Rising fluxes of cosmic rays inside the solar system


FOTCM Member
Interesting point about tempo and frequency, Dennis.

I'm reminded of the 'rare one-two punch' solar flares. A quick look online shows that they have occurred in 2011 and 2014.

For a basic idea of what scientists say about them, the following is a report from the one in 2014:
By Becky Oskin, Senior Writer
September 12, 2014

The sun launched back-to-back solar flares directly at Earth this week, but the resulting geomagnetic storms pose little danger, officials said today (Sept. 11).

A strong X1.6-class solar flare erupted Wednesday at 1:46 p.m. ET from a sunspot more than 10 times the size of Earth, jetting out billions of tons of charged particles. The same sunspot also blasted out a minor solar flare on Monday.

Both eruptions of superheated solar plasma, called coronal mass ejections, came from sunspot AR2158. The sunspot, which is centered in the middle of the sun, aimed the CMEs directly toward Earth.

Two solar flares in quick succession are relatively rare, said Tom Berger, director at the Space Weather Prediction Center, operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). [Sun Storm: See Images of the Amazing Solar Flares]

While the worst effects are predicted to miss Earth, scientists are worried about the combined potential of the two solar storms. Wednesday's powerful CME is speeding through space at 2.5 million mph (4 million km/h), catching up on the slower particle stream from Monday's smaller flare. The first solar storm will hit tonight, and the major solar storm will arrive late Friday morning, Berger said. There is a slight chance that interactions between the incoming particles and Earth's magnetic field could intensify the storm's power.

"The coupling is the holy grail," said Bill Murtagh, program coordinator at the Space Weather Prediction Center. "The sun just shot out a magnet, and that's going to interact with the Earth's magnetic field. How they couple determines how intense the geomagnetic storm is, and there's a lot of uncertainties until it hits."

Here is the most likely scenario: Earth will experience minor disruptions, such as fluctuations in power lines, radio signals and satellite transmissions, Berger said. Utilities and other operators have already been warned.

Near the poles, where the particles clash most strongly with Earth's magnetic fields, airlines may divert planes, because of interruptions in communications and an increased risk of radiation exposure.

There is no radiation risk to people on the ground, Berger said. Nor does the geomagnetic storm pose a threat to electronics on the ground, such as computers and phones, he added. Astronauts aboard the International Space Station are also safe from the incoming CMEs.

More pleasantly, the solar storm will trigger spectacular auroral displays on Friday night, Murtagh said. In the United States, the northern lights could dance in the sky as far south as Oregon, South Dakota, the Great Lakes region and New England.

The unusual pair of solar flares comes as the sun is nearing the peak of its 11-year cycle, when sunspots and solar storms become more frequent. The powerful Sept. 10 eruption generated a shock wave that reached Earth Wednesday night, interrupting high-frequency radio transmissions and creating static on shortwave radios.

Sunspot AR2158 is a complex tangle of magnetic fields, fueling it with the energy to produce several solar flares. The sunspot was not particularly powerful for the year or the century, however. "By historical standards, this was not very large, but it packed a pretty good punch," Berger said. "This may be its swan song, however, because it's now in the process of breaking up."


I'm not sure if this is related, but supernovas are also noted as having a one-two punch effect:
A supernova, on the other hand, delivers a one-two punch, the researchers said. The explosion immediately bathes Earth with damaging UV, X-rays and gamma rays. Later, the blast of supernova debris slams into the solar system, subjecting the planet to long-lived irradiation from cosmic rays accelerated by the supernova. The damage to Earth and its ozone layer can last for up to 100,000 years.

Added: I'm also reminded of this experiment, published recently:


To break the hearts of those hoping it'll fly us to Proxima Centauri and back in time for tea, this superluminal travel is well within the laws of physics. Sorry.

A photon's speed is locked in place by the weave of electrical and magnetic fields referred to as electromagnetism. There's no getting around that, but pulses of photons within narrow frequencies also jostle in ways that create regular waves.

The rhythmic rise and fall of whole groups of light waves moves through stuff at a rate described as group velocity, and it's this 'wave of waves' that can be tweaked to slow down or speed up, depending on the electromagnetic conditions of its surrounds.

By stripping electrons away from a stream of hydrogen and helium ions with a laser, the researchers were able to change the group velocity of light pulses sent through them by a second light source, putting the brakes on or streamlining them by adjusting the gas's ratio and forcing the pulse's features to change shape.

