Randall Carlson's Work: Striking similarities (Comets, Geology, Catastrophism etc.) through Decades of meticulous research?!

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A few things to note about things brought up so far in the Kosmographia podcast.

In a number of places and in the most resent episodes, Carlson and the others raise the question we have been wondering about too recently; Is the seeming increase of Asteroids dangerously slipping by earth now almost weekly, merely due to improved technology or because the space around earth gets crowded?

For Randall, he doesn't really have an answer to that, but tends to think that it could be a combination of both; an increase in objects and better equipment. Which could very well be true. As he states, if we are really entering a dense period, it becomes more important than ever to pay attention to the skies and figure out what happened in the past.

At one point in a recent podcast Carlson told about an article he wrote in 2014 called "The Boy who Cried Wolf". He wrote that article after the (in many circles) anticipated Apocalypse that was supposed to happen in 2012. He basically summarizes that at least about 12 of such "end of the world" scares inflicted culture since the 1960 (he took note of every instance of that). The whole point of the article is the old Story of the Boy who Cried Wolf. As Carlson wrote:

We all remember the well-known fable told by the ancient Greek slave and storyteller, Aesop, about the shepherd boy drafted to keep watch over a flock of sheep, and who, out of boredom, decided it would be great fun to fool the nearby villagers by pretending that a wolf was attacking the sheep. After the villagers rushed out to save the sheep a number of times based upon the boys fabrications they refused to believe him when the wolf actually did show up and began to consume the sheep. The obvious declared moral of the story is generally expressed as “There is no believing a liar, even when he is telling the truth.” However, there is, I submit, a second, unstated moral to the story as well. In spite of the shepherd boy’s prevarications, the wolf was real. And the wolf did, in the end, show up to devour the poor sheep…

Bringing us to the point of this article: for centuries various predictions have been made about the end of the world on certain dates by assorted means, and on quite a number of occasions these predictions have been believed by a significant number of people. Obviously the world did not perish in late December of 2012 – the most recent date proffered in a long tradition of doomsday predictions that failed to materialize.

Randall's point being in that article, that what we experienced so far with all those Apocalyptic scares could be the Analog to the boy who Cried Wolf story, meaning that when a true Apocalypse might start to happen, no one will believe the foolish boy, who scared people before, fully knowing that he made it up, when the wolf (aka. Cataclysms caused by comets and such) really shows up.
 
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On another note, in one of the recent podcast it has become more clear what Carlson thinks about the electric universe model. In a nutshell, he hasn't explored the subject in depth and clearly states that he thinks at least some of it could very well play a significant role. He doesn't dismiss it, just hasn't looked into it very deeply. He is planning to really delve into the subject at some point. He is somewhat aware of electrical discharges accompanying fragmentation of comets and such in earth atmosphere.

Having said that, it also becomes rather clear that he is of the opinion that "extraordinary claims" [such as those by some electric universe people I would suggest] demand extraordinary proof or documentation. For example, he alluded to the E-Mails he received from listeners who referred to the thunderbold ideas and was seemingly somewhat annoyed by the lack of sources and specific evidenced theories/works provided by those people in their messages. He made it clear that there is a huge body of scientific literature already out there in other fields that needs to be taken into account somehow, without throwing the baby out with the bathwater. Things like proposing something so radical such as "Venus and Mars being ejected out of Jupiter" and running amok in the solar system very recently need quite some information and evidence to support such a hypothesis. Alluding to Velikovsky of course.
 

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Just came across this lecture from Carlson from 2015 about the grail mystery. Absolutely fascinating, to put it mildly. I think it is safe to say that the little glimpses he presented there are something nobody has ever thought about in this unique and simply brilliant way. And that’s just the tip of the iceberg. He really needs to get at least some of that stuff on paper as long as he still can. Would be such a pity if that information gets lost.

 

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He really needs to get at least some of that stuff on paper as long as he still can. Would be such a pity if that information gets lost.

