The Living Force
And now we have this, the lunching of a rocket going wrong, spining out of control once it reached the upper layers of the atmosphere:
I saw an interesting and very speculative article on Twitter today. Clickbaity title, but maybe there is something to it.(Pierre) And other electronic equipment through which they monitor, control, and influence populations. It's a failing of the electronic control system.
A: Level playing field eventually. Just wait for the current to begin to flow!
Q: (L) So in other words, we're all going to get electrocuted!
(Pierre) That might be due to the fact that the magnetosphere protects the planet from most high-energy cosmic rays and other radiations. If you have no magnetic shield, the planet is open to any such radiation.
(Joe) Does that refer back to astronomical phenomena and the close passage of a large body that will cause the current to flow?
(Chu) Well, they said phenomena...
A: Close! Think of the grooves on Malta.
Q: (Pierre) They're talking of electromachining of the surface of the planet...
Q: (Pierre) Electromachining means basically arcing...
(Joe) Moving lightning along the ground.
(Pierre) Long-lasting moving lightning.
(Joe) Chasing people!
(Andromeda) That's coming soon?
A: Soon enough.
Q: (L) Soon enough, but not right away.
(Pierre) Usually this electromachining occurs between our planet and a highly charge body like a comet. Will a comet be the source of these discharges?
(Joe) That's what I just asked.
A: Wait and see. That is not the only source of such phenomena!
Carrington-like Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) To Strike Earth On Friday, September 23…(...) On Friday, September 23, 2022 at 05:07 UT a powerful Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) will strike Earth –a Carrington-like event– that will ring in the end of the world as we know it. This is according to scientist Ali Al-Rubaidi in a paper published last month on ResearchGate that is “based on Science and The Quran”–a multidisciplinary approach I find curious.
Lifted directly from the study:
“This short paper forecasts the next Solar Storm, commencing with CME at the Sun’s location in the zenith at Riau, Indonesia, during the Autumnal equinox on 23 September 2022, at around 5:07 UTC. Based on our method of interpreting the Cave chapter verse (18:17), the term [tazāwaru] signifies the negative and southerly orientation associated with the Sun in verse.
“Furthermore, the southward direction and negative polarity of the IMF-Bz component, signifying a strong interaction with the magnetosphere, are also crucial for developing a geomagnetic storm. Consequently, the term [tazāwaru] in verse may correlate with the Sun to suggest the occurrence of CME at the zenith position of the Sun on 23 September 2022.”
(...) CMEs include the release of electrically charged solar particles and magnetic fields into space. This magnetic cloud takes 13 to 5 days to reach earth (although the fastest can arrive in 15-18 hours), and interact with earth’s magnetic field to create intense electric currents that may damage and destroy human technology (Jyothi 2021).
(...) Do I personally think that a powerful Carrington-like CME will strike earth’s atmosphere on September 23?
Still, will my eyes be aimed up at the skies three Friday’s from now?
Yes. They will.
Religious scriptures are powerful tools. They often contain warnings of past cyclical catastrophes that are doomed to repeat, from which heedance can be drawn. In other words, I’m not rejecting this prediction out of hand — not least because I can see with my own eyes the fiery AR3088 that is slowly but surely making its way around the farside of the sun.
Also, and just to add further confluences, Al-Rubaidi’s prediction also coincides with the Federal Reserves next meeting, which is also a date that financial expert Jim Rickards has claimed will ring in the next big financial crash, the next Great Depression.
By Keith Cooper
Five years after spotting the first known object from beyond our solar system passing through, scientists are still figuring out what the strange object says about planetary systems.
Marauding ice giant planets like Neptune could be flinging many trillions of small bodies into interstellar space, some of which visit our solar system, as 'Oumuamua notably did in 2017. If true, then the population of such rogue objects moving between the stars could be in the hundreds of trillions of trillions (that's a digit followed by some 26 zeroes).
'Oumuamua was discovered on Oct. 19, 2017, having arrived from interstellar space, where it is headed once more after swinging through our solar system. And the existence of small bodies visiting from interstellar space wasn't a surprise. In fact, interstellar interlopers such as 'Oumuamua and Borisov, the only two discovered so far, had been predicted long before.