The overall effect was due to refraction from the plasma's fields and the polarized light from the primary laser used to strip them down. The individual light waves still zoomed along at their usual pace, even as their collective dance appeared to accelerate. [...]
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Jedi Master
I'm on to something that I just realized that has baffled me for a few years. I'll spare you the personal story although its meaningful to me, but the indication is to understand something called Unified Oscillating Field (UOF).
unified oscillating field


The Living Force
FOTCM Member
by Brian K. Sullivan, Bloomberg News

A few days ago, millions of tons of super-heated gas shot off from the surface of the sun and hurtled 90 million miles toward Earth.

The eruption, called a coronal mass ejection, wasn't particularly powerful on the space-weather scale, but when it hit the Earth's magnetic field it triggered the strongest geomagnetic storm seen for years. There wasn't much disruption this time—few people probably even knew it happened—but it served as a reminder the sun has woken from a yearslong slumber.

While invisible and harmless to anyone on the Earth's surface, the geomagnetic waves unleashed by solar storms can cripple power grids, jam radio communications, bathe airline crews in dangerous levels of radiation and knock critical satellites off kilter. The sun began a new 11-year cycle last year and as it reaches its peak in 2025 the specter of powerful space weather creating havoc for humans grows, threatening chaos in a world that has become ever more reliant on technology since the last big storms hit 17 years ago. A recent study suggested hardening the grid could lead to $27 billion worth of benefits to the U.S. power industry.

"It is still remarkable to me the number of people, companies, who think space weather is Hollywood fiction," said Caitlin Durkovich, a special assistant to President Joe Biden and senior director of resilience and response in the National Security Council, during a talk at a solar-weather conference last month.

The danger isn't hypothetical. In 2017, a solar storm caused ham radios to turn to static just as the Category 5 Hurricane Irma was ripping through the Caribbean. In 2015, solar storms knocked out global positioning systems in the U.S. Northeast, a particular concern as self-driving cars become a reality. Airline pilots are at greater risk of developing cataracts when solar storms hit. Female crew see higher rates of miscarriages.

In March 1989, a solar storm over Quebec caused a province-wide outage that lasted nine hours, according to Hydro-Quebec's website. A 2017 paper in the journal of the American Geophysical Union predicted blackouts caused by severe space weather could strike as much as 66% of the U.S. population, with economic losses reaching a potential $41.5 billion a day.

To head off such a catastrophe, President Barack Obama's administration laid out a strategy to begin raising awareness of the dangers of massive solar storms and to asses the risks they pose. Last year, President Donald Trump signed the ProSwift bill into law, which aims to build up technology to improve forecasting and measurement of space weather events.

There's debate among scientists about how much can be done to shield vulnerable parts of the planet's infrastructure from the effects of solar storms. Steps such as using non-magnetic steel in transformers and installing more surge protectors in the grid could bolster resistance, but in the end the best defense against catastrophe might be better forecasting.

That would go a long way toward helping utilities prepare for shortages and making sure there are paths to back up their systems in case they lose power. In weeks, a new model developed by the University of Michigan will come online to help improve Earth-bound forecasting.

In the U.K., National Grid is building up its supply of spare transformers and conducting regular drills to deal with a major space weather event, said Mark Prouse, deputy director of the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy, a ministerial department.

Within the past 15 years, the U.S. and U.K. have built space weather forecasting centers that deliver daily outlooks on what may be coming from the sun for airlines, power grids, satellite owners and anyone else threatened by solar flares. While Earth-bound observers can see explosive storms erupt on the sun, they can't tell the true nature of the threat—exactly how potent it is—until the blast reaches a set of satellites 1 million miles from the planet. At that point, there is only 60 to 90 minutes until it hits Earth.

"Our ability to understand and predict the solar cycle is still very limited," said William Murtagh, director of the U.S. Space Weather Prediction Center.

Just as utilities can prepare for a severe thunderstorm by staging repair workers nearby, similar precautions could be taken ahead of a solar storm, according to Mark Olson, the reliability assessment manager for the North America Electric Reliability Corp., a nonprofit answerable to the U.S. and Canadian governments.

"You have the potential for very large areas to have voltage instability," Olson said. "Situational awareness is the key here, just like in terrestrial weather events."