At least parts of it he has written down in the form of a 12 part series of articles starting here:

 

Tuatha de Danaan

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Just came across this lecture from Carlson from 2015 about the grail mystery. Absolutely fascinating, to put it mildly. I think it is safe to say that the little glimpses he presented there are something nobody has ever thought about in this unique and simply brilliant way. And that’s just the tip of the iceberg. He really needs to get at least some of that stuff on paper as long as he still can. Would be such a pity if that information gets lost.

Really enjoyed that podcast. The CRATER, old Latin for platter or bowl=GRAIL. That was interesting and very revealing.
The information towards the end re South Africa with respect to iridium/platinum and DNA and ELECTRIC GENES was stunning but way beyond my comprehension. I just know it's important and would love to learn more. Thanks Pashalis.
 

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In the latest episode of Kosmographia Randall again shortly touches upon a pretty interesting fact that makes all we know from paleontology and anthropology (that in itself is already quite sketchy, fragmented and frankly corrupted in many places) even harder to ascertain and especially in regards to „evolution“ and what existed on this planet.

It very much looks like that all we know about the fossil record (which in itself is already very fragmented if you consider the enormity of earth’s surface and the layers below it and how very little of it has of yet been excavated, let alone scientifically evaluated, in order to create the record) comes from very peculiar, rare, short lived and fragmentary circumstances that enabled the carcasses to be fossilized at all. In other words; the fossils we can find are most likely just a very tiny fraction, both in terms of numbers and species, that actually existed.

You need quite rare and peculiar circumstances in order for any dead body to be preserved for any longer time (including bones) as a fossil at all. Cataclysmic events seem to be one of the major events that can produce such circumstances (through quick burial in mud after death for example).

Randall talks about studies that were done in the 80ies for example, during a time in which millions of elephants died due to a severe droughts + human predation for their tusks in Africa.

What was discovered was quite amazing. After only 5 years absolutely no remains of the dead elephants could be found, not even bones. So nature very quickly erased any traces of the biggest animal walking on land today, in just 5 years. Millions...

So, a simple question arises: What would paleontologists and anthropologists 10.000 years in the future conclude about sub-Saharan Afrika in the layers of our times today? How likely would it be that they would even know that elephants existed there, let alone in terms of the actual numbers? And what about all the other species, including human beings? And what about hundreds of thousands or millions of years ago?

I reckon that they could find pretty much nothing, or a very tiny portion, of what actually existed in terms of animals and other beings in our times today. How very wrong would their record be in terms of what really existed, in which sequence and so forth, if they would also think in terms of evolution through natural selection?

So, I think paleontologists and anthropologists nowadays basically are confronted with the same problem. It is kind of ludicrous to think one can establish any kind of even remotely reliable and/or fixed chronology or „evolution“, or record, out of this very, very limited data set from the past.

Which brings me to another interesting point Randall brought up a couple of times. How come that we have found so incredibly little actual human remains (bones or teeth for example) in the catastrophic layers (such as those at the end of the last ice age) while we find incredible numbers of all sorts of animal species in those same layers? Indeed, what’s up with that?
 
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Pierre

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Which brings me to another interesting point Randall brought up a couple of times. How come that we have found so incredibly little actual human remains (bones or teeth for example) in the catastrophic layers (such as those at the end of the last ice age) while we find incredible numbers of all sorts of animal species in those same layers? Indeed, what’s up with that?

That's a point that puzzled me while studying the flash frozen mammoths ca. 12,900 BP. One possible explanation is that, at the time, most of the human population lived near the sea shore. Since then sea level is now about 80 meters higher, human remains are to be found underwater (and under sediments).

Another potential explanation is brought up by Carlson:

How likely would it be that they would even know that elephants existed there, let alone in terms of the actual numbers? And what about all the other species, including human beings?

Though the destruction of human remains doesn't necessarily apply to the Younger Dryas event ca. 12,900 BP as shown by the huge number of flash frozen mammoths and other animals, it probably applies to other catastrophic events.
 
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The information towards the end re South Africa with respect to iridium/platinum and DNA and ELECTRIC GENES was stunning but way beyond my comprehension.

