an apparatus, and more complex tasks such as spatial or cued water maze, where a rat learns to swim to a platform to escape the water. If a drug that activates the amygdalae is injected into the amygdalae, the animals had better memory for the training in the task. If a drug that inactivates the amygdalae is injected, the animals had impaired memory for the task.

Buddhist monks who do compassion meditation have been shown to modulate their amygdala, along with their temporoparietal junction and insula, during their practice. In an fMRI study, more intensive insula activity was found in expert meditators than in novices. Increased activity in the amygdala following compassion-oriented meditation may contribute to social connectedness.

Amygdala activity at the time of encoding information correlates with retention for that information. However, this correlation depends on the relative “emotionalness” of the information. More emotionally-arousing information increases amygdalar activity, and that activity correlates with retention. Amygdala neurons show various types of oscillation during emotional arousal, such as theta activity. These synchronized neuronal events could promote synaptic plasticity (which is involved in memory retention) by increasing interactions between neocortical storage sites and temporal lobe structures involved in declarative memory.

Research using Rorschach test blot 03 finds that the number of unique responses to this random figure links to larger sized amygdalae. The researchers note:

“Since previous reports have indicated that unique responses were observed at higher frequency in the artistic population than in the nonartistic normal population, this positive correlation suggests that amygdalar enlargement in the normal population might be related to creative mental activity.”

Neuropsychological Correlates of Amygdala Activity
Early research on primates provided explanations as to the functions of the amygdala, as well as a basis for further research. As early as 1888, rhesus monkeys with a lesioned temporal cortex (including the amygdala) were observed to have significant social and emotional deficits.

Heinrich Klüver and Paul Bucy later expanded upon this same observation by showing that large lesions to the anterior temporal lobe produced noticeable changes, including overreaction to all objects, hypoemotionality, loss of fear, hypersexuality, and hyperorality, a condition in which inappropriate objects are placed in the mouth. Some monkeys also displayed an inability to recognize familiar objects and would approach animate and inanimate objects indiscriminately, exhibiting a loss of fear towards the experimenters.

This behavioral disorder was later named Klüver-Bucy syndrome accordingly, and later research proved it was specifically due to amygdala lesions. Monkey mothers who had amygdala damage showed a reduction in maternal behaviors towards their infants, often physically abusing or neglecting them. In 1981, researchers found that selective radio frequency lesions of the whole amygdala caused Klüver-Bucy Syndrome.

With advances in neuroimaging technology such as MRI, neuroscientists have made significant findings concerning the amygdala in the human brain. A variety of data shows the amygdala has a substantial role in mental states, and is related to many psychological disorders. Some studies have shown children with anxiety disorders tend to have a smaller left amygdala. In the majority of the cases, there was an association between an increase in the size of the left amygdala with the use of SSRIs (antidepressant medication) or psychotherapy.

In a 2003 study, subjects with borderline personality disorder showed significantly greater left amygdala activity than normal control subjects. Some borderline patients even had difficulties classifying neutral faces or saw them as threatening. Individuals with psychopathy show reduced autonomic responses, relative to comparison individuals, to instructed fear cues. In 2006, researchers observed hyperactivity in the amygdala when patients were shown threatening faces or confronted with frightening situations. Patients with more severe social phobia showed a correlation with increased response in the amygdala.

Similarly, depressed patients showed exaggerated left amygdala activity when interpreting emotions for all faces, and especially for fearful faces. Interestingly, this hyperactivity was normalized when patients were administered antidepressant medication. By contrast, the amygdala has been observed to respond differently in people with bipolar disorder. A 2003 study found that adult and adolescent bipolar patients tended to have considerably smaller amygdala volumes and somewhat smaller hippocampal volumes. Many studies have focused on the connections between the amygdala and autism.

Studies in 2004 and 2006 showed that normal subjects exposed to images of frightened faces or faces of people from another race will show increased activity of the amygdala, even if that exposure is subliminal. However, the amygdala is not necessary for the processing of fear-related stimuli, since persons in whom it is bilaterally damaged show rapid reactions to fearful faces, even in the absence of a functional amygdala.

Recent research suggests that parasites, in particular toxoplasma, form cysts in the brain of rats, often taking up residence in the amygdala. This may provide clues as to how specific parasites may contribute to the development of disorders, including paranoia.

There may also be a link between the amygdala and anxiety. In particular, there is a higher prevalence of females that are affected by anxiety disorders. In an experiment, degu pups were removed from their mother but allowed to hear her call. In response, the males produced increased serotonin receptors in the amygdala but females lost them. This led to the males being less affected by the stressful situation.

The clusters of the amygdala are activated when an individual expresses feelings of fear or aggression. This occurs because the amygdala is the primary structure of the brain responsible for flight or fight response. Anxiety and panic attacks can occur when the amygdala senses environmental stressors that stimulate fight or flight response.

The amygdala is directly associated with conditioned fear. Conditioned fear is the framework used to explain the behavior produced when an originally neutral stimulus is consistently paired with a stimulus that evokes fear. The amygdala represents a core fear system in the human body, which is involved in the expression of conditioned fear. Fear is measured by changes in autonomic activity including increased heart rate, increased blood pressure, as well as in simple reflexes such as flinching or blinking.

The central nucleus of the amygdala has direct correlations to the hypothalamus and brainstem – areas directly related to fear and anxiety. This connection is evident from studies of animals that have undergone amygdalae removal. Such studies suggest that animals lacking an amygdala have less fear expression and indulge in non-species-like behavior. Many projection areas of the amygdala are critically involved in specific signs that are used to measure fear and anxiety.

Mammals have very similar ways of processing and responding to danger. Scientists have observed similar areas in the brain – specifically in the amygdala – lighting up or becoming more active when a mammal is threatened or beginning to experience anxiety. Similar parts of the brain are activated when rodents and when humans observe a dangerous situation, the amygdala playing a crucial role in this assessment. By observing the amygdala’s functions, people can determine why one rodent may be much more anxious than another. There is a direct relationship between the activation of the amygdala and the level of anxiety the subject feels.

Feelings of anxiety start with a catalyst – an environmental stimulus that provokes stress. This can include various smells, sights, and internal feelings that result in anxiety. The amygdala reacts to this stimuli by preparing to either stand and fight or to turn and run. This response is triggered by the release of adrenaline into the bloodstream. Consequently, blood sugar rises, becoming immediately available to the muscles for quick energy. Shaking may occur in an attempt to return blood to the rest of the body. A better understanding of the amygdala and its various functions may lead to a new way of treating clinical anxiety.
Abnormal spindle neuron development may be linked to several psychotic disorders, typically those characterized by distortions of reality, disturbances of thought, disturbances of language, and withdrawal from social contact. Altered spindle neuron states have been implicated in both schizophrenia and autism, but research into these correlations remains at a very early stage. Frontotemporal dementia involves loss of mostly spindle neurons.[17] An initial study suggested that Alzheimer's disease specifically targeted Von Economo neurons; this study was performed with end-stage Alzheimer brains in which cell destruction was widespread, but later, it was found that Alzheimer's disease doesn't affect the spindle neurons.

From a session:
Q: (L) Next question on the list: How do consciousness, information, and matter relate to each other?

A: Different concentrations of truth.