Solar storms have their roots in an 11-year cycle that shifts the polarity of the sun's magnetic field. The magnetic forces at work on the sun get tangled during the process, and can punch out through the surface, sending the sun's plasma into outer space and potentially triggering storms on Earth.

The most powerful geomagnetic storm ever recorded resulted in the 1859 Carrington Event, when telegraph lines electrified, zapping operators and setting offices ablaze in North America and Europe. If a storm of that magnitude were to hit today, it would likely cut power to millions of not billions of people.

"When I first started on this road and was briefed on space weather I raised an eyebrow," said Prouse. "It is much more mainstream and some of the mystification is gone. You can now raise it as a risk and not get laughed at."



The Living Force
FOTCM Member
There is some activity going on our Sun lately. In fact I don't know if that's true but for 3-5 days I was feeling pretty low on energy level, the period during which a few CME were heading and hitting the earth.

Pretty often I'm following the SuspiciousObservers channel on YouTube for updates on Sun's activity, very helpful in keeping an eye on what's happening out there.


Dagobah Resident
The C and even M class flares from May 22th an onwards that where to arrive at earth on 25th/26th arrived late at 26th with little impact (In contrast to the smaller solar events on May 12th that had greater impact than expected)

The sun is still firing, with a C7 and C9 in the last 2 days

What's interesting are radio and proton events that I saw this morning:
The proton flux (not the electron or x-ray flux) is something that I never saw changing much and I always wondered what it is/means. Searching 'how rare are proton events' comes up with a pdf by NASA that looks interesting, but I didn't read it yet:

The frequency distribution of solar proton events - NASA



Jedi Master
Space weather events apparently can climb the periodic table, sending the nuclei sans electrons.

HZE ions are the high-energy nuclei component of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) which have an electric charge greater than +2. The abbreviation "HZE" comes from high (H) atomic number (Z) and energy (E). HZE ions include the nuclei of all elements heavier than hydrogen (which has a +1 charge) and helium (which has a +2 charge). Each HZE ion consists of a nucleus with no orbiting electrons, meaning that the charge on the ion is the same as the atomic number of the nucleus.

HZE ions are rare compared to protons, for example, composing only 1% of GCRs versus 85% for protons.[1] HZE ions, like other GCRs, travel near the speed of light. Their source is likely to be supernova explosions.[2]

In addition to the HZE ions from cosmic sources, HZE ions are produced by the Sun. During solar flares and other solar storms, HZE ions are sometimes produced in small amounts along with the more typical protons,[3] but their energy level is substantially smaller than HZE ions from cosmic rays.[2]

Space radiation is composed mostly of high-energy protons, helium nuclei, and high-Z high-energy ions (HZE ions). The ionization patterns in molecules, cells, tissues, and the resulting biological harm are distinct from high-energy photon radiation—x-rays and gamma rays, which produce low-linear energy transfer (low-LET) radiation from secondary electrons. While in space, astronauts are exposed to protons, helium nuclei, and HZE ions, as well as secondary radiation from nuclear reactions from spacecraft parts or tissue.[4]

Prominent HZE ions:



Dagobah Resident
Here is the respective message from a news ticker (SIDC)
FAST WARNING 'PRESTO' MESSAGE from the SIDC (RWC-Belgium) 2021 May 29

A proton event started around 0h UT on May 29, and the greater than 10 MeV
proton flux reached a maximum of about 16 pfu around 03:20 UT. Proton flux
levels have gone below the 10 pfu threshold and are decreasing further.

This event is associated with a C9.4 flare produced by beta-gamma region
NOAA 2824 which peaked at 23:13 UT on May 28, and with a CME towards the
West first observed in LASCO C2 imagery at 23:12 UT. Pending further
investigation of CME speed and properties, a preliminary speed estimate of
2087 km/s was obtained by a Type II radio burst.

The proton event is finished, but there is a chance for further proton
events in the next 48 hours.

United Gnosis

Jedi Council Member
We're still in the early phase of the sun waking up towards the solar maximum, so I'm filtering out any breathless reporting instantly. By now, the sun has worked its way up C-class flares, is starting to sputter at the bottom of M-class. Things will get 100x more heated in a couple years.