Sure was, especially Ruthenium (expanded on in his Part 11):

“They devised a way of binding atoms of ruthenium . . . to ribose, one of the backbone components of the helical chains of DNA. Ruthenium atoms act like electrical connectors into and out of the molecule; they have the added virtue of neither disrupting nor distorting its overall shape. [remember, a catalyst causes or accelerates a chemical change without, however, being permanently affected by the reaction] Although there has been a long history of using such metals to understand DNA, the ruthenium-ribose combination revealed something extraordinary. The researchers examined the electrical properties of short lengths of double-helix DNA in which there was a ruthenium atom at each end of one of the strands. Meade and Kayyam estimated from earlier studies that a short single strand of DNA ought to conduct up to 100 electrons a second. Imagine their astonishment when they measured the rate of flow along the ruthenium-doped double helix: the current was up by a factor of more than 10,000 times—over a million electrons a second. It was as if the double helix was behaving like a piece of molecular wire.

As far as I know Carlson is somewhat aware of the binary idea, though I'm not sure if it is in connection with a possible influx of comets hypothetically generated by the close approach of the "dark brother" through the "Oort cloud". He mentioned some of those theories decades ago in some of his talks. So I think he keeps that possibility in mind but doesn't feel there is enough hard data to speculate in that direction too much at this point (my speculation).

Yes, that is how it appears. This may be expanded elsewhere by Randall that has not been read, and here he does not bring up a Binary systems either, yet he does discuss the Oort cloud this way (Part 8):


Asteroid_Belt_Kuiper_Oort_Cloud
Asteroid Belt, Kuiper Disc and Oort Cloud.

The comets within both reservoirs orbit in a quasi-stable state, somewhere between unstable and metastable, that is, it requires only minimal force to dislodge them from their orbital position, but for most of the time there exists in the vastness of space no force sufficient to disturb their delicately balanced arrangement. However, from time to time something does happen that disturbs the deep sleep of these extraordinary bodies. In the realm of the Oort cloud it may be an errant star, a nearby supernova, or the passage of the Solar System across the galactic planeeach can potentially trigger the dislodging of comets from their place of cosmic slumber and send them on a long, slow, spiraling descent towards the Sun. Comets commencing their journey from the Oort cloud may take up to several million years before reaching the Sun and can approach from any direction. These are the long-period species of comet that travel into the inner Solar System on an open-ended parabolic orbit, rendezvous one time only with the Sun, and then journey back out into the great deep of space never to return, at least within the time of mankind upon the Earth.

Comets originating within the Kuiper belt, which is much closer to the inner Solar System than the Oort cloud, represent the second species, the short-period comet. These celestial visitors are on a much shorter and quicker periodic orbit that brings them in towards the sun on an elliptical pathway. Short period comets generally have orbital periods less than several centuries and may complete an orbit in just a few years, such as Comet Encke, which makes a journey about the Sun once every 3.3 years, or every few decades, such as Halley’s Comet which completes an orbit every 76 years. The short period comets whose orbits are described by the geometry of closed ellipses travel back and forth between Jupiter and the Sun along pathways that lie mostly within the plane of the Ecliptic, the region encompassed by the twelve signs of the zodiac against which the Sun, Moon and planets are seen to move. The majority of comets that have been observed repeatedly throughout history are of the short period variety.


Planetary_Alignments_Kuiper_Belt


The process by which these comets are introduced from their trans-Neptunian reservoir into orbits that take them through the inner Solar System is different than that of the Oort Cloud comets. Whereas the disruption of Oort Cloud comets and subsequent descent to the Sun is instigated by forces on a galactic scale, that of the Kuiper belt is the result of planetary forces acting gravitationally upon the inner regions of the belt. It appears that alignments of the large outer planets Uranus and Neptune can perturb comets in the inner regions of the belt and either accelerate or decelerate their orbital velocity. If they accelerate they migrate to an orbit farther out from the Sun. If they decelerate they move towards the Sun and pass within the orbit of Neptune and hence within its sphere of influence. It is here that a process quite extraordinary becomes operational.

He seems close, yet without considering a binary collision (which would also accelerate comets more quickly than millions of years as he says) things are not set. However, it is understandable for Randall to say this as there is just no acknowledgement (proof) of a binary star twin for our system, and yet binary systems seem to be the norm.

