Near-Earth objects and close calls

c.a.

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This recent fireball over (Granada Spain) has also been experiencing a fair number of recent quakes.

The fireball that appears in this video flew over the province of Granada on January 29 at 1:19 a.m.

This phenomenon occurred when a rock from an asteroid entered the Earth's atmosphere at a speed of about 83,000 kilometers per hour.

The event has been analyzed by the researcher responsible for the SMART project, astrophysicist José María Madiedo, from the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía. This analysis has made it possible to determine that the fireball started at an altitude of about 98 km over the north of the province of Granada, almost above the vertical of the town of Benamaurel.

From there it advanced in a northwesterly direction, traveling about 40 miles in the atmosphere to finish at an altitude of about 21 miles. This event has been recorded by the SMART project detectors operating in the astronomical observatories of La Hita (Toledo), Calar Alto (Almería), Sierra Nevada (Granada), La Sagra (Granada) and Seville.

Apologies if this article has been posted already.

17-year-old discovers planet 6.9 times larger than Earth on third day of internship with NASA
Published Fri, Jan 10 20201:58 PM EST
During his junior year at Scarsdale High School in New York, Wolf Cukier landed a two-month internship with NASA. So during the summer of 2019, he traveled down to NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland.

His first assignment was to examine variations in star brightness captured by NASA’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite, known as TESS, as a part of the Planet Hunters TESS citizen science project. (The citizen science project allows people who don’t work for NASA to help with finding new planets.)

Just three days into his internship, Cukier discovered a new planet.

NASA announced the news on their website this week, after confirming the teenager’s work, submitting a paper that Cukier co-authored for scientific review and announcing the discovery of the planet, now named “TOI 1338 b,” at the 235th American Astronomical Society meeting.

“I was looking through the data for everything the volunteers had flagged as an eclipsing binary, a system where two stars circle around each other, and from our view eclipse each other every orbit,” 17-year-old Cukier tells NASA. “About three days into my internship, I saw a signal from a system called TOI 1338. At first I thought it was a stellar eclipse, but the timing was wrong. It turned out to be a planet.”

“I noticed a dip, or a transit, from the TOI 1338 system, and that was the first signal of a planet,” Cukier explains to NBC 4 New York. “I first saw the initial dip and thought, ‘Oh that looked cool,’ but then when I looked at the full data from the telescope at that star, I, and my mentor also noticed, three different dips in the system.”

TESS Satellite Discovered Its 1st World Orbiting 2 Stars (Video)

According to NASA, TOI 1338 b is 6.9 times larger than Earth (in between the size of Neptune and Saturn) and is located in the constellation Pictor, about 1,300 light-years away from Earth. For context, the Earth’s sun is between seven and nine light-minutes away.

TOI 1338 b is the first planet captured by the TESS system that is considered a circumbinary planet, meaning it orbits two stars. The two stars orbit each other every 15 days, and one is 10% larger than the Sun.

Together, TOI 1338 b and its two stars make up what is called an “eclipsing binary.”

In an interview with News 12, Cukier compared his discovery to “Star Wars.” “I discovered a planet. It has two stars which it orbits around,” he said. “So, if you think to Luke’s homeworld, Tatooine, from ‘Star Wars,’ it’s like that. Every sunset, there’s gonna be two stars setting.”

Cukier has several framed “Star Wars” posters and a telescope in his bedroom.

This Teen Just Discovered a WHOLE NEW PLANET! | News 4 Now (Video)

NASA states that circumbinary planets like TOI 1338 b are difficult to detect because typical software can confuse them for eclipses, which is why the help from interns like Cukier is valuable.

“These are the types of signals that algorithms really struggle with,” Veselin Kostov, a research scientist at Goddard tells NASA. “The human eye is extremely good at finding patterns in data, especially non-periodic patterns like those we see in transits from these systems.”

After making history, the high school senior is now thinking about his future in college, telling News 12 “my top three choices are Princeton, MIT and Stanford.”



 

sToRmR1dR

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A huge asteroid will move past Earth on February 1, 2021.

By SEAN MARTIN - Jan 29, 2021

 

sToRmR1dR

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A newly-discovered asteroid will flyby Earth on February 11, 2021.

Posted by Teo Blašković on February 8, 2021

 

sToRmR1dR

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sToRmR1dR

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A newly-discovered asteroid made a close approach to Earth on February 11, 2021.

Posted by Teo Blašković on February 11, 2021

 

sToRmR1dR

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Two asteroids made a close approach to Earth on February 14, 2021.

By TOM FISH - Feb 14, 2021


Posted by Teo Blašković on February 14, 2021

 

Pashalis

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I just love the following guy. Well worth the watch. And yes he is right, the number of close encounters still seems to increase from last year's all-time record. If it continues like that, this year will beat last year's records (again):

 

sToRmR1dR

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Lucius

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A huge asteroid will fly past Earth on February 22, 2021.

21 Feb, 2021

In fact, considering the next 10 years, the closest approach of Asteroid 2020 XU6 with the Earth is happening on Monday 22 February 2021 at 04:29 UTC time. At that time the closest distance between Asteroid 2020 XU6 and the Earth is 4,088,155 kilometers, which is a distance equivalent to 10.6333 Lunar Distances, or 641.68 Earth Radii.