Q: (L) So I'm assuming you mean that matter would be one concentration, and consciousness would be another, and information like maybe pure information would be the purest form?

A: Not necessarily, information arranged by a truth becomes consciousness. That is why truth and objectivity are so important. Without it, consciousness and individuality fractures and disintegrates.

Q: (L) We talked before a little bit about information being involved in where earth changes would be manifesting and that locations could be attractors as well as some people can be attractors for cosmic events or electrical things, like they have this negative thing and it fries them in the process. mkrnhr said something the other day about the destruction of information. We were talking in a broad context, but we were talking about destruction of libraries, archaeology, and that war itself was essentially destroying information. It was an anti-information, or the ultimate disinformation so to speak. So I guess my question is how is this going to affect where, when, and how any of these sheets of electrical rain or electrical discharges or whatever manifest? Is this going to be like... I don't even know how to ask the question. (Belibaste) I have a question that might go in the right direction. During the last session, it was established that if a human population believes in information that is orthogonal to truth, that is, lies, then it can modulate cosmic events. To understand better the mechanism, I wanted to know where information is stored?

A: Consciousness.

Q: (Belibaste) So this guy we were talking about then, he got lightning struck seven times. He was really afraid of thunder. And his wife was struck once when he was next to her. What is specific in this guy because nobody gets struck by lightning seven times! What is specific in this guy?

A: His inner connections.

Q: (Belibaste) Inner connections are just... (Perceval) Genetic?

A: Can be.

Q: (Belibaste) Inner connections, it means the inner connections are faulty because it's a kind of disintegration that was mentioned before? What kind of connections are we talking about?

A: Triple cycle veil of consciousness bodies.
Q: (Andromeda) Yes. Something is fluctuating. I've been having a LOT of deja vu this last month, sometimes three times a day. It's crazy. (Belibaste) Quick question. Is there a connection between information and electricity?

A: Very close.

Q: (Belibaste) So the more information in the body, the higher the electric charge? Is there a correlation?

A: Close.

Q: (L) And the higher the electric charge, the less likely you are to attract. (Belibaste) Depending on the charge. That's where I was going to go: the correlation between positive charge and truth and negative charge and information that is orthogonal to truth. (Perceval) You can say "lies"! [laughter] (Belibaste) I heard Laura saying it, and I thought oh, that's good!

A: Sphere packing tachyons.

Q: (Perceval) There ya go. [laughter] (Ailen) Can you explain Ark? (Anart) Probably has something to do with order and information. (Ark) First of all what I want to say is that Belibaste was thinking about the electric charge always in purely material terms. Thinking about electric charge, keep always in mind this picture of the wormhole. (Kniall) Information is not material. (Ark) Information is something which gives the form. The form when it does things, you consider it as a matter. But information shapes the form. It's not matter. It's the shaping principle. So, your question about relation between information and electric charge is like asking what is the relation between painting and the picture? Painting is the process, and picture is the result of the process, right? (L) It's something that is "informed" by the information that causes the paint to go wherever it goes. So, I guess that's electricity. It's like the result, and the process is... Um...

A: Go to the rear of the line!
A: Basically, correct, yes. Main thing missing is the information factor. Those who believe the lies begin to fracture within and then project this outward onto others.
Q: (Anart) You remarked that the people believing in the lies are getting increasingly fractured, which would then tie into the increasing cataclysmic events, so it's all being driven by the lies. (L) I'm not sure that the PTB are aware that that's what they're doing: bringing that on. I think they just want to fracture people because... (Perceval) From a 4d STS kind of thing, they'd want as many humans as possible believing lies so they can destroy them. (L) Well, from a 4d point of view sure, but that's not something we can argue because it's not provable. We can argue from history because one of the Roman emperors was alleged to have said to his prefects ruling the various provinces around the empire, he said, "Squeeze them until nobody has a cent left." I mean this sort of attitude has been prevalent down through history. What questions did we ask about the fertilizer plant last time, and what were the answers? (Perceval) That happened since the last session we did. (Kniall) Boston Bombings happened the same week, but after... (L) So we didn't even ask anything about the fertilizer explosion. So, ask! (Perceval) What caused the Waco fertilizer plant explosion?

A: Information overload in the form of a small comet fragment with a massive electrical charge.
Q: (L) Okay, next question: When an F5 tornado can form in a matter of minutes, what is the connection with what is going on in 4D? How does it happen? What's the mechanism?

A: Once again you must think in terms of information and electrical charge. The charge on earth is building in several ways and a tornado is an electrical phenomenon similar to ball lightning.

Q: (L) So what they're saying is what we were saying awhile ago. (Belibaste) More conductivity, more discharges. (L) And more people believing lies, and more chaos. The people on the planet are attracting their own destruction. (Perceval) Because they believe lies. (L) Jesus. Okay, we want to ask about Judy Wood. We had her on our radio show and she was a real fruitcake. I have to say that right up front here. We were somewhat impressed with her book even though it has flaws. There was some sloppy little bits of research here and there, and some major assumptions that she was making even though she was saying that nobody else was allowed to make assumptions. But in general, the basic idea is that something happened to this building to turn it into dust that is some kind of strange and unusual weapon or phenomenon or something we don't understand. But then of course she proceeds to claim she knows what the answers are, which is not true. Nevertheless, we have the idea that her idea that something we don't know much about is going in the right direction. Is that the case?

A: Yes.
Read the whole session just here:,31445.0.html
Still pulling on Ariadne's thread, i am back now in other cave, the Wiki one:
But before i am going to follow some links i found not by pulling back the Ariadne's thread, but in Gaby's thread :)
Functional and clinical neuroanatomy of morality
And the full article:
It can be valuable to read the full text, because here i am going only to focus on ACC and amygdala:
The anterior cingulate cortex mediates the ‘conflict’ between the emotional and the rational components of moral reasoning, whereas the posterior cingulate cortex is more closely related to emotion and social ability
Anterior cingulate cortex lesions result in persistent behavioural changes, in particular reduced and occasionally increased aggressivity, disinhibition, impulsivity, emotional blunting and decreased motivation

The amygdala activates during processing of both basic and moral emotions (Moll et al., 2002b), during evaluation of moral judgement (Greene et al., 2004), during violation of severity ratings for moral pictures (Harenski et al., 2008) and during personal desire-oriented decisions in contrast to morally guided responses (Sommer et al., 2010). Amygdala activation is reduced during passive viewing of moral and non-moral pictures when individuals attempted to decrease emotions (Harenski and Hamann, 2006) and in response to bodily harm (Heekeren et al., 2005). Amygdala activation induced by bodily harm may reflect amygdala-specific involvement in affective judgements about the emotional value of an action (Heekeren et al., 2005), and could imply reduced moral brakes when the individual is in danger.
The amygdala therefore appears to be a pivotal subcortical structure involved in processing moral emotions.

