Then all your flies and green stinkbugs migrated to Hungary (West of Ukraine), because we had just sort of a "locust invasion" of all of those. Our apricot tree was swarmed by them. They diligently sucked on the raspberries en masse, brown, green and blackish smaller stinkbug beasts as well! Dunno why were the apricots a "secret base" for them, because they were occupying the fruits, like bees guarding the nest.One quite startling difference I noticed in the years spring, summer and autumn was the lack of flies. All spring/summer I hardly saw/noticed any flesh flies of any size or description, while I saw/noticed no fruit flies at all the whole year
Ice Age Theory
I'm thinking about winter and the snow it brings, and one thing about winter this far north in Alaska, is snow generally falls in the 20°F - 30°F range - any colder then the precipitation cycle is itself frozen. And when it gets real cold, frost clings to the trees. So, for snow to fall in great quantities, something must put all that moisture in the air - because of the suns radiance, it finds its way to a cold front and falls as snow.
So all is within this variance of climate cycles. And it is constant. 24 hour day. A rotation around the sun, geography, the season, ect.
So, volcanoes can account for cooling - putting ash in the atmosphere and blocking the sun. But with cooling comes less radiance and evaporation.
But a meteor impact on an ocean can put into the atmosphere all the water and conditions needed for a ice age to start. And so, an ice age is a result of a large impact. And as bad as the weather has been getting, it is still in variance and will swing to the extremes, but not be the cause of a ice age.
So the theory is - ice age science is the study of meteor impact aftermath more than climatology. The climate slowly erodes the effect by its cyclical permanence.
In the western part of our country, where most of the Chernobyl radiation made a landfall, I noticed super large corn, potatoes and XXL-sized mosquitoes: if they got someone, their bite was ugly and left a dark purple mark, big as the small one dollar coin. The bite looked worrisome, like a festering zombie bite.As for mosquitoes - there isn't much of them here. Here and there...
But, the ones I saw this year are like 3x bigger than normal ones! I was really surprised by the size of them! Haven´t seen mosquitoes that big before this year - ever!
Ocean GyresThermohaline circulation (THC) is a part of the large-scale ocean circulation that is driven by global density gradients created by surface heat and freshwater fluxes. The adjective thermohaline derives from thermo- referring to temperature and -haline referring to salt content, factors which together determine the density of sea water.
The Gulf Stream is one of the above ocean gyres.In oceanography, a gyre (/ˈdʒaɪər/) is any large system of circulating ocean currents, particularly those involved with large wind movements. Gyres are caused by the Coriolis effect; planetary vorticity, horizontal friction and vertical friction determine the circulatory patterns from the wind stress curl (torque).
Gyre can refer to any type of vortex in an atmosphere or a sea, even one that is human-created, but it is most commonly used in terrestrial oceanography to refer to the major ocean systems.
The circulation of the ocean currents, and the Gulf Stream is described in Earth Changes and the Human-Cosmic Connection in chapter 27 and 28.The Gulf Stream, together with its northern extension the North Atlantic Drift, is a warm and swift Atlantic ocean current that originates in the Gulf of Mexico and stretches to the tip of Florida and follows the eastern coastlines of the United States and Newfoundland before crossing the Atlantic Ocean as the North Atlantic Current.
The North Atlantic Oscillation
There are of course a number of other currents in the air and in the oceans, but the above gives an idea.The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is a weather phenomenon over the North Atlantic Ocean of fluctuations in the difference of atmospheric pressure at sea level (SLP) between the Icelandic Low and the Azores High. Through fluctuations in the strength of the Icelandic Low and the Azores High, it controls the strength and direction of westerly winds and location of storm tracks across the North Atlantic. The NAO was discovered through several studies in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Unlike the El Niño–Southern Oscillation phenomenon in the Pacific Ocean, the NAO is a largely atmospheric mode. It is one of the most important manifestations of climate fluctuations in the North Atlantic and surrounding humid climates.
Many of these comets may come from the Oort cloud, or perhaps even have interstellar origin. The Oort Cloud is not gravitationally attracted enough to the Sun to form into a fairly thin disk, like the inner Solar System. Thus, comets originating from the Oort Cloud can come from roughly any orientation (inclination to the ecliptic), and many even have a retrograde orbit.