What is interesting to me, though, is how different cycle 25 is to 24 in terms of earth-facing solar quiet. Watching cycle 24, the sun felt conscious, as if it was purposefully shutting down its flaring activity on the earth-facing disk, often going as far as resorbing sunspots that came to center-disk only to grow them back after they had passed the earth. It was eerie. Meanwhile, cycle 25 sunspots have been quite different, unmuted by facing angle. The sunspot that just faced us last week has been sputtering the entire time and left us with an off-axis bang. Nothing out of scale, but earth-facing solar quiet is indeed over for cycle 25.


Jedi Master
Maybe related to a minor spike in solar energy ? Apparently all these websites are funneled through a single hosting entity called Fastly.

"Countless popular websites including Reddit, Spotify, Twitch, Stack Overflow, GitHub, gov.uk, Hulu, HBO Max, Quora, PayPal, Vimeo, Shopify, and news outlets CNN, the Guardian, the New York Times, BBC, Financial Times are currently facing an outage. A glitch at Fastly, a popular CDN provider, is thought to be the reason, according to a product manager at Financial Times. Fastly has confirmed it’s facing an outage on its status website," said TechCrunch.


The Living Force
FOTCM Member
A recent article from NASA as Cosmic Rays continue to spike, (possibly causing damage to earth orbiting and deep space satellite's.

June 25, 2021 - NASA Completes Additional Tests to Diagnose Computer Problem on Hubble Space Telescope

NASA is continuing to diagnose a problem with the payload computer on the Hubble Space Telescope after completing another set of tests on June 23 and 24. The payload computer halted on June 13 and the spacecraft stopped collecting science data. The telescope itself and its science instruments remain in good health and are currently in a safe configuration.

The spacecraft has two payload computers, one of which serves as a backup, that are located on the Science Instrument and Command and Data Handling (SI C&DH) unit. There are various pieces of hardware which make up both payload computers, including but not limited to:
  • a Central Processing Module (CPM), which processes the commands that coordinate and control the science instruments
  • a Standard Interface (STINT), which bridges communications between the computer’s CPM and other components
  • a communications bus, which contains lines that pass signals and data between hardware
  • and one active memory module, which stores operational commands to the instruments. There are three additional modules which serve as backups.
Additional tests performed on June 23 and 24 included turning on the backup computer for the first time in space. The tests showed that numerous combinations of these hardware pieces from both the primary and backup payload computer all experienced the same error - commands to write into or read from memory were not successful.

Since it is highly unlikely that all individual hardware elements have a problem, the team is now looking at other hardware as the possible culprit, including the Command Unit/Science Data Formatter (CU/SDF), another module on the SI C&DH. The CU formats and sends commands and data to specific destinations, including the science instruments. The SDF formats the science data from the science instruments for transmission to the ground. The team is also looking at the power regulator to see if possibly the voltages being supplied to hardware are not what they should be. A power regulator ensures a steady constant voltage supply. If the voltage is out of limits, it could cause the problems observed.

Over the next week, the team will continue to assess hardware on the SI C&DH unit to identify if something else may be causing the problem. If the team determines the CU/SDF or the power regulator is the likely cause, they will recommend switching to the backup CU/SDF module and the backup power regulator.

Launched in 1990, Hubble has been observing the universe for over 31 years. It has contributed to some of the most significant discoveries of our cosmos, including the accelerating expansion of the universe, the evolution of galaxies over time, and the first atmospheric studies of planets beyond our solar system. Read more about some of Hubble’s key scientific contributions.

Unique use of ESA spacecraft 'housekeeping' data reveals cosmic ray behavior
by Staff Writers Paris (ESA) June 29, 2021
Using data originally gathered for spacecraft 'housekeeping' aboard ESA's Rosetta and Mars Express missions, scientists have revealed how intense bursts of high-energy radiation, known as cosmic rays, behave at Mars and throughout the inner Solar System.

Housekeeping data are gathered by most spacecraft and components, and is used by engineering teams to monitor spacecraft health and diagnose faults (by logging parameters such as component health and 'on/off' status, for example). Such data could be linked to scientifically interesting phenomena, and so represent a valuable science resource that remains mostly unexplored.

Objects in space are regularly hit by charged particles that stream in from the wider Milky Way, including cosmic rays. Cosmic rays can cause electronic damage if they hit space hardware and threaten human health on crewed missions to Earth orbit, when astronauts are less protected from radiation by our planet's atmosphere. The threat posed by cosmic rays will be even greater for crewed missions that will venture further into space, for example to the Moon and Mars.

To keep tabs on spacecraft health, space missions log when cosmic rays hit an onboard computer and cause memory errors - something known as Error Detection And Correction, or EDAC.