"We know that when the solar system was forming, several dozen Earth masses' worth of small, icy bodies would have been ejected into the interstellar medium," Greg Laughlin, an astronomer at Yale University, told Space.com. "So if you take our solar system as a representative example, then you would expect to have quite a bit of stuff drifting through interstellar space."
The mechanism that ejects these myriad small bodies is the result of planetary migration, in particular the rampage of giant planets. In 2005 astronomers proposed the "Nice model," so named because the astronomers who developed it worked at the Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur in Nice, France. The Nice model depicts how interactions within a rich disk of asteroids and comets prompted Saturn, Uranus and Neptune to migrate outward and Jupiter to migrate inward slightly over hundreds of millions of years.
The Nice model has since fallen out of favor somewhat, to be replaced by similar alternatives such as the "Grand Tack" model, which describes how Jupiter initially moved inward, only for Saturn's gravity to stop it and pull it back. But according to Laughlin, in the context of interstellar objects, it doesn't matter which model is right.
"Any model that has any sort of movement of giant planets as they are forming amidst a large sea of planetesimals is going to produce interstellar objects," he said.
When planets stir up a neighborhood Laughlin and Caltech astronomer Konstantin Batygin coined the term "throw line" as a description of where such ejections can take place.
"The 'throw line' is just a riff on the term 'snow line,'" Laughlin said, referencing the distance from a star where water is more stable as ice than as vapor. The throw line, in turn, is located where a giant planet is able to slingshot a small body with enough acceleration to achieve escape velocity from the gravitational pull from its star. The farther out the planet is, the easier this becomes because the star's gravity decreases with radial distance.
In our solar system, according to Laughlin, the throw line is at about 372 million miles (about 600 million kilometers) from the sun, which is about the same distance as the snow line.
All four of the gas giants in our neighborhood — Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune — are beyond the throw line, and all could have ejected bodies into interstellar space, but the process doesn't necessarily need all four.
"It doesn't require something as dramatic as Jupiter," Laughlin said. "Neptune readily does the trick."
As the most distant planet that orbits in a region where the escape velocity is low and there are plenty of icy bodies to throw around, Neptune would have acted as the solar system's bouncer as the planet migrated outward, ejecting many of the small bodies that got in its way.
"If 'Oumuamua is typical, then that's suggesting that the average star has a Neptune-like planet, just like our solar system" Laughlin said, adding that there is observational evidence to support this, in the form of images taken by ALMA, the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, of planet-forming disks of dust around young stars. Many of these disks appear to have ring-shaped gaps in them that may have been cleared out by the gravity of Neptune-like worlds.
While this might not sound like a revelation, it is important for astronomers who have been seeking to determine just how typical, or atypical, our own solar system is compared to systems around other stars.
Many gas giant exoplanets discovered so far are so-called "hot Jupiters" and "hot Neptunes," which have migrated inward and now orbit very close to their stars. These worlds cannot eject small bodies into interstellar space because the escape velocity that close to their star is too great. Furthermore, these systems with hot giant planets are very unlike our own solar system, whose innermost worlds are small, rocky and comparatively far from the sun.
However, the predicted abundance of interstellar objects implies that the architecture of our outer solar system, at least, may be fairly regular.
Recipe for an interstellar object This ejection mechanism would explain conventional interstellar comets such as Borisov.
However, 'Oumuamua was anything but conventional. Its shape was most likely that of a flattened, disk-like sliver, rather than that of a long shard as was initially suggested. We have seen a somewhat similarly-shaped body in the form of Arrokoth, the Kuiper Belt object that NASA's New Horizons spacecraft flew past on New Year's Day 2019.
A New Horizons image of the Kuiper Belt object dubbed Arrokoth. (Image credit: NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Southwest Research Institute)
However, most comets are not shaped like 'Oumuamua or Arrokoth. In addition, 'Oumuamua didn't have a comet's signature coma, the "atmosphere" around the comet's main body. Moreover, its acceleration changed as though it were being pushed by outgassing that was typical of a comet, even though astronomers couldn't detect any outgassing.