Typically comets in the Oort Cloud are thought to have roughly circular orbits around the Sun, but their orbital velocity is so slow that they may easily be perturbed by passing stars and the galactic tide. Astronomers have been discovering weakly hyperbolic comets that were perturbed out of the Oort Cloud since the mid-1800s.
I'll list them and add comments. The attention of the article lists many factors that affects the climate but weighs them in favor of CO2 emission being the main issue whenever possible. Even asteroid impacts are discussed with regard to CO2, but comets are not mentioned.How Earth’s Climate Changes Naturally (and Why Things Are Different Now)
Earth’s climate has fluctuated through deep time, pushed by these 10 different causes. Here’s how each compares with modern climate change.
Pierre explains in his new book, Cometary Encounters, in the chapter Correlation between Cometary Activity and Volcanic Activity. page 170 how weak solar activity reduces the Earth's binding force, which loosens the tectonic plates, which then are more free to move. It is this movement that leads to earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. With more movement one will have the possibility of more eruptions. See also Earth Changes and the Human-Cosmic Connection chapter 20 and some of the subsequent chapters.Solar Cycles
Magnitude: 0.1 to 0.3 degrees Celsius of cooling
Time frame: 30- to 160-year downturns in solar activity separated by centuries
Every 11 years, the sun’s magnetic field flips, driving an 11-year cycle of solar brightening and dimming. But the variation is small and has a negligible impact on Earth’s climate.
More significant are “grand solar minima,” decades-long periods of reduced solar activity that have occurred 25 times in the last 11,000 years. A recent example, the Maunder minimum, which occurred between 1645 and 1715, saw solar energy drop by 0.04% to 0.08% below the modern average. Scientists long thought the Maunder minimum might have caused the “Little Ice Age,” a cool period from the 15th to the 19th century; they’ve since shown it was too small and occurred at the wrong time to explain the cooling, which probably had more to do with volcanic activity.
We know the above event, but there are other options than the Volcano, though there is more than one candidate, see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extreme_weather_events_of_535–536 In particular the volcano can't explain:Volcanic Sulfur
Magnitude: Approximately 0.6 to 2 degrees Celsius of cooling
Time frame: 1 to 20 years
In the year 539 or 540 A.D., the Ilopango volcano in El Salvador exploded so violently that its eruption plume reached high into the stratosphere. Cold summers, drought, famine and plague devastated societies around the world.
A comet impact or even more, does not exclude volcanic activity. See also chapter 34 in Earth Changes and the Human-Cosmic Connection as well as chapters 20, 22 and 23. If we address the sulfur in general, there is a chapter on the subject in Cometary Encounters, it may not only have volcanic origin or originate with a comet, see p. 152-159. Venus is one example, see p. 193."In 2009, Dallas Abbott of Columbia University's Lamont–Doherty Earth Observatory in New York published evidence from Greenland ice cores that multiple comet impacts may have caused the haze. The spherules found in the ice might originate from terrestrial debris ejected into the atmosphere by an impact event."
Above, it is interesting that he links to a paper that suggests an ice age within the next 1500 years, if it wasn't for the importance attributed to human generated CO2 emissions that will prevent this ice age. In Cometary Encounters, Pierre argues in part 1, in the chapters on "Wandering Geographic Poles" and "Location of Geographic North Pole before Impact" (p37-44) that the positions of the geographic poles are less stable than usually assumed.Short-Term Climate Fluctuations
Magnitude: Up to 0.15 degrees Celsius
Time frame: 2 to 7 years
On top of seasonal weather patterns, there are other short-term cycles that affect rainfall and temperature. The most significant, the El Niño–Southern Oscillation, involves circulation changes in the tropical Pacific Ocean on a time frame of two to seven years that strongly influence rainfall in North America. The North Atlantic Oscillation and the Indian Ocean Dipole also produce strong regional effects. Both of these interact with the El Niño–Southern Oscillation.
Magnitude: Approximately 6 degrees Celsius in the last 100,000-year cycle; varies through geological time
Time frame: Regular, overlapping cycles of 23,000, 41,000, 100,000, 405,000 and 2,400,000 years
Earth’s orbit wobbles as the sun, the moon and other planets change their relative positions. These cyclical wobbles, called Milankovitch cycles, cause the amount of sunlight to vary at middle latitudes by up to 25% and cause the climate to oscillate. These cycles have operated throughout time, yielding the alternating layers of sediment you see in cliffs and road cuts.