Perhaps there will be a glimpse of this soon.
 

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He made it clear that there is a huge body of scientific literature already out there in other fields that needs to be taken into account somehow, without throwing the baby out with the bathwater.

"When your only tool is a hammer, you see nails everywhere". The proponents of the Electric Universe Theory tend to see electric phenomena everywhere.

Things like proposing something so radical such as "Venus and Mars being ejected out of Jupiter" and running amok in the solar system very recently need quite some information and evidence to support such a hypothesis. Alluding to Velikovsky of course.

Velikovsky had some brilliant insight, like the cometary nature of Venus. Like all of us he also made some mistakes, for example believing that the timeline of the Old Testament was true.
 

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A couple of things on Carlson's recent shows or links.

Uploaded Feb 2021, and posted on the Cosmictusk, is episode 59 on a tour (during covid) to Egypt (Carlson did not attend). Here they are talking about the River Nile, boulder field's formed by massive water flows et cetera. They talk, referencing near 5-miles of tunnels, of the many objects found, such as this precision carved stone (first dynasty) that is still being considered as to what it was for. Underground chambers with massive single cut granite carved objects (24 boxes) set in rooms that still are not identified as to what they are or what they represent - there is evidence that the site was renovated at some point:

1618167779327.png

Joining geo-bear and catastrophe sherpa Randall Carlson this week was particularly fun. Ben could take the lead with his intricate understanding of Egypt and excellent locution. The Tusk could listen along and chime in when appropriate (I hope!). And lord knows, I love hanging in the pod box with my friends Russ and Kyle Allen of Bandera, Texas (SNAAAKES!) and mega-editor and show maestro Mr. Brad Young.

It takes chemistry for six people to make two hours of complex and controversial material entertaining and interesting. Judging by the comments this show was a success.

Also, and more of history, on Carlson's SGI show, on March 21st, 2021 there was posted an article by the anthropologist, Robert Sepehr. Looked for him on the Forum, see a single post here on the subject (there is a video) of US. operations - Paperclip and such. Have not watched it, however did watch this business of Sepehr's on the subject of Hashishi and what it meant over what it was said to mean, with variations. This looks to the 10th and 11th century, ending in the twelve hundreds after Genghis Khan seemed to have exposed it. It was a system of programming, essentially, and Sepehr takes the position that it was exported back to Europe - hidden in societies, following its eastern collapse.

 

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Yes, I'm also still rather confused by the ice mystery and especially the way those samples are dated not only in Greenland. I've talked about that on a number of places on the forum too. I think that is one of those places of scientific inquiry to look at that I think is definitely not settled yet.

Yes, the ice dating still seems to be at odds, as well as the comet dating that created this crater. Came across this recent look at the Hiawatha crater. It is here in its entirety with video. Note, when they talk about Camp Century ice cores, that is the secret base built in the 60's that included a nuclear reactor - it is facinating to see how it was all built:


The recent discovery of a large, probably young, impact crater beneath the edge of the Greenland Ice Sheet (Kjær et al, 2018) was quite remarkable. However, while it’s fairly clear that it is relatively young (geologically), the exact age range has been difficult to pin down. Depending on the rate of erosion, the original authors estimated that the impact occurred between 5,000 and 50,000,000 years ago. Several papers published or in currently in review this year have managed to narrow that age range a bit.

Silber et al., 2021 (manuscript) modeled impacts on an ice-free surface and varying ice sheet thicknesses and found the crater to be consistent with an impact between 2.6 million and 11,700 years ago. They also estimated the size and composition of the asteroid.