Unconventional explanations aside, one hypothesis that Laughlin likes is the idea that 'Oumuamua was a chunk of solid hydrogen ice. The only location where such an object could form would be in the cold core of a dense molecular cloud of gas. Such clouds, once they are gravitationally destabilized, become the birthplaces of stars, but are they cold enough to form a chunk of solid hydrogen like 'Oumuamua?
"If the hydrogen-ice theory were true, then all of 'Oumuamua's properties would be straightforwardly explained," Laughlin said. The theory suggests that 'Oumuamua would have formed inside a molecular cloud as a much larger object that became whittled down over time. Laughlin likes to draw the analogy of a bar of soap, which begins life as thick block, but after numerous washes it reduces to a thin oblate sliver — the same shape as 'Oumuamua.
"The problem with this theory is that it's very hard to get the environment cold enough so that molecular hydrogen freezes out quickly enough," Laughlin said. Molecular hydrogen freezes at about 14 kelvin — that's 14 degrees above absolute zero, or minus 434 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 259 degrees Celsius). The cores of molecular clouds can reach similar temperatures, but the conditions would have to be just right for the hydrogen to condense quickly into a solid, and it’s not clear how regularly those conditions occur. However, if they are common, then "'Oumuamua would have been something that was assembled before star and planet formation in its cloud took place," Laughlin said.
One piece of supporting evidence for this lies in 'Oumuamua's path through space before it arrived at our solar system. Astronomers have traced it back and found that, 45 million years ago, 'Oumuamua would have been in the same spot where a giant molecular cloud would have been about to form the stars of the Carina moving group.
A dearth of interstellar objects If indeed 'Oumuamua were a hydrogen iceberg, or even if it was just some freak of nature ejected from a planetary system like Borisov was, then surely space should be filled with more of these visitors from far-off stars. Do astronomers find it surprising that besides 'Oumuamua and Borisov, we have yet to discover any other interstellar interlopers?
When 'Oumuamua was found in 2017, astronomer Dave Jewitt of the University of California, Los Angeles, who co-discovered the first Kuiper Belt object in 1992 alongside Jane Luu, predicted that there were in the range of 10,000 interstellar interlopers in our solar system at any one time, based on the likelihood of discovering 'Oumuamua when we did.
That estimate still holds, he told Space.com. However, Jewitt admits that he was surprised that Borisov came along so quickly after 'Oumuamua, and is "disappointed that we haven't had another one since."
Laughlin is still clinging to the most optimistic scenario regarding the numbers of interstellar interlopers, but only just. The current dearth of interstellar objects "is not quite surprising yet, but it's starting to become surprising," he said. Based on the current discovery rate of just two in five years, he said that current estimates of the abundance of such objects should be halved.
Jewitt, however, points out that finding interstellar interlopers is difficult, even if they are visiting our solar system in vast swarms.
"Those 10,000 objects are spread over the whole volume inside Neptune's orbit, and none of them will be detectable unless they pass close to the Earth, just as 'Oumuamua was only noticed for those reasons," he said.
However, the Vera C. Rubin Observatory in Chile will begin observing by the middle of this decade. With its 8.4-meter, wide-field survey telescope, it will embark on the Legacy Survey of Space and Time (LSST) and, if predictions hold true, it is expected to discover at least one interstellar interloper every year.
(Scientists are already better poised to understand these objects than they were five years ago. With the James Webb Space Telescope now up and running, astronomers have a powerful tool for studying these objects that wasn't available when 'Oumuamua was cutting its course through the solar system.)
"If objects like 'Oumuamua are discovered in short order by Rubin–LSST, then that's pointing to a large population of Neptune-like planets," Laughlin said. "But if it finds no such objects, then the degree to which 'Oumuamua was unusual will become more and more pronounced."
Follow Keith Cooper on Twitter @21stCenturySETI. Follow us on Twitter @Spacedotcom and on Facebook.
A strange Cosmic object was flying past our planet and no one had the slightest clue 5 days later the interstellar object was on its way out of the solar system when Robert Warwick an astronomer at the University of Hawaii at Manoa spotted it. It was from the moment of its discovery a weird object, weird orbit, weird speed, and weird properties, the strange object was called Oumuamua, the first known Interstellar object to visit the solar system but here is the thing astronomers had only 11 days to observe the odd visitor. Have Aliens Found Us? Scientists’ Discovery of a Mysterious Interstellar Visitor
A few months later, another collaboration found that ’Oumuamua wasn’t just being pulled by the sun’s gravity. Instead, it was being slightly accelerated by an unseen force, which they argued could only be attributed to comet “outgassing” acting like a thruster. With this additional information, the case appeared to be closed. “Interstellar asteroid is really a comet,” read the headline of a press release put out by the European Space Agency.