During the Pleistocene epoch, which ended about 11,700 years ago, Milankovitch cycles sent the planet in and out of ice ages. When Earth’s orbit made northern summers warmer than average, vast ice sheets across North America, Europe and Asia melted; when the orbit cooled northern summers, those ice sheets grew again. Since warmer oceans dissolve less carbon dioxide, atmospheric carbon dioxide levels rose and fell in concert with these orbital wobbles, amplifying their effects.
Today Earth is approaching another minimum of northern sunlight, so without human carbon dioxide emissions we would be heading into another ice age within the next 1,500 years or so.
[There are illustrations of:
- changes in eccentricity as a 100,000 year cycle.
- axial precession as a 26,000 year cycle
- changes in obliquity as a 41,000 year cycle]
Three kinds of wobble: Earth undergoes cyclical changes in its orbit’s shape, known as eccentricity (top); variations in the direction of the rotational axis, known as precession (middle); and variations in the angle its rotational axis is tilted with respect to the orbital plane, known as obliquity (bottom).
These days, the alleged brightness is of less use, considering articles like Dark days: Earth has 'dimmed' by 0.5% since 2017 and scientists aren't sure why. Next the story that CO2 is the main driver. They clearly operate on the premise that changes are slow, while ignoring any recent cataclysmic events. Both of Pierre's books have comments on CO2 if one checks the index.
Carbon Dioxide and the Weathering Thermostat
Magnitude: Counteracts other changes
Time frame: 100,000 years or longer
The main control knob for Earth’s climate through deep time has been the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, since carbon dioxide is a long-lasting greenhouse gas that blocks heat that tries to rise off the planet.
Volcanoes, metamorphic rocks and the oxidization of carbon in eroded sediments all emit carbon dioxide into the sky, while chemical reactions with silicate minerals remove carbon dioxide and bury it as limestone. The balance between these processes works as a thermostat, because when the climate warms, chemical reactions become more efficient at removing carbon dioxide, putting a brake on the warming. When the climate cools, reactions become less efficient, easing the cooling. Consequently, over the very long term, Earth’s climate has remained relatively stable, providing a habitable environment. In particular, average carbon dioxide levels have declined steadily in response to solar brightening.
However, the weathering thermostat takes hundreds of thousands of years to react to changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide. Earth’s oceans can act somewhat faster to absorb and remove excess carbon, but even that takes millennia and can be overwhelmed, leading to ocean acidification. Each year, the burning of fossil fuels emits about 100 times more carbon dioxide than volcanoes emit — too much too fast for oceans and weathering to neutralize it, which is why our climate is warming and our oceans are acidifying.
And now the elephant in the room, as some of the climatologists clearly do not seem to communicate well with the geologists that have done research into cometary impacts. Below is an example of how an impact is translated mainly into something about CO2.Plate Tectonics
Magnitude: Roughly 30 degrees Celsius over the past 500 million years
Time frame: Millions of years
The rearrangement of land masses on Earth’s crust can slowly shift the weathering thermostat to a new setting.
The planet has generally been cooling for the last 50 million years or so, as plate tectonic collisions thrust up chemically reactive rock like basalt and volcanic ash in the warm, wet tropics, increasing the rate of reactions that draw carbon dioxide from the sky. Additionally, over the last 20 million years, the building of the Himalayas, Andes, Alps and other mountains has more than doubled erosion rates, boosting weathering. Another contributor to the cooling trend was the drifting apart of South America and Tasmania from Antarctica 35.7 million years ago, which initiated a new ocean current around Antarctica. This invigorated ocean circulation and carbon dioxide–consuming plankton; Antarctica’s ice sheets subsequently grew substantially.
Earlier, in the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods, dinosaurs roamed Antarctica because enhanced volcanic activity, in the absence of those mountain chains, sustained carbon dioxide levels around 1,000 parts per million, compared to 415 ppm today. The average temperature of this ice-free world was 5 to 9 degrees Celsius warmer than now, and sea levels were around 250 feet higher.