"Mars Express has been collecting these measurements since launch. We accessed data collected since 2005, giving us an amazing 15-year dataset spanning almost the entire mission lifetime - a real rarity," says Elise Wright Knutsen, lead author of the new study, formerly a trainee at ESA's European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC), and now at LATMOS/IPSL, France.

A few factors influence the intensity of cosmic rays we see in the Solar System, including where we are in the Sun's periodic 11-year activity cycle, and distance from the Sun. "We were able to explore the Sun-cosmic ray relationship in detail thanks to EDAC data from two prominent ESA missions: Mars Express and Rosetta," says Elise. "This is the first time EDAC data have been used in this way - it's been used before to explore short-term solar events, but never in the longer term."

Elise and colleagues used EDAC data from the two missions to characterize how cosmic ray behavior changed throughout our Sun's cycle of activity at Mars (by comparing Mars Express EDAC data to corresponding data on sunspots and from Earth-based monitoring), and to reveal how the amount of cosmic rays detected in the inner Solar System varies with distance from the Sun (by comparing EDAC data from both Rosetta and Mars Express). Rosetta orbited around the Solar System for 10 years - at its farthest reaching beyond the orbit of Jupiter - before arriving at its target comet, collecting data over a wide range of distances from the Sun

"We found that cosmic rays behave very similarly with respect to the Sun at Mars as they do at Earth, and are strongly influenced by the solar cycle," adds Elise. "As the Sun grows more active and hosts more sunspots, we see fewer cosmic rays, as our star deflects more of them. However, this 'anti-correlation' is seen around 5.5 months later - it isn't immediate - and the reason for this time lag remains an intriguing open question."

Comparing the EDAC measurements from Mars Express and Rosetta also showed that cosmic ray counts increase by around 5% per 'astronomical unit (AU)', with one AU being the distance between the Earth and the Sun.

In situ data, especially science data, is rare in much of the Solar System, and observations of the radiation around other planetary bodies are relatively sparse. Although spacecraft do not carry out routine science observations as they cruise through space en route to their destination, they are always collecting housekeeping data.

"This study emphasizes the immense value of archiving this kind of data, and is a great example of using a spacecraft itself as a scientific instrument," says ESA planetary scientist Olivier Witasse, co-author. "This approach allows us to do science without a spacecraft's core research instruments even being switched on - a particularly relevant and exciting option for long interplanetary cruises, when instruments often lie dormant as they await the mission ahead.

"We can potentially use any and all spacecraft in this way, not just those equipped with particular sensors. This opens up a new realm of possibility for both current and forthcoming ESA missions to discover even more about the space environment."

The range of distances to the Sun covered by EDAC observations is expanding with ESA's Gaia, BepiColombo and upcoming Juice (JUpiter ICy moons Explorer) missions.

Research Report: "Galactic cosmic ray modulation at Mars and beyond measured with EDACs on Mars Express and Rosetta"


The Living Force

The massive solar flare is expected to hit satellites operating in the Earth’s upper atmosphere, impact GPS navigation, mobile phone signal and satellite TV.​

July 13, 2021 10:11 IST

The largest storms that result from these conditions are associated with solar Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs). (Photo: Nasa)

Weeks after a powerful solar flare created a blackout over the Atlantic, a solar storm is headed towards Earth likely to hit the planet on Tuesday and Wednesday. Dubbed as a geomagnetic storm, the high-speed stream of solar wind is expected to hit Earth's magnetic field as weather forecasters issue warnings.

Generated at an equatorial hole that has recently popped up in the Sun’s atmosphere, it could lead to auroras on the poles as it strikes with Earth's magnetic field.
The massive solar flare is expected to hit satellites operating in the Earth’s upper atmosphere, impacting GPS navigation, mobile phone signals and satellite TV. The flares also have the potential of affecting power grids in some parts of the world. Experts also fear that the strong winds may trigger a geomagnetic storm in Earth's magnetosphere.


A geomagnetic storm is a major disturbance of Earth's magnetosphere that occurs when there is a very efficient exchange of energy from the solar wind into the space environment surrounding Earth. According to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the storm is the result of major changes in the currents, plasmas produced by solar winds. However, to create a geomagnetic storm, a solar wind has to sustain high speeds for a long period of time, which transfers the energy of the wind into Earth's magnetic field.