Evidence that subcortical structures intervene in morality is further supported by data from patients. Disinhibition and violent behaviour are related to grey matter loss or volume loss or structural amygdala abnormalities in violent offenders (Wong et al., 1997; Tiihonen et al., 2000; Van Elst et al., 2000) and in psychopathic individuals (Yang et al., 2006). Why amygdalotomy improves 30–40% of patients with severe behavioural disturbances, aggressiveness and violent behaviour (Fountas and Smith, 2007) therefore remains unclear. A possible explanation is that amygdala dysfunction causes patients’ behavioural abnormalities and aggressiveness. In these instances, surgery to remove dysfunctional amygdala can restore normal behaviour. Neuroimaging studies during various tasks report inconsistent results on amygdala responses: two functional MRI studies reported increased amygdala activation in antisocial individuals viewing negative visual content (Müller et al., 2003) and during an aversive conditioning task (Schneider et al., 2000). In contrast, others report reduced amygdala activation during the processing of negative affective stimuli in criminal psychopaths (Kiehl et al., 2001), in fear conditioning in criminal psychopaths (Veit et al., 2002; Birbaumer et al., 2005), in response to emotional stimuli in adolescents with conduct disorders (Sterzer et al., 2005) and during emotional moral decision-making in psychopathy (Glenn et al., 2009). Another study comparing psychopaths and healthy subjects during a moral decision-making task found that psychopaths lacked a positive association between amygdala activity and the severity of moral violation ratings, suggesting a reduced emotional response (Harenski et al., 2010). Collectively, findings in patients agree with those in healthy subjects and confirm a pivotal role of the amygdala in processing moral emotions. In line with structural and neuroimaging studies, stimulation studies also showed amygdala involvement in emotion and violence expression. Heath et al. (1955) described the case of a patient receiving amygdala stimulation who became enraged and attacked the psychiatrist. Some studies in Treiman's (1991) review also reported aggressive behaviour during amygdala stimulation. The amygdala might therefore represent a sort of ‘switch’ between brain processing of moral emotions and their translation into action and aggression.

Impulsive-antisocial temperament of psychopathic patients is related to neurochemical and functional nucleus accumbens alterations during monetary reward anticipation. The role of this structure in psychopathic behaviour probably reflects its participation in the mesolimbic dopaminergic system, involved in reward and impulsive behaviour (Buckholtz et al., 2010).

Early evidence suggesting the role of the septum in empathy, guilt and remorse in psychopathy (Gorenstein and Newman, 1980) has now been corroborated by a PET study reporting hypometabolism in the septal region while patients with the behavioural variant of frontotemporal dementia executed a moral sentiment task (Moll et al., 2011).

Accidental stimulation of the posteromedial hypothalamic area by deep brain stimulation induced aggressive behaviour in patients with Parkinson's disease (Bejjani et al., 2002; Sensi et al., 2004). In contrast, deep brain stimulation of the posterior hypothalamus improved patients with disruptive behaviour and mental retardation (Franzini et al., 2005; Hernando et al., 2008; Kuhn et al., 2008).

In patients with Parkinson's disease, subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation can occasionally induce mild personality changes, disinhibition, mood changes, hypersexuality and pathological gambling (Temel et al., 2005), ultimately influencing moral behaviour. Neurophysiological studies over the past 10 years have described subthalamic activity changes in local field potentials recorded through the stimulation electrodes implanted for deep brain stimulation in patients with Parkinson's disease engaged in various cognitive and behavioural tasks (Kuhn et al., 2005; Brucke et al., 2007; Marceglia et al., 2009, 2011; Fumagalli et al., 2011). In a study conducted in our laboratory to assess the role of basal ganglia in moral decision-making and in the processing of moral conflictual stimuli (Fumagalli et al., 2011), we recorded subthalamic local field potentials from 16 Parkinsonian patients doing a moral task. The task required patients to evaluate moral conflictual, moral non-conflictual and neutral sentences, and to respond if they agreed or disagreed by pressing one of two buttons. The results showed that a specific subthalamic rhythm, low-frequency band (5–13 Hz), is involved in decision processing: the subthalamic nucleus intervenes in moral judgement in a conflict-dependent way, its oscillations being specifically modulated by moral conflictual stimuli. These findings extend the ‘moral brain’ to encompass the basal ganglia including the subthalamic nucleus, especially for conflict processing (Fumagalli et al., 2011) (Fig. 2).

In summary, available data argue for subcortical participation in the brain network responsible for moral reasoning. The amygdala has a crucial role in processing social and emotional content and in particular in learning that some actions harm others and should therefore be avoided (Blair, 2007). Amygdala structural and functional impairments mean that psychopathic individuals and criminals are unable to recognize cues that signal threat, becoming relatively fearless and more readily engaged in antisocial behaviour (Sterzer, 2010). Finally, the septal area is involved in empathy and altruism and its hypometabolism is associated with impairments on prosocial sentiments, such as pity and guilt (Moll et al., 2011). Emerging evidence suggesting that subcortical structures intervene in abnormal moral behaviour might indicate directions for future research on the therapeutic effects of deep brain stimulation in psychopathic disorder and violent behaviour.

From link to links:
Contributions of anterior cingulate cortex to behavior
Assessments of anterior cingulate cortex in experimental animals and humans have led to unifying theories of its structural organization and contributions to mammalian behaviour. The anterior cingulate cortex forms a large region around the rostrum of the corpus callosum that is termed the anterior executive region. This region has numerous projections into motor systems, however, since these projections originate from different parts of anterior cingulate cortex and because functional studies have shown that it does not have a uniform contribution to brain functions, the anterior executive region is further subdivided into 'affect' and 'cognition' components. The affect division includes areas 25, 33 and rostral area 24, and has extensive connections with the amygdala and periaqueductal grey, and parts of it project to autonomic brainstem motor nuclei. In addition to regulating autonomic and endocrine functions, it is involved in conditioned emotional learning, vocalizations associated with expressing internal states, assessments of motivational content and assigning emotional valence to internal and external stimuli, and maternal-infant interactions. The cognition division includes caudal areas 24' and 32', the cingulate motor areas in the cingulate sulcus and nociceptive cortex. The cingulate motor areas project to the spinal cord and red nucleus and have premotor functions, while the nociceptive area is engaged in both response selection and cognitively demanding information processing. The cingulate epilepsy syndrome provides important support of experimental animal and human functional imaging studies for the role of anterior cingulate cortex in movement, affect and social behaviours. Excessive cingulate activity in cases with seizures confirmed in anterior cingulate cortex with subdural electrode recordings, can impair consciousness, alter affective state and expression, and influence skeletomotor and autonomic activity. Interictally, patients with anterior cingulate cortex epilepsy often display psychopathic or sociopathic behaviours. In other clinical examples of elevated anterior cingulate cortex activity it may contribute to tics, obsessive-compulsive behaviours, and aberrent social behaviour. Conversely, reduced cingulate activity following infarcts or surgery can contribute to behavioural disorders including akinetic mutism, diminished self-awareness and depression, motor neglect and impaired motor initiation, reduced responses to pain, and aberrent social behaviour. The role of anterior cingulate cortex in pain responsiveness is suggested by cingulumotomy results and functional imaging studies during noxious somatic stimulation. The affect division of anterior cingulate cortex modulates autonomic activity and internal emotional responses, while the cognition division is engaged in response selection associated with skeletomotor activity and responses to noxious stimuli. Overall, anterior cingulate cortex appears to play a crucial role in initiation, motivation, and goal-directed behaviours.
More here !