Magnitude: Approximately 20 degrees Celsius of cooling followed by 5 degrees Celsius of warming (Chicxulub)
Time frame: Centuries of cooling, 100,000 years of warming (Chicxulub)
The Earth Impact Database recognizes 190 craters with confirmed impact on Earth so far. None had any discernable effect on Earth’s climate except for the Chicxulub impact, which vaporized part of Mexico 66 million years ago, killing off the dinosaurs. Computer modeling suggests that Chicxulub blasted enough dust and sulfur into the upper atmosphere to dim sunlight and cool Earth by more than 20 degrees Celsius, while also acidifying the oceans. The planet took centuries to return to its pre-impact temperature, only to warm by a further 5 degrees Celsius, due to carbon dioxide in the atmosphere from vaporized Mexican limestone.
How or whether volcanic activity in India around the same time as the impact exacerbated the climate change and mass extinction remains controversial.
One question to the above model of ancient Earth is: how did the cyanobacteria "arise", not to mention more complex life forms? While CO2 may have been important, given what we know about comets, it would seem, their influence ought to be factored in as well. I also wonder if the Earth has always been in the present orbit around the Sun? Has it always been this close or this far away?Evolutionary Changes
Magnitude: Depends on event; about 5 degrees Celsius cooling in late Ordovician (445 million years ago)
Time frame: Millions of years
Occasionally, the evolution of new kinds of life has reset Earth’s thermostat. Photosynthetic cyanobacteria that arose some 3 billion years ago, for instance, began terraforming the planet by emitting oxygen. As they proliferated, oxygen eventually rose in the atmosphere 2.4 billion years ago, while methane and carbon dioxide levels plummeted. This plunged Earth into a series of “snowball” climates for 200 million years.
The above point is of volcanic nature, and the underlying causative mechanisms mentioned earlier in connection with "volcanic sulfur" should apply. In the excerpt there is mention of mercury, which also is dealt with in Cometary Encounters p. 139-141 and again p. 150.Large Igneous Provinces
Magnitude: Around 3 to 9 degrees Celsius of warming
Time frame: Hundreds of thousands of years
Continent-scale floods of lava and underground magma called large igneous provinces have ushered in many of Earth’s mass extinctions. These igneous events unleashed an arsenal of killers (including acid rain, acid fog, mercury poisoning and destruction of the ozone layer), while also warming the planet by dumping huge quantities of methane and carbon dioxide into the atmosphere more quickly than the weathering thermostat could handle.
In the end-Permian event 252 million years ago, which wiped out 81% of marine species, underground magma ignited Siberian coal, drove up atmospheric carbon dioxide to 8,000 parts per million and raised the temperature by between 5 and 9 degrees Celsius. The more minor Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum event 56 million years ago cooked methane in North Atlantic oil deposits and funneled it into the sky, warming the planet by 5 degrees Celsius and acidifying the ocean; alligators and palms subsequently thrived on Arctic shores. Similar releases of fossil carbon deposits happened in the end-Triassic and the early Jurassic; global warming, ocean dead zones and ocean acidification resulted.
That's the definition according to mainstream science. I had almost forgotten about it myself but Pierre shows how asteroids and comets are really the same objects, the only difference being their electrical charge:The article does also not mention comets, though he does mention asteroids. However, one important difference between an asteroid and a comet is that the former have low-eccentric orbits mostly within the orbits of Jupiter, and near the ecliptic plane, while comets have highly eccentric orbits that go beyond, even far beyond the orbit of Jupiter. The comets then can be much more of a surprise than the asteroids, which could be detected if we just zoomed in on the space near us, or not much beyond Jupiter. The comets include the periodic comets, with orbits less than approximately 200 years, long-periodic comets with orbits from 200 to 1000 years. These two groups are still more or less in the ecliptic, the disc like space where the planets also orbit the Sun. After long-period comets come near-parabolic comets, which have periods above 1000 years followed by hyperbolic comets which however move differently making it even more complicated to keep track of them all:
When the electric potential difference between an asteroid and the surrounding plasma is not too high, the asteroid exhibits a dark discharge mode8 or no discharge at all. But when the potential difference is high enough, the comet switches to a glowing discharge mode.9 At this point the asteroid is a comet. From this perspective, a comet is simply a glowing asteroid and an asteroid is a non-glowing comet. Thus the very same body can, successively, be a comet, then an asteroid, then a comet, etc., depending on variation in the ambient electric field it is subjected to.10
The Tierra Blanca Joven eruption of Ilopango occurred during Maya times but the exact timing and its impact have been controversial. It was thought to be responsible for the anomalously cold decade experienced in the Northern Hemisphere centered at 540 CE, but this date is at odds with archeological evidence that suggests a date near the start of the Early Classic Period (pre-450 CE). Our precise age of 431 ± 2 CE allows us to pinpoint the eruption in proxy records and shows that its impact was apparently limited. It appears to have only had major effects on populations within ∼80 km of the volcano, where the regions were blanketed by decimeters of ash fallout and pyroclastic density currents.