The explanation seemed to fit with what we know about our own solar system. In the distant reaches beyond Neptune, countless comets orbit our sun. Anytime one of these comets gets too close to a planet, it could be ejected out into the galaxy. In contrast, there are far fewer asteroids in the asteroid belt, and they orbit closer to the sun, where they’re harder to knock into interstellar space. “There are more comets, and it’s easier to fling them away from a planetary system,” said Ann-Marie Madigan, an astrophysicist at the University of Colorado, Boulder. “For the first interstellar traveler that we see in our solar system, for that to be an asteroid, would be shocking.”
Yet comets have tails. And ’Oumuamua, if it was indeed made out of icy rock and propelled by jets of gas as it passed by the sun, should have displayed a tail that would settle the question of its origin. Yet no tail was ever found.
But of all the possible candidate star systems, none provided a match. ’Oumuamua’s trajectory was at least two light-years away from all the candidates anyway — too far for them to be its source. And if ’Oumuamua got launched hundreds of millions of years ago, all the local stars will have shifted quite a bit since then. “It’s unlikely you’d ever be able to track it back to a single individual parent system, which is a shame, but it’s just the way things are,” said Alan Jackson, an astronomer at the University of Toronto.
Ultimately the transient nature of the observations has frustrated astronomers’ ability to solve the mystery of our first interstellar guest. “We had only a few weeks, with almost no planning, to make the observations,” said Matthew Knight, an astronomer at the University of Maryland. “Everybody’s trying to wring out every last bit of information they can from what data we were able to collect as a community.” Had ’Oumuamua been spotted earlier, or had Hurricane Maria not taken Puerto Rico’s Arecibo Observatory out of action, astronomers would have more to go on.
And although ’Oumuamua was the first visitor from outside the solar system, astronomers will soon have more to puzzle over. Estimates are that the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, scheduled for “first light” in 2021 in Chile, could find as many as one such object every year for a decade.
“What I hope ’Oumuamua brings home is that planetary systems grow and evolve. They create trillions of little planetesimals throughout the galaxy, and some of those will come and visit us every once and a while,” Bannister said. “Our planetesimals are no doubt visiting other stars.”
Have Aliens Found Us? Scientists’ Discovery of a Mysterious Interstellar Visitor
It seems to me that there are "forces in our solar system that we do not know about or understand" and the astronomers are utilizing too much guesswork about the origin of Oumuamua and the unknown forces that may make it speed up or slow down (whether rock or spacecraft).(Joe) Is the Oumuamua space rock an alien spaceship or probe?
A: Just wait a bit longer and all will become clear.
Q: (Joe) It's funny because they've been talking about it again and again. The speeding up and slowing down was reported by these Harvard people at the beginning of this year. They started talking about it again. So they keep bringing it up.
A: Recall that a spacecraft leaving your solar system experienced the same effect though at a greater distance?
Q: (L) And what spacecraft was that?
(Scottie) I don't remember exactly. Voyager or something? I remember reading about how it was speeding up and slowing down and they didn't know why.
(L) So it happened to our spacecraft against its programming. I guess what you're trying to say is that possibly the same effects that were acting on the Earth-based spacecraft that was sent out were also acting on this rock. So, it's not evidence of its alien source, but more evidence of some kind of forces in our solar system that we do not know about or understand. Is that what you're trying to say?
Q: (Pierre) Any object - spacecraft or rock - will experience the same anomalies.
(L) There are things out there that we just don't know about.
(Joe) And it could be related to its shape and size. It's an unusual shape and size. It's very flat and thin.
(L) But just because it was speeding up or slowing down doesn't mean it's an alien craft. Okay, next?
(Artemis) Astronomical phenomena... Didn't they recently broadcast that aliens or UFOs are now real or something like that? Is that related?
A: Yes. Clever you are!