By the way, this page is interesting - it has a list of NEOs NEO Approaches
2020 BV920 - 45 m21.00.038 AU14.8 LD22 Feb 202105h49m-30°56'21.20.038 AU14.6 LD
2020 XU6165 - 370 m14.90.028 AU10.9 LD22 Feb 202112h22m-30°33'15.10.027 AU10.6 LD
2021 CC530 - 70 m19.50.047 AU18.4 LD22 Feb 202113h15m+36°53'19.70.046 AU18.1 LD
2010 FY910 - 25 m22.00.052 AU20.2 LD22 Feb 202109h43m+53°59'22.00.052 AU20.1 LD
 

unkl brws

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thorbiorn

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Other than that: 2020 is another all-time record year! This time in all departments except the number of reports!
How one could use data from the US and Japan to calculate the numbers for the Earth
If one assumes one has good data from AMS of the numbers observed over the US, and if one further makes the assumption, just to give a rough idea, that the distribution of events across the surface of the Earth is reflected by the observations over the US, then one could relate the area of the US to that of the Earth.

The surface of the US according to the Wiki is 9,833,520 km2 and the surface of the Earth is around 510,000,000 km2. If we approximate 9,833,520 km2 to 10,000,000 km2 it means the US covers 10/510 or 1/51 ~ 1/50 of the surface of the Earth.

Similarly for Japan: Japan covers according to the Wiki 377,976.41 km2. They have a LOT of coastline. the objects fly high and can be seen from far away. Giving Japan the benefit of doubt and honouring imperial ambitions, if one estimates the area to be 510,000 km2 then Japan covers 510/510,000 ~ 1/1000 of the surface of the Earth.

Using such models one should be able to find an estimate for the whole Earth.
One can multiply the observations from the US by 50 to get an idea of the number for the Earth. Or one can multiply the numbers from Japan by 1000.

Of course one could also compare the numbers from Japan with those from the US.
1/1000 relates to 1/50 as (1/1000)/(1/50) We need to divide a fraction with a fraction
The division of a fraction a/b by a non-zero fraction c/d is defined as the product of a/b with the multiplicative inverse or reciprocal of c/d. see]
and due to handy numbers, we get first 50/1000 and then 1/20.

To test the hypothesis of whether the numbers from Japan relatively speaking match those from the US one needs to answer if there is something like 20 times fewer observations in Japan than in the US, or if you wish, 20 times more in the US than in Japan when comparing observations within the same category.

There are of course differences in the density of observers, humans and robots, as also the weather conditions, indicated by the number of hours with sunshine, may vary between Japan on average, the US on average and even within the US. As such all these calculations will only give rough estimates, but they could tell us if we might be missing something over our own countries. One could add to the list of errors that some areas may be more susceptible than others.
 

Pashalis

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How one could use data from the US and Japan to calculate the numbers for the Earth
If one assumes one has good data from AMS of the numbers observed over the US, and if one further makes the assumption, just to give a rough idea, that the distribution of events across the surface of the Earth is reflected by the observations over the US, then one could relate the area of the US to that of the Earth.

The surface of the US according to the Wiki is 9,833,520 km2 and the surface of the Earth is around 510,000,000 km2. If we approximate 9,833,520 km2 to 10,000,000 km2 it means the US covers 10/510 or 1/51 ~ 1/50 of the surface of the Earth.

Similarly for Japan: Japan covers according to the Wiki 377,976.41 km2. They have a LOT of coastline. the objects fly high and can be seen from far away. Giving Japan the benefit of doubt and honouring imperial ambitions, if one estimates the area to be 510,000 km2 then Japan covers 510/510,000 ~ 1/1000 of the surface of the Earth.

Using such models one should be able to find an estimate for the whole Earth.
One can multiply the observations from the US by 50 to get an idea of the number for the Earth. Or one can multiply the numbers from Japan by 1000.

Of course one could also compare the numbers from Japan with those from the US.
1/1000 relates to 1/50 as (1/1000)/(1/50) We need to divide a fraction with a fraction
The division of a fraction a/b by a non-zero fraction c/d is defined as the product of a/b with the multiplicative inverse or reciprocal of c/d. see]
and due to handy numbers, we get first 50/1000 and then 1/20.

To test the hypothesis of whether the numbers from Japan relatively speaking match those from the US one needs to answer if there is something like 20 times fewer observations in Japan than in the US, or if you wish, 20 times more in the US than in Japan when comparing observations within the same category.

There are of course differences in the density of observers, humans and robots, as also the weather conditions, indicated by the number of hours with sunshine, may vary between Japan on average, the US on average and even within the US. As such all these calculations will only give rough estimates, but they could tell us if we might be missing something over our own countries. One could add to the list of errors that some areas may be more susceptible than others.

Nice! Yes, the the data from AMS (but only within the US!) and from the Japan Network are the only two more or less reliable sources for fireball data over time that I could find (for a number of reasons). So using those two data points to get at a rough estimate of the global impact of fireballs is quite a valid idea IMO. Another factor to consider here: the AMS data is (as far as I know) significantly (if not totally?) based on eyewitness accounts while the data from the Japan network is apparently solely based on an automated-camera-detecting-system that has been established with various cameras throughout the country.
 
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Pashalis

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Also, from what I could gather about the workings of both systems (AMS and the Japan Network) I‘m fairly certain that the AMS data paints a more accurate picture in regards to the development of the number of fireball impacts over time: From what I can see, the AMS data is the best source we have in regards to that, followed by the Japan Network.
 
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