List of regions in the human brain:

And then The amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex in morality and psychopathy.
A little excerpt:
Recent work has implicated the amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex in morality and, when
dysfunctional, psychopathy. This model proposes that the amygdala, through stimulus-reinforcement learning, enables the association of actions that harm others with the aversive reinforcement of the victims’ distress. Consequent information on reinforcement expectancy, fed forward to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, can guide the healthy individual away from moral transgressions.
In psychopathy, dysfunction in these structures means that care-based moral reasoning is compromised and the risk that antisocial behavior is used instrumentally to achieve goals is increased.

Now keep on going with:
Brain structural changes linked to physical, mental health in functional neurological disorder (conversion disorder)
One of the most common conditions bringing patients to neurologists, FND involves a constellation of neurologic symptoms – including weakness, tremors, walking difficulties, convulsions, pain and fatigue – not explained by traditional neurologic diagnoses. This condition has also been called conversion disorder, reflecting one theory that patients were converting emotional distress into physical symptoms, but Perez notes that this now appears to be an oversimplified view of a complex neuropsychiatric condition. The research team hopes that advancing the neurobiological understanding of FND(functional neurological disorder) will increase awareness and decrease the stigma – including skepticism about the reality of patients’ symptoms – often associated with this condition
Previous functional MRI studies have suggested that a group of brain structures forming part of what is called the salience network – which are involved in detecting important bodily and environmental stimuli, as well as integrating emotional, cognitive and sensory-motor experiences – showed increased activity in FND patients during a variety of behavioral and emotion-processing tasks. The current study is one of the first to examine structural relationships between components of the salience network and the physical and mental health of patients with FND.
The researchers compared whole-brain structural MRI scans of 26 FND patients with those of 27 healthy control participants, looking for associations between the size of salience-network structures and participants’ reports of their physical health, mental health and symptoms of anxiety and depression. While there were no whole-brain structural differences between FND patients and healthy controls, patients reporting the greatest levels of physical impairment were found to have decreased volume in the left anterior insula, while those reporting the greatest mental health impairments and highest anxiety levels had increased volume within the amygdala.
“The association among FND patients between the severity of impairments in physical functioning and reduced left anterior insular volume is intriguing, given that the anterior insula has been implicated in self- and emotional awareness,” says Perez, who is a dual trained neurologist-psychiatrist and an assistant professor of Neurology at Harvard Medical School.

He adds, “Little attention has been given to FND to date, which is striking given its prevalence and the health care expenses driven by patients suffering with FND. I hope that advancing the neurobiological understanding of FND will help decrease the stigma often associated with this condition and increase public awareness of the unmet needs of this patient population.”

Also this one:
Researchers identify a common pattern across different psychiatric disorders
Similar gray-matter loss

Despite experienced clinicians' intuitive grasp of the blurred lines separating diverse psychiatric conditions, there's nonetheless often an assumption that these disorders, traditionally classified on the basis of predominant symptoms, are discrete in reality, noted Etkin, who is also an investigator at the Sierra-Pacific Mental Illness Research and Clinical Center at the Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System. "We tried to ask a basic question that hasn't been asked: Is there any common biological basis for mental illness?"

To address that question, he and his colleagues pooled data from 193 separate studies containing, in all, magnetic-resonance images of the brains of 7,381 patients falling into six diagnostic categories: schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depression, addiction, obsessive-compulsive disorder and a cluster of related anxiety disorders. Comparing the images with those from 8,511 healthy control subjects, the research team identified three separate brain structures, several centimeters apart from one another, with a diminished volume of gray matter, the brain tissue that serves to process information. These structures -- the left and right anterior insula and the dorsal anterior cingulate -- are known to be parts of a larger network in the brain whose component parts tend to fire in synchrony. This network is associated with higher-level executive functions such as concentrating in the face of distractions, multitasking or task-switching, planning and decision-making, and inhibition of counterproductive impulses.

Gray-matter loss in the three brain structures was similar across patients with different psychiatric conditions, the researchers found.

These structures can be viewed as the alarm bell of the brain, Etkin said. "They work together, signaling to other brain regions when reality deviates from expectations -- that something important and unpredicted has happened, or something important has failed to happen." That signaling guides future behavior in directions more likely to obtain desired results.

Some incongruities

In addition to gray-matter loss in these three structures, people diagnosed with major depression also had gray-matter loss in other structures, including the hippocampus and amygdala, two key areas involved in storing memories and processing emotion, respectively. Schizophrenia was marked by reduced gray matter in several other structures, as well as an increase in gray matter in a region called the striatum, which Etkin suggested may be due more to the antipsychotic medications prescribed for schizophrenia than to the disease process itself.

Further analysis showed that gray-matter shrinkage in the three implicated brain structures was independent of any medication effects or overlapping psychiatric conditions.

Next, Etkin and his colleagues turned to three large databases containing both structural and functional MRI scans of healthy subjects. Among healthy people, gray-matter volume in the right and left anterior insula and the dorsal anterior cingulate correlated with performance on classic tests of executive function. Such a test might involve, for example, asking the test-taker to note the color of the word "blue," displayed in a color other than blue, after seeing it briefly flashed on a screen. This finding strengthens evidence that among psychiatric patients, the generally observed gray-matter loss in brain structures associated with executive function is behaviorally significant.

The discovery that psychiatric disorders typically studied in isolation from one another turn out to share a common structural deficit mirrors, in some respects, a genetic analysis conducted in 2013 by researchers at Massachusetts General Hospital that showed shared genetic glitches among several categories of mental illness, said Insel. But this is the first imaging study to do so, he said.

"I wouldn't have expected these results. I've been working under the assumption that we can use neuroimaging to help classify the different forms of mental illness," Insel said. "This makes it harder."

And... White and Gray who's Matter?
In two previous post, i put this:
Abnormal spindle neuron development may be linked to several psychotic disorders, typically those characterized by distortions of reality, disturbances of thought, disturbances of language, and withdrawal from social contact. Altered spindle neuron states have been implicated in both schizophrenia and autism, but research into these correlations remains at a very early stage. Frontotemporal dementia involves loss of mostly spindle neurons.[17] An initial study suggested that Alzheimer's disease specifically targeted Von Economo neurons; this study was performed with end-stage Alzheimer brains in which cell destruction was widespread, but later, it was found that Alzheimer's disease doesn't affect the spindle neurons.
But it was missing something, so let's see what we can find more (Thanks to Biomiast and go2 ...):

Citation de: Session 30 January 2010
(Psyche) I have a question. When we were discussing with I**** some type of cells that are located mainly in the frontal lobe of the brain, it seems that nobody knows what they are for. They are called spindle cells or "von Economo neurons" if I remember the name correctly. What are their function?

A: Consciousness orientation.

Q: (Ailén) Hmm.

(Andromeda) So I guess having a lot of those would be good?

(Burma Jones) So, is that like a registration bin for consciousness to figure out how to keep itself...

A: Energy directors.

Q: (Joe) Can you get more of them?

A: You may.

Q: (Joe) I wonder if those cells have anything to do with the third eye, like when you do the breathing and you look up...

A: Close, more like a "homing device".

Q: (Joe) A homing device for aliens?

A: Wave reader. {Cs refer to souled humans as “Wave Reading Consciousness Units.}

Q: (Ailén) I**** was saying that they're huge cells. Right? (Psyche) Yeah. She was wondering if they could be related to psychopathy, like the lack of those cells...