Recently, a putative impact crater with the diameter of 31.1 ± 0.3 km was discovered beneath the Hiawatha Glacier in northwestern Greenland (Fig. 1) (Kjær et al., 2018). The analysis of the glaciofluvial sediment samples collected from the river draining the structure shows the presence of shocked quartz, a marker indicative of meteoritic impact. Further, elevated concentrations of platinum-group elements (PGE) were found in the samples containing shocked quartz, and Kjær et al. (2018) further asserted that the putative impact crater may have been formed by a fairly rare iron asteroid. The size of the crater suggests that its formation likely caused significant regional – and perhaps even global – environmental perturbations (Toon et al., 1997; Erickson et al., 2020). As per scaling laws (Johnson et al., 2016b), to form a 31 km in diameter impact structure, an iron asteroid impacting at 17 km s–1 at an incidence angle of 45º would have to be nearly 2 km wide (Collins et al., 2004). The probability of any composition asteroid of that size hitting Earth is low but non-negligible, occurring once every ~2 million years (Silber et al., 2018).
Silber, et al., 2021
https://arxiv.org/abs/2104.07909
Their modeling indicated if the impact occurred on a relatively thick ice sheet (>1.5 km), the ejection of rocky material would be inhibited, possibly explaining why no fragments have been identified in any of the deep ice cores. In the pre-impact ice cover model, only the closest ice core, Camp Century, would have a significant accumulation of ejecta material. They went on to note Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) models indicate that Hiawatha Glacier has not been >1 km thick over the past 26,000 years.

While they couldn’t categorically rule out a Late Pleistocene impact on the ice sheet, they concluded that rocky ejecta fragments should have been found in the Camp Century ice core; and so far, no ejecta material has been found.

While not directly related to the Hiawatha Crater, I ran across another very interesting new bit of research on the Camp Century ice core. Two of the authors discussed it in in this article:

Ancient leaves preserved under a mile of Greenland’s ice – and lost in a freezer for years – hold lessons about climate change
Andrew Christ & Paul Bierman, March 15, 2021
In 1963, inside a covert U.S. military base in northern Greenland, a team of scientists began drilling down through the Greenland ice sheet. Piece by piece, they extracted an ice core 4 inches across and nearly a mile long. At the very end, they pulled up something else – 12 feet of frozen soil.
The ice told a story of Earth’s climate history. The frozen soil was examined, set aside and then forgotten.
Half a century later, scientists rediscovered that soil in a Danish freezer. It is now revealing its secrets.
Using lab techniques unimaginable in the 1960s when the core was drilled, we and an international team of fellow scientists were able to show that Greenland’s massive ice sheet had melted to the ground there within the past million years. Radiocarbon dating shows that it would have happened more than 50,000 years ago. It most likely happened during times when the climate was warm and sea level was high, possibly 400,000 years ago.
And there was more. As we explored the soil under a microscope, we were stunned to discover the remnants of a tundra ecosystem – twigs, leaves and moss. We were looking at northern Greenland as it existed the last time the region was ice-free. Our peer-reviewed study was published on March 15 in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
[…]
Dating million-year-old moss
How old were these plants?
Over the last million years, Earth’s climate was punctuated by relatively short warm periods, typically lasting about 10,000 years, called interglacials, when there was less ice at the poles and sea level was higher. The Greenland ice sheet survived through all of human history during the Holocene, the present interglacial period of the last 12,000 years, and most of the interglacials in the last million years.
But our research shows that at least one of these interglacial periods was warm enough for a long enough period of time to melt large portions of the Greenland ice sheet, allowing a tundra ecosystem to emerge in northwestern Greenland.
We used two techniques to determine the age of the soil and the plants. First, we used clean room chemistry and a particle accelerator to count atoms that form in rocks and sediment when exposed to natural radiation that bombards Earth. Then, a colleague used an ultra-sensitive method for measuring light emitted from grains of sand to determine the last time they were exposed to sunlight.
The million-year time frame is important. Previous work on another ice core, GISP2, extracted from central Greenland in the 1990s, showed that the ice had also been absent there within the last million years, perhaps about 400,000 years ago.
[…]
The Conversation
The location of the Camp Century ice core was ice-free and vegetated from ~2.7 to ~1.4 million years ago and then again within the past 1 million years. Dr. Christ was kind enough to send me a copy of his paper… Some really cool geological detective work!


Getting back to the Hiawatha Crater, Garde et al., 2020 (many of the same authors of Kjær et al., 2018) identified organic material, including charcoal and lignite, in the outwash from the crater. The material was too old to be reliably 14C dated. One of the lignite lumps “yielded a non-finite 14C age of >43,500 yr B.P.”