The explosion was generated at an equatorial hole that has recently popped up in the Sun’s atmosphere.
The largest storms that result from these conditions are associated with solar Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) where billions of tons of plasma from the Sun are hurtled towards planets that also reach Earth. While coronal mass ejections take days to arrive at Earth, some have been observed to arrive within 15-18 hours of being ejected from the Sun.


The Sun had recently ejected one of the biggest solar flares observed in over four years that caused a radio blackout over the Atlantic. The X-class solar flare ionized the top of Earth's atmosphere, causing a shortwave radio blackout over the Atlantic Ocean.


The Sun recently generated the biggest solar flare in over four years.
A solar flare is a sudden, rapid, and intense explosion on the surface of the Sun that happens when massive amounts of energy stored in magnetic fields are suddenly released. The explosion emits radiation across the length and breadth of the universe, hurtling them towards planets in the solar system. These radiations contain radio waves, x-rays and gamma rays.
While studies to understand and predict such ejections have been ongoing, Isro had recently observed around 100 microflares, providing new insights about coronal mass heating on the Sun.
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The Living Force
Two Powerful Solar Events Erupted From The Sun. They Both Missed Earth, And We Are Very Lucky They Did. The Solar Maximum Is Building Now, And Earth's Magnetic Field Continues Weakening



The Living Force
FOTCM Member
Two Powerful Solar Events Erupted From The Sun. They Both Missed Earth, And We Are Very Lucky They Did. The Solar Maximum Is Building Now, And Earth's Magnetic Field Continues Weakening

Even a recent minor coronal mass ejection made its presence felt as Earth's magnetic field weakens. Some excerpts from Electoverse article (my emphases in bold):

Minor CME leads to geomagnetic storm: Grid failure all but guaranteed by 2024

The sun may have been quiet over the past week or so, but that didn't stop our planet's magnetic field allowing a minor CME to break its defenses and push the indexes into geomagnetic storm territory.

A minor coronal mass ejection (CME) erupted on the sun a few days ago, and, as expected, it impacted Earth on August 3; however, what wasn't forecast by the observers at NOAA and NASA was the event sparking a geomagnetic storm.

The event was barely a blip as far the telemetry was concerned.

..."I have never seen a geomagnetic storm when the plasma speed is 300km/sec," says David (Diamond) Mauriello of the ORP, yet what we saw was a storm lasting approx. 3 hours, with geomagnetic instability lasting a further 9 hours.

...In years past, we've been accustomed to far stronger CMEs having far smaller impacts on the field, with many not even producing a storm at all.

The fact that this 'nothing event' led to such violent heavenly perturbations leads one to assume that Earth's magnetic field has weakened further, far beyond the latest official datapoint from 2017.

These are changing times in our space environment.

"This spells very bad news," continues Mauriello.

Soon after the 'hit', electrical problems began peppering the news feeds.

Electric glitches and fires both go up tenfold during space weather impacts, and this is what we saw again on August 3.

But this was a 'nothing event' — our planet's magnetic field should have coped much better with such a tiny impact.

And while Tuesday's KP5 event isn't scary in of itself, the fact that Earth's ever-waning magnetosphere (due to its shifting magnetic poles and the onset of the next GSM) couldn't handle such a weak solar event is the number one cause for concern for our modern tech-driven civilization: Earth's magnetic field is weaker than we've all realized.

...Given the last solid data point we have -that of 2010- our magnetic field should have handled this week's impact far better.

"The magnetic shield is now so weak that it can be perturbed in such an extreme way by such a minor event," adds Mauriello.

"Based on what just occurred, very bad things are going to happen on this planet.

"Any large flare that heads our way is a grid down scenario," concludes Mauriello.

...As I've been warning for years now, the sun's ramp-up into Solar Cycle 25 occurring in line with Earth's drastically reducing magnetic field is the biggest threat we humans have faced in hundreds -potentially thousands- of years, particularly given how completely and utterly technologically-dependent the vast majority of this planets' 8 billion inhabitants are.

When that earth-facing X-flare hits -which is a matter of 'when' and not 'if'- there will be no more internet, no more 'how-tos' on YouTube, no more just in time deliveries, no more food, no more law and order; just chaos — and we'll be on our own to survive.

This scenario has more than a 50 percent chance of playing out by the solar maximum of SC25 (currently expected in the year 2024), with localized grid failures all but guaranteed by then.

Full article here.

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