A: Oh yes.

Q: (Andromeda) Hmm...

(Ailén) She said there were some studies about schizophrenics not having so many of them also.

(Psyche) They have been studied in whales too.

The information on spindle cells and psychopathy is very interesting. The spindle cells develop until about four years of age. I wonder if an environmental factor may be damaging or inhibiting the development of spindle cells in children in some of the so called advanced nations? The statistical info on prevalence of psychopaths suggests a rapid increase in their numbers. It seems the rapid increase would be difficult to attribute entirely to selective breeding. Psychopathic behavior is the problem we face, whether inherited or acquired.

I have read some interesting papers tonight, which suggest spindle cells are fundamental to empathy, humor, intuition, and social interaction. I copied a few paragraphs from the papers and included links for those with time and interest in this subject. I included the papers on spindle cells and humor, as I recall and noticed in the two diagnosed psychopaths I have observed over a several year period, that they never seemed to get humor. They were always puzzled by simple incongruities that make us laugh. Anyway, thanks for the clues. I still have a ways to go understanding psychopathy.
Citation de:
The full text:The Cells of Social Consciousness
Submitted by Ian Morton on Tue, 02/27/2007

What makes us human? Humans possess the capacity for language, empathy, internal dialogue and emotions. However, before we were capable of such characteristics, we first needed to develop consciousness. It is consciousness that establishes our understanding of self and other. Here then, with the emergence of consciousness is the birth of subjectivity within a complex social network. So what then allows us to possess a consciousness? While the neural basis of consciousness remains a mystery, resent research has uncovered two classes of cells that could play major roles in organizing our capacity for social interactions. It seems that spindle neurons and mirror neurons could be responsible for separating us from the rest of the animal kingdom.

Spindle neurons, also known as VENs, were first discovered in the late 1990's by Esther Nimchinsky working with Patrick Hof and are found in the anterior cingulated cortex, ACC, of various primates. Working with John Allman, an expert on the evolution and anatomy of primate brains, they examined brain tissues of over 50 species. The team found that spindle cells appear in higher primates in greater numbers as species ascend the evolutionary "tree," with a few found in orangutans and tens of thousands in humans. Further research by Allman reveals a second, specific site containing these cells, the frontoinsular, FI, cortex, again only in humans and advanced primates. As Christof Koch, a neuroscientist working at Caltech, explains, these appear to be the only cells unique to humanoids (2). One must now ask, what role do these cells play and why are they only present in the most developed primates?

The ACC is associated with emotions and regulation of autonomic activity (4). The ACC essentially acts as a control hum mediating thought, feeling and the body's response to these feelings (2). The FI also appears to be associated with emotion, in particular, the responses one has to others. Studies by Andreas Bartels and Semir Zeki of University College London show activity in the FI and ACC in response to viewing an image of a loved one. Other studies conform to a pattern of activation in these regions in response to value judgments within a social context (2). The cells themselves possess large axons and dendrites, optimal for rapid transmission of action potentials, and receptors for serotonin, dopamine and vasopressin, which are associated with bonding, emotion and love. This has lead Allman to believe that these neurons are designed for rapid regulation of behavior in within a complex social environment (2), (5). For instance, it is favorable to instinctively know how to react to a loved one in need, there is no need to critically ruminate over her character. While Allman's theories are still speculative, there is certainly merit for further examination of the role of spindle neurons.

Spindle neurons
, however, have received little publicity. Instead, there is a buzz in the scientific community over the discovery of mirror neurons. Giacomo Rizzolatti et all and Gallese et al. working at the University of Parma, Italy, first published their discover of "mirror neurons" in 1996. The discovery began with an observation of cell activity in macaque monkey brains. A region of the monkey brain, the ventral premotor cortex, referred to as F5, has been known to contain cells that become active before a monkey acts. This zone is associated with preparing for and planning movements. For example, these cells would have a particular firing pattern visible before a monkey eats a peanut. The research by Rizzolatti and Gallese show that these cells will also fire with the same pattern when the monkey sees another monkey eat a peanut (6). These cells have since become known as mirror neurons.

In addition to firing in response to viewing a monkey eat a peanut, mirror neurons also become active when the interaction between the observed monkey's hand and the peanut is obscured from the observing monkey's view. This indicates that mirror cells are assessing the situation and are filling in an expected consequence of the action (7). Another class of mirror neurons, "audio-visual mirror neurons," become active in the same area, but in response to any sounds associated with the action. These neurons seem to play an important role in survival as they allow for the quick processing of the intended actions of others in response to visual and aural cues.

It has since been discovered that humans, too, possess mirror neurons, but as part of even more developed and complex systems (3). As with monkeys, the mirror neurons in humans fire equally in response to action execution and action observation. These cells become activated in the premotor and parietal cortices, and are somatotopically organized. That is, there are various distinct regions of these cortices that activate in response to actions associated with a hand versus a mouth (7). For instance, "communicative mirror neurons" fire during speech and when viewing the motions of a mouth associated with speech, but mirror neurons that activate in response to a hand being raised will not respond to the speech. In both monkeys and humans, mirror neurons appear to be associated with specific actions and stimuli, but why have we evolved these highly specialized cells?

Gallese has proposed that the mirror neuron mechanism is at the base of action understanding (7). This involves first, a mental process of simulation. As the same neurons fire in response to viewing a hand slap a table as fire when actually slapping a table, these mirror neurons allow an observer to recreate an action within her mind. However, this process of simulation is not an active or conscious, it is an automatic response to the perception of any situation in which an agent is defined (7). Whether the agent is the observed or the observer, there must be someone who performs an action in order for these cells to activate. Mirror neurons, then, allow the perceiver insight into the intent of another agent, a crucial aspect of existing in a social atmosphere, if not a necessary part of social interaction (6). As, Gallese explains from other experimental data, successful perception and successful action both require the capacity to anticipate: to anticipate sensory information and to anticipate the product of action. Action understanding is this unconscious simulation, or modeling of agent, object and action, designed to assess the likely consequences of the interplay between the three (7).

Social cognition has become, in part, a function of insight into the other through mental simulation, thus giving a form of experiential insight, allowing the self to relate to the other on an empathetic level; we do not view the other through mere abstract reasoning, we rather feel what they feel (3), (7). Further research has been done to examine the relationship between VENs, mirror neurons and autism, while the details of these experiments will not be discussed here, the belief is that limitation of VENs and mirror neurons can inhibit the development of children into fully functional social beings, as VENs assist with rapid social intuitions and mirror neurons permit the social experience of empathy and key aspects of social referencing (1), (8).

If we are to accept that these two classes of neurons could be responsible for the development of social consciousness, a whole new world of questions open up. Do varying frequencies of these neurons affect what kind of person we become? What implications do these findings have for the writings of the great thinkers such as Hegel and Heidegger? How do these neurons shape social constructs built on subject/objectivity? Are these neurons responsible for ethics? The philosopher Emmanuel Levinas writes on a type of ethics based on the inter-human, in which he describes one having a duty to the other resulting from the-face-to-face encounter with the other: in encountering the other, one finds that they are constituted by not only himself, but also by the other. It seems that mirror neurons could be an unrecognized aspect of Levinas' philosophy. In finding these neurons, have we begun to tap into a mechanism behind a collective unconscious? If these neurons are even partially responsible for social consciousness, we open ourselves up to a whole new position on social thought.