The material appears to be consistent the climatic conditions of the Late Pliocene to Early Pleistocene.

Origin and Age of the Organic Matter
Our observations and analyses of the organic carbon in front of the Hiawatha Glacier show that it stems from organic-rich beds formed at a time when tree growth at this high northern latitude was possible. Pliocene to early Pleistocene deposits at ∼80°N are known, e.g., from the 2.4 Ma Kap København Formation in North Greenland (Funder et al., 2001) and the adjacent ca. 3 Ma Beaufort Formation at Meighen Island, Canada (Fyles et al., 1991).
[…]
The early Pleistocene, 2.4 Ma, Kap København Formation in North Greenland is the youngest known occurrence of forest at these high latitudes (see Funder et al. [2001] regarding the 2.4 Ma age determination), and the absence of Pinus does not preclude contemporaneous growth in Inglefield Land some 200 km to the south. In summary, the age of the organic carbon at Hiawatha is probably 3–2.4 Ma, and we favor the younger, 2.4 Ma age as the simplest interpretation and a realistic maximum age of the impact.
[…]
Garde et al., 2020
Since we don’t know if the Pleistocene organic material came from trees and other biomass incinerated by the impact 2.4 Ma or were the remains of plants buried under the ice sheet and incinerated more recently by an impact event, we can’t fix the minimum age from these data.

An impact through the ice sheet during the Late Pleistocene should have been detectable in the Camp Century ice core; however no ejecta fragments have been identified. An impact 3 million years ago, should have deposited rocky ejecta fragments at the Camp Century location and these should have been present in sediment samples from Christ et al, 2021. They don’t appear to be present.


Could the impact have occurred between the Camp Century ice-free periods (~1.4 to 0.9 Ma)? This ice would have melted, possibly washing away the fragments. This age range works for all of the papers discussed so far.

What if the impact had occurred during the last Pleistocene glacial stage?​

As noted earlier, models indicate that a relatively thick ice sheet at the impact site would have muted the ejecta. Based on Silber et., al 2021, the total volume of ice melted would be less than 1,000 km3. It actually might not have left much of a mark on the ice sheet.

We do know from Kjær et al., 2018 that the Top/Pleistocene radar reflector is not present in the Hiawatha Crater. Of course, we wouldn’t expect it to be present. The peripheral ice is either Holocene aged or of unknown age due to deformation.

In the maps below, on the two leftmost panels, Hiawatha Crater is marked by the yellow dot, with a red outline. The deep ice cores are marked with magenta triangles. If you open the image, it will be easier to see. Camp Century is the magenta triangle closest to the crater

isochrone_1.png
Top/Pleistocene and Last Glacial Maximum Age Structure Maps and Hiawatha Crater (click to enlarge).
The structure maps are of the Top/Pleistocene and Last Glacial Maximum isochrones. They were constructed from ice penetrating radar profiles (MacGregor et al., 2015). If the impact occurred during the the latter part of the last glacial stage of the Pleistocene, it had no effect on the ice sheet just a few 10’s of kilometers away.


Had the impact occurred before the last glacial maximum, there shouldn’t be any evidence of it in the Camp Century ice core.

isochrone_2.png
MIS 3 and Top/Eemian Age Structure Maps and Hiawatha Crater (click to enlarge).
The manner in which these scientists tie the ice cores into the radar profiles and interpret the ice sheet’s internal structure and stratigraphy is very analogous to the way we tie well logs into seismic profiles and interpret the structure and stratigraphy of Earth’s subsurface.

This NASA video on Operation Ice Bridge is a pretty good depiction of how ice penetrating radar has been used to map the stratigraphy of the Greenland Ice Sheet.