That is true, and thank you, @Eboard10, for bringing it up. I will add some more details.That's the definition according to mainstream science. I had almost forgotten about it myself but Pierre shows how asteroids and comets are really the same objects, the only difference being their electrical charge:
"among other factors to the eccentricity of the orbit" On the Wiki for Orbital eccentricity, one finds about the orbits of asteroids:
© sott.net Solar electric field and cometary orbit
In the drawing above, we can see a cometary trajectory (dotted red curve) which passes through different electric field lines (illustrated by the concentric circles numbered +1, +2, +3, ...) .
An electric field line defines locations where the electric potential is the same. It's similar to the altitude lines on a geographic map where every point of the line is at the same altitude.
These changes in electric potential difference between the comet and its surrounding space triggers intense current including electric discharges between the comet and its surrounding space, leading to a overheated and glowing cometary body. That's why an astronomical body following a very elliptical orbit around the Sun with a 3,600 year period can not be a planet but has to be a comet.
Conversely, the electric potential at a given distance from the Sun being roughly the same, the astronomic bodies following a circular or slightly elliptic orbit, will go through space exhibiting a constant electric potential. Therefore there is a balance between the electric potential of the body and the surrounding space. In this case, no discharge occurs and the astronomical body doesn't glow.
In this sense, the fundamental difference between a comet and planet is not a matter of composition but a matter of electrical activity (which is related, among other factors to the eccentricity of the orbit).
And about the orbits of comets:
In other words, the usual orbital eccentricity is 0 to 0.35 for asteroids, and 0.2 to 1 for comets. This means there is an overlap, and in addition, there are even a few asteroids with fairly high eccentricities like Eris (0.44) and Sedna (0.85). Maybe the overlap is due to surrounding objects or past orbit or the composition, just like the Wiki on capacitor types mentions different designs and materials for different purposes and charge ranges. From everyday experience with static electricity, we know that some materials and people can build up charge differently.Comets have very different values of eccentricity. Periodic comets have eccentricities mostly between 0.2 and 0.7, but some of them have highly eccentric elliptical orbits with eccentricities just below 1; for example, Halley's Comet has a value of 0.967. Non-periodic comets follow near-parabolic orbits and thus have eccentricities even closer to 1.
Where the term electrical resistivity is explained as:Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) or electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) is a geophysical technique for imaging sub-surface structures from electrical resistivity measurements made at the surface, or by electrodes in one or more boreholes. If the electrodes are suspended in the boreholes, deeper sections can be investigated. It is closely related to the medical imaging technique electrical impedance tomography (EIT), and mathematically is the same inverse problem. In contrast to medical EIT, however, ERT is essentially a direct current method. A related geophysical method, induced polarization (or spectral induced polarization), measures the transient response and aims to determine the subsurface chargeability properties. Electrical resistivity measurements can be used for identification and quantification of depth of groundwater, detection of clays, and measurement of groundwater conductivity.
There may be other factors that can explain the differences in behavior among the comets and asteroids with overlapping eccentricity. There may also be some research, but I will leave the subject here.Electrical resistivity (also called specific electrical resistance or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property of a material that measures how strongly it resists electric current. A low resistivity indicates a material that readily allows electric current. Resistivity is commonly represented by the Greek letter ρ (rho). The SI unit of electrical resistivity is the ohm-meter (Ω⋅m). For example, if a 1 m solid cube of material has sheet contacts on two opposite faces, and the resistance between these contacts is 1 Ω, then the resistivity of the material is 1 Ω⋅m.
Electrical conductivity or specific conductance is the reciprocal of electrical resistivity. It represents a material's ability to conduct electric current. It is commonly signified by the Greek letter σ (sigma), but κ (kappa) (especially in electrical engineering) and γ (gamma) are sometimes used. The SI unit of electrical conductivity is siemens per metre (S/m).
Thank you for updating the information, let's see what explanation Quanta comes up with next time they update their article.