Citation de:

The speculation that humor may be a uniquely human cognitive trait (Bergson 1924; Caron 2002) prompted our third hypothesis: humor will activate both anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and frontoinsula cortex (FI), the 2 regions in which an evolutionarily recent neuron type, the Von Economo cells (previously termed ‘‘spindle neurons’’), are present (Allman and others 2002, 2005). A review of the functional imaging literature reveals that the Von Economo cell regions, particularly FI, are active while reversal learning (O’Doherty and others 2001), decision making under uncertain conditions (Critchley and others 2001), and observing bizarre images of animal/object
chimeras (Michelon and others 2003). Like humor, these paradigms involve incongruity detection and reappraisal and provided the impetus to formally test the hypothesis that humor activates the Von Economo regions ACC and FI.

We propose that the ability to appreciate humor is related to the ability to make rapid, intuitive assessments, a skill that would be particularly adaptive during the
complex social interactions typical of the hominoids and that the von Economo cells are a phylogenetic specialization in the circuitry that underlies such fast and intuitive decisions. It is the convergence of this fast intuition with a slower, deliberative assessment that creates the cognitive mismatch upon which humor is based. A listener ‘‘gets’’ a joke the moment that the initial intuitive interpretation is updated, thus providing the input required to ‘‘recalibrate’’ ACC and FI. We propose that a similar mechanism enables fluent social interaction. This is consistent with a recent study using a placebo paradigm, which suggests that the ACC and orbitofrontal
cortex modulate expectation in a top--down manner (Petrovic and others 2005). Another interpretation involves the regions’ roles in mediating the autonomic changes that are
likely to be induced by humor (Critchley and others 2001; Critchley 2002). Again, this is consistent with the activity we observed in the amygdala and hypothalamus, both of which have descending projections to autonomic output nuclei. Critchley suggests that these 2 regions play a primary role in mediating autonomic changes. These various explanations are not mutually exclusive because the changes in expectation that occur during humor are likely to be associated with fluctuations in anticipatory arousal states. This could be the physiological correlate of the ‘‘release of tension’’ humor mechanism proposed by Freud (1960).

Citation de:

Von Economo neurons (VENs) are a recently evolved cell type which may be involved in the fast intuitive assessment of complex situations. As such, they could be part of the circuitry supporting human social networks. We propose that the VENs relay an output of fronto-insular and anterior cingulate cortex to the parts of frontal and temporal cortex associated with theory-of-mind, where fast intuitions are melded with slower, deliberative judgments. The VENs emerge mainly after birth and increase in number until age 4 yrs. We propose that in autism spectrum disorders the VENs fail to develop normally, and that this failure might be partially responsible for the associated social disabilities that result from faulty intuition.

When we interact with another person we create a mental model of how that persons thinks and feels. We are likely to have initial, quick intuitions about the person, which
are then followed by slower, more reasoned judgments. The mental model is a synthesis of our quick intuitions and our slower deliberations. Intuition uses probabilistic
logic whereas deliberation uses inductive and deductive reasoning. Both intuition and deliberation are influenced by emotional value judgments. Describing subjects with
Asperger’s syndrome, Klin and Volkmar [1] observed, ‘their deficient intuition and lack of spontaneous adaptation are accompanied by marked reliance on formalistic rules of behavior and rigid social conventions’ ([1], p. 102). In this article, we propose that a subset of cortical neurons known as Von Economo neurons have a possible role in
intuition. Our hypotheses are (i) that the Von Economo neurons are an important part of the circuitry responsible for intuition, and (ii) that these neurons are dysfunctional
in autism spectrum disorders, resulting in defective intuition.

We experience the intuitive process at a visceral level. Intuitive decisionmaking enables us to react quickly in situations that involve a high degree of uncertainty which commonly involve social interactions. Frequently we do not have the luxury of sufficient time to perform deliberative cost benefit analyses to determine the most appropriate course of action, but instead must rely on rapid intuitive judgments. ACC and FI are active when subjects make decisions under a high degree of uncertainty [17]. These areas are involved in the subjective experience of pain [25], which is powerfully magnified by uncertainty. These areas are also active when subjects experience guilt,
embarrassment and engage in deception [26–28]. ACC and FI are also active in humor (Watson and Allman, unpublished fMRI data), trust, empathy, and the discrimination
of the mental states of others [25,29,30]. All of these social emotions are influenced by the degree of uncertainty involved. As of yet, we do not know the mechanisms
responsible for the differentiation of the complex social emotions that activate FI and ACC, but we do know that the VENs are a recently evolved population that probably
serves to relay output of the processing within FI and ACC to other brain structures. Their large size suggests that the VENs may relay a fast intuitive assessment of complex
social situations to allow the rapid adjustment of behavior in quickly changing social situations. They can thus be seen as an adaptation supporting the increased complexity
of hominoid and especially human social networks. This is refected in evidence that the capacity for empathy is better developed in chimpanzees than in monkeys [31].
We hypothesize that the VENs and associated circuitry enable us to reduce complex social and cultural dimensions of decision-making into a single dimension that facilitates the rapid execution of decisions. Other animals are not encumbered by such elaborate social and cultural contingencies to their decision-making and thus do not require such a system for rapid intuitive choice.

We hypothesize that the VENs are particularly vulnerable to dysfunction owing to their late emergence in phylogeny and ontogeny, and that such dysfunctions may be part of the pathogenesis of several neuropsychiatric conditions known to involve FI and ACC, such as obsessive-compulsive disorder [32], psychopathy [33] and fronto-temporal dementia (Seeley and Allman, unpublished data).

Abnormal hemisphere distribution might be associated with pathological functioning in various disorders. There might also be abnormalities in the expression of neurotransmitter receptors or dendritic morphology of the VENs, because such abnormalities might be expected disrupt the integration of signals hypothesized to occur in the VENs in relation to reward, punishment and social bonding. As the serotonin 2b receptor is rare in the brain but strongly expressed on the VENs and a specific ligand for this receptor has recently been developed [50], this class of receptor on the VENs and closely related neurons could be monitored in FI and ACC using positron emission tomography. Finally, we suggest that the VENs might also play a role in bipolar and obsessive-compulsive disorder, anorexia, psychopathy and fronto-temporal dementia

Citation de:

*Interestingly two key regions, the anterior insula and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), involved in affective processing in general and empathy in particular have singularly evolved in apes and humans. Cytoarchitectonic work by Allman and colleagues [22] indicates that a population of large spindle neurons is uniquely found in the anterior insula and anterior cingulate of humanoid primates. Most notably, they reported a trenchant phylogenetic correlation, in that spindle cells are most numerous in aged humans, but progressively less numerous in children, gorillas, bonobos and chimpanzees, and nonexistent in macaque monkeys. Craig [23] recently suggested that these spindle neurons interconnect the most advanced portions of limbic sensory (anterior insula) and limbic motor (ACC) cortices, both ipsilaterally and contralaterally, which, in sharp contrast to the tightly interconnected and contiguous sensorimotor cortices, are situated physically far apart as a consequence of the pattern of evolutionary development of limbic cortices. Thus, the spindle neurons could enable fast, complex and highly integrated emotional behaviors. In support of this view, convergent functional imaging findings reveal that the anterior insula and the anterior cingulate cortices are conjointly activated during all human emotions. This, according to Craig [24], indicates that the limbic sensory representation of subjective "feelings" (in the anterior insula) and the limbic motor representation of volitional agency (in the anterior cingulate) together form the fundamental neuroanatomical basis for all human emotions, consistent with the definition of an emotion in humans as both a feeling and a motivation with concomitant autonomic sequelae