Conclusions​

The age range for the Hiawatha impact that best accommodates all of the data and models is 1.4 to 0.9 million years ago. While a more recent impact cannot be absolutely ruled out; there should have been evidence for it in the Camp Century ice core. Even if the impact did occur during the latter part of the last glacial stage (29 to 11.7 thousand years ago), it had no material effect on the ice sheet. The Camp Century ice core is easily correlated to the ice core most distant from the impact. This would not be the case if impact had significantly melted and/or disrupted the Late Pleistocene ice sheet at Camp Century.

dye_3_to_camp_century-1.jpg
δ18O-profiles along the deepest, 300 m, of the surface to bedrock ice cores from Dye 3 and Camp Century. Credit: Willi Dansgaard. Geochronology/Ice cores
The only clear evidence for a recent (past 29 ka) impact found in Greenland (so far) is the platinum anomaly in the GISP2 ice core (Petaev et al., 2013); although this does not necessarily mean the impact occurred in Greenland. Late Pleistocene platinum anomalies have also been identified in North America (Moore et al., 2017) and South Africa (Thackeray et al., 2019). Some scientists have interpreted these platinum anomalies to be of volcanic origin (Sun et al, 2020). So the evidence remains equivocal.


Lessons Learned​

  1. I incorrectly assumed that an impact during the last Pleistocene glacial stage would have had a catastrophic effect on the ice sheet. The models indicate that it wouldn’t have and the ice cores exhibit no evidence of such catastrophic effects.
  2. I initially read Garde et al., 2020 as an age bracket. It only strictly limits the maximum age.
  3. An impact at the onset of the Younger Dryas can’t be categorically ruled out. However, the ice sheet would have muted the effects of the impact. If the impact did not materially affect the Greenland Ice Sheet, it probably didn’t do a lot of damage elsewhere. This is still not the crater you are looking for.

References​

Note: I did not incorporate all of these references into this post. However, since I gathered them while writing this post, I listed them for future reference. Badgely et al., 2020 is a useful collection ice ice core δ18O data. Dyke et al., 2003 and Dyke 2004 present an excellent set of ice front maps over North America during the deglaciation period.

Badgeley, Jessica A., Eric J. Steig, Gregory J. Hakim, and Tyler J. Fudge. 2020. Reconstructions of mean-annual Greenland temperature and precipitation for the past 20,000 years and the ice-core records used to create the reconstructions 2020. Arctic Data Center. doi:10.18739/A2599Z26M.

Christ, A.J., Bierman, P.R., Schaefer, J.M., Dahl-Jensen, D., Steffensen, J.P., Corbett, L.B., Peteet, D.M., Thomas, E.K., Steig, E.J., Rittenour, T.M., Tison, J-L., Blard, P-H., Perdrial, N., Dethier, D., Lini, A., Hidy, A.J., Caffee, M., Southon, J., in press, “A multi-million-year-old record of Greenland vegetation and glacial history preserved in sediment beneath 1.4 km of ice at Camp Century”, The Proceedings of the National Academies of Sciences of the United States of America.

Dyke, A.S., Moore, A. and L. Robertson. [computer file]. Deglaciation of North America. Geological Survey of Canada Open File 1547. Ottawa: Natural Resources Canada, 2003.

Dyke, Arthur. (2004). An outline of North American deglaciation with emphasis on central and northern Canada. Developments in Quaternary Sciences. 2. 10.1016/S1571-0866(04)80209-4.

Garde, Adam A., Anne Sofie Søndergaard, Carsten Guvad, Jette Dahl-Møller, Gernot Nehrke, Hamed Sanei, Christian Weikusat, Svend Funder, Kurt H. Kjær, Nicolaj Krog Larsen; Pleistocene organic matter modified by the Hiawatha impact, northwest Greenland. Geology 2020;; 48 (9): 867–871. doi: Pleistocene organic matter modified by the Hiawatha impact, northwest Greenland | Geology | GeoScienceWorld

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MacGregor, J. A., Fahnestock, M. A., Catania, G. A., Paden, J. D., Prasad Gogineni, S., Young, S. K., Rybarski, S. C., Mabrey, A. N., Wagman, B. M. and Morlighem, M. (2015), Radiostratigraphy and age structure of the Greenland Ice Sheet. J. Geophys. Res. Earth Surf., 120: 212– 241. doi: 10.1002/2014JF003215.

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