Individuals who are self-aware, as evidenced by being able to become the object of their own attention, experience a sense of psychological continuity over time and space [65]. It has been speculated that any organisms capable of self-recognition would have an introspective awareness of their own mental states and the ability to ascribe mental states to others [66]. A clear sense of self may have evolved to solve at least two kinds of adaptive problems: 1) the self is the repository of the social feedback one receives from others and, 2) it allows one to model and understand the internal, subjective worlds of others, making it easier to infer intentions and causes that lay behind observed behaviors, thus improving interaction efficacy [67]. Interestingly, the development of self and other mental state understanding is functionally linked to that of executive functions, i.e., the processes that serve to monitor and control thought and actions, including self-regulation, planning, cognitive flexibility, response inhibition, and resistance to interference [68]. There is increasingly clear evidence of a specific developmental link between the development of mentalizing and improved self-control at around the age of 4 [69]. The development of cognitive control is related to the maturation of the prefrontal cortex [70]. In addition, there is hard evidence that a region around the paracingulate sulcus in the medial prefrontal cortex plays a specific role in mentalizing. This region contains spindle cells, a class of large projection neurons found only in great apes and humans, which are thought to be involved in coordinating widely distributed neural activity involving emotion and cognition [71]. This region has been found to be reliably activated by mentalizing tasks of various cognitive difficulties, ranging from judging the emotion in another person's gaze, to detection of intention in simple dynamic animations, attribution of intention to cartoons characters, story comprehension, detection of social transgression, and appreciation of humor [72].

Thus human empathy cannot be described only as a simple resonance of affect between the self and other. Indeed, empathy is both about sharing and understanding the emotional state of others in relation to oneself. The capacity for two people to resonate with each other emotionally, prior to any cognitive understanding, is the basis for developing shared emotional meanings, but is not sufficient for empathy. Such an understanding goes beyond this reflex-like response. It involves an explicit representation of the subjectivity of the other and a minimal self-other distinction. Recent neuroimaging investigations of the perception of pain in others support such a view (e.g., [55,57,58,112]). Indeed, all these studies have shown that part of the neural network (including the anterior cingulate cortex and the anterior insula) mediating self-experienced pain is shared when empathizing or observing the pain in others, and also that non-overlapping aspects within these regions are specifically activated for the self or the other. This supports the idea that personal and vicarious experiences at some level differ physiologically [120] and result in qualitatively distinct responses. Finally, empathy also necessitates emotion regulation in which the ventral prefrontal cortex, with its strong connections with the limbic system, dorsolateral, and medial prefrontal areas, plays an important role.

We believe that a greater understanding of the underlying computational processes and their neural underpinnings can contribute to a better characterization of empathy disorders in psychopathology.,15927.0.html

And again:
Intuition and autism: a possible role for Von Economo neurons

Serotonin 2b receptor

The serotonin 2b receptor is strongly expressed on the VENs (Figure 4c) and is rarely expressed elsewhere in the central nervous system [20]. However, the serotonin 2b receptor is also strongly expressed in the human stomach and intestines where it promotes contractions of the smooth muscles responsible for peristalsis [21]. Serotonin might serve as an antagonistic signal to dopamine, with serotonin signaling punishment and dopamine signaling reward [22]. The activation of the serotonin 2b receptor on VENs might be related to the capacity of the activity in the stomach and intestines to signal impending danger or
punishment (literally ‘gut feelings’) and thus might be an opponent to the dopamine D3 signal of reward expectation. The outcome of these opponent processes could be an evaluation by VEN of the relative likelihood of punishment versus reward and contribute to ‘gut level’ or intuitive decision-making in a given behavioral context.

I am not sure about this but I always thought serotonin is make someone calmer, as in the case we take 5-HTP, I am not sure how it is related to punishment and dopamine is related to reward, any thoughts on that? My understanding was that dopamine is reward in the sense that "getting higher" and serotonin eliminates feelings of guilt, fear etc. And research about violent behaviour showed that the reason for violent behaviour is not lack of serotonin, it is the abundance of serotonin as in the case of MAO-A gene which can't breakdown serotonin and lead to violent behaviour. It could be there is a specific mechanism for VENs that are different from other neurons and they respond to serotonin differently, or am I wrong on that one?

Here is a bit more about gut feelings:

The presence of a serotonin receptor on the VEN that is otherwise rare in the brain, but common in the viscera, suggests an interesting extension of the concept that these areas are monitoring activity in the gut. Perhaps, the expression of the serotonin 2b receptor on the VEN represents a transposition of this function from the gut into the brain, which would enable the organism to react more quickly to threatening circumstances than if it depended solely on monitoring sensations arising from the gut.

Here the paper discusses the role of Frontoinsular cortex and Anterior Cingular Cortex and their role in intuition:


Frequently we do not have the luxury of sufficient time to perform deliberative cost-benefit analyses to determine the most appropriate course of action, but instead must rely on rapid intuitive judgments. ACC and FI are active when subjects make decisions under a high degree of uncertainty [17]. These areas are involved in the subjective experience of pain[25], which is powerfully magnified by uncertainty. These areas are also active when subjects experience guilt, embarrassment and engage in deception [26–28]

The role of VENs on social emotions that is lack in psychopaths though they don’t put it like that:


Because social emotions by their very nature involve considerable uncertainty, and because social interactions are often of a rapidly changing nature, an impairment of the VEN system would be predicted to compromise social function ing. The lack of quick social intuitions is a key deficit in autism spectrum disorders.

There is another article which mentions the connection between Spindle Neurons and Agenesis of Corpus Callosum which means the disruption of the development of the region that connects two brain hemispheres. It is called “Selective reduction of Von Economo neuron number in agenesis of the corpus callosum”.Here is the description in the paper:


(AgCC) can all have signifcant effects on social and emotional behaviors, including a reduction in affective range[10, 32], an inability to express one’s emotional state (a condition called alexithymia [19, 56]), and diffculty intuiting the emotional states of others [5, 62]. AgCC in particular is associated with deficits in self- and social-awareness that can impair such capacities as humor [6], non-literal or affective language [34], and social judgment [5], suggesting that the abnormal development of the corpus callosum and surrounding midline brain structures may be particularly detrimental to socially relevant aspects of emotional cognition.

Sounds like psychopathy isn’t it? I mean obviously, one isn’t a psychopath just because they have AgCC(and they are more rare than psychopaths) but I thought if Corpus Callosum agenesis is related to VEN number and it is related to psychopathy, that would be interesting as one of the possible reasons.

I think I should also put that bit as a reminder:

In human fMRI experiments, ACC and FI are both activated by paradigms evoking social emotions such as empathy [47], guilt [46], unfairness [48], humor [60], embarrassing situations or violations of social norms [4], and romantic love [3, 23]

To lead to another interesting disorder called frontotemporal dementia:

In frontotemporal dementia(FTD), a disorder that profoundly disrupts social functioning and self-awareness, there is a 74% reduction in the VEN population relative to controls, and many of the remaining VENs are severely dysmorphic [44, 45]. Patients with FTD experience focal degeneration of both ACC and FI, accompanied by severe defcits in self-awareness, empathy, “theory of mind,” and moral reasoning

And appearently they have difficulties with language, planning and regulating their behaviour:


Behavioural symptoms include lethargy and aspontaneity or oppositely disinhibition. Apathetic patients may become socially withdrawn and stay in bed all day or no longer take care of themselves. Disinhibited patients can make inappropriate (sometimes sexual) comments or perform inappropriate acts. Patients with FTD can sometimes get into trouble with the police because of inappropriate behaviour such as stealing. Recent findings indicate that psychotic symptoms are rare in FTD, possibly due to limited temporal-limbic involvement in this disorder.

It is interesting because different people respond differently to this dementia, some develop lethargy, yet others experience disinhibition. I know little about VENs but from I know they can generate quite different responses in different people, as in the case of this dementia.

Executive function is the cognitive skill of planning and organizing. Patients become unable to perform skills that require complex planning or sequencing.

Language skills can be affected in a number of ways with two broad patterns. Some patients remain fluent with normal phonology and syntax but increasing difficulty with naming and word comprehension, known as semantic dementia in which there is atrophy of the anterior temporal lobes, typically with an asymmetric pattern. Other patients, by contrast, present with a breakdown in speech fluency due to articulation difficulty, phonological and/or syntactic errors but preservation of word comprehension, referred to as progressive nonfluent aphasia.

Here you see again the lack of VENs result in two diferent language responses. I think semantic aphasia was the term used for psychopathy, wasn’t it? I thought it may be similar to semantic dementia, descriptions somewhat resemble, or so I think.

As the result of their research regarding VEN number and AgCC they found that there is a significant reduction in VENs in a AgCC patient, yet since it is only one person they aren’t sure of their conclusions. They also show that partial corpus callosum supports VENs to some extent, but there is still an unequal ratio of VENs vs. Other neurons in both cases, AgCC being the most extreme one.

The targets of VEN projections remain unknown, and although we have reason to believe that VENs are long-distance projection neurons, it is not known if they project inter-hemispherically through the corpus callosum. Therefore, our analyses cannot distinguish whether the reduction in VEN fraction seen in AgCC is a direct result of the interruption of callosal connections, or if the reduction is a secondary consequence of developmental malformations associated with the disorder. In either case, our results offer important evidence of a localized neuronal origin for the social and emotional deficits that are associated with AgCC. This result is consistent with that observed in frontotemporal dementia [44]. It remains to be seen if VEN populations are reduced in other neuropathologies in which social/emotional deficits are a component.

In conclusion they are not sure if VENs are less because of AgCC or there is another cause that is effecting both VEN numbers and AgCC.

Even though the conclusion is somewhat ambigious, the best part of the paper was:

In immunocytochemical studies done in normal brains in our laboratory (Nicole Tetreault and John Allman), the VENs selectively express the product of the gene Disc1 (disrupted in schizophrenia). Disc1 regulates neuronal migration and the dendritic morphology of postnatally generated neurons in mice [11].

So what is significant about this? Disc-1 is a gene as the name implies disrupted in schizophrenia. So one might speculate the lack of this gene is the reason that schizophrenics might be open to realities we are not. And just the fact that it is selectively expressed in VENs opens up all kinds of possibilities. Is this gene prevent us from attaining higher consciousness by messing with the VENs? And remember that C’s said their function is Consciousness Orientation. It also brought this to my mind:

Q: Was the thought that I had one night that, at some point in time something may happen that will turn genes on in our bodies that will cause us to physically transform, an accurate perception of what could happen?
A: For the most part, yes.
Q: Are there any limitations to what our physical bodies can transform to if instructed by the DNA? Could we literally grow taller, rejuvenate, change our physical appearance, capabilities, or whatever, if instructed by the DNA?
A: Receivership capability.
Q: What is receivership capability?
A: Change to broader receivership capability...
Q: (A) It means how good is your receiver.
A: Yes.
Q: (L) What is your receiver? The physical body?
A: Mind through central nervous system connection to higher levels.
Q: So, that is the whole issue of gaining knowledge and developing control over your body. If your mind and CNS are tuned to higher levels of consciousness, that has significance in terms of your receivership capability?
A: Close

I don’t see a better candidate than VENs to do this job with my current understanding, and if they are not controlled by genes like Disc-1, who knows what is possible in the future… Of course it is important to develop the ability to control other parts of your brain through the Work, otherwise there is no use for activation of VENs, since you would be a schizophrenic as well. This reminded me what Laura said about Shamans:

It could even be said that persons who "go mad," are "failed shamans" who have failed either because of a flaw in the transmission of the genetics, or because of environmental factors. At the same time, there are many more myths of failed Shamanic heroes than of successful ones, so the warnings of what can happen have long been in place. Mircea Eliade remarks that:

... The mentally ill patient proves to be an unsuccessful mystic or, better, the caricature of a mystic. His experience is without religious content, even if it appears to resemble a religious experience, just as an act of autoeroticism arrives at the same physiological result as a sexual act properly speaking (seminal emission), yet at the same time is but a caricature of the latter because it is without the concrete presence of the partner. [Eliade, Shamanism, 1964]

I decided to check if somebody studied Corpus Callosum’s connection to psychopathy and I found one! It is called: "Corpus Callosum Abnormalities
in Psychopathic Antisocial Individuals".

Imagine my happiness at that time, but appearently, the result of second group indicates the increased size of corpus callosum leads to psychopathy, not a decreased size. The way they do the study is, they observed the higher the size of Corpus Callosum as the individuals get the higher the score on Psychopathy Checklist, the research was done with 83 men.

Well, it is pretty confusing, but I was thinking maybe what matters for VENs is that it should be at right size, both bigger and smaller size of corpus callosum leads to disruption of VENs in some sense, but this is purely speculation on my part.

Interestingly, the research indicates low spatial IQ in both AgCC patients and psychopaths, so throughout the paper, authors always use the word abnormality instead of increase in size. Yet at a point they mention their reasoning:

Low spatial IQ was observed in the psychopathic antisocial group and was additionally associated with increased estimated callosal volume. These associations are of interest for 3 reasons. First, agenesis of the corpus callosum and split-brain surgery have been associated with poor spatial ability. Second, low spatial but not verbal ability early in life has been found to characterize lifelong antisocial individuals. Third, the same correlation between increased estimated callosal volume and low spatial IQ has also been found in neurofibromatosis. These findings, in turn, suggest that callosal abnormalities may account for the spatial deficits in psychopathic antisocial individuals and that increased callosal volume relative tonormal is disadvantageous rather than beneficial.

Some of this stuff is really confusing for me, so if anyone detects a mistake, and points it out, I would be grateful. Any thoughts on the subject are welcomed.

I still have some papers to read, hopefully I will read them and report back soon.,16266.msg139112.html#msg139112
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