Ascorbic acid (vitamin C)

Persej

The Living Force
FOTCM Member
What are you trying to cure, Thebull? Here is a list of things to take with vitamin C for cancer treatment: https://books.google.rs/books?id=1ufV239YnocC&pg=PA120#v=onepage&q&f=false

I guess the same things could be taken for other things, although in smaller doses.
 

Thebull

Dagobah Resident
FOTCM Member
Persej said:
What are you trying to cure, Thebull? Here is a list of things to take with vitamin C for cancer treatment: https://books.google.rs/books?id=1ufV239YnocC&pg=PA120#v=onepage&q&f=false

I guess the same things could be taken for other things, although in smaller doses.
Persej, I've had a cold For 2 to 3 weeks which has gradually got worse. I started to get worse Friday and I felt quite ill Flu like symptoms Saturday. That's when I took the vitamin c till I found the my tolerance level.
I've still got the cold/flu symptoms and I've taken about half yesterdays dosage without any problems. I'm still feeling quite ill.

I was asking as I'm not sure if I want to fight the illness/infection should I be taking the vitamin c to tolerance level every day until I start to feel better. Or should I drop the dosage to half that level. I am intending to start supplementing vitamin c daily I wouldn't expect to take it at the current level though. I'm presuming the tolerance is high presently due to the illness.
 

Persej

The Living Force
FOTCM Member
Well, we already have a topic about healing from flu with naturals products: http://cassiopaea.org/forum/index.php/topic,43580.0.html

Here is another list of potential supplements: _https://www.lifeextension.com/Protocols/Infections/Influenza/Page-07

There are several things that you can use for flu together with vitamin C. Personally, I wouldn't rely solely on vitamin C for flu. I would rather lower your dose and add some good multivitamin/multimineral.

Perhaps you didn't rest enough and that's why it lasted that much? My aunt was also sick for several weeks this winter but she was very active all the time.
 

Nienna

SuperModerator
Moderator
FOTCM Member
I've used Vitamin C to help me with a cold (or flu) and it has helped me every time. I take about 2 grams every hour until I feel like I am getting close to bowel tolerance. And I do it for how ever long is needed - usually, for me, only a couple of days. But I do rest, too.

Even though you may be getting some rest, I just want to post what Gaby and Odyssey both said about how rest is important for them to get better. It's in one of the threads Persej linked to, but I'll copy/paste them here:

Odyssey said:
Rest and sleep. Rest and sleep. Then rest and sleep some more. IMO, rest and sleep during a cold and flu come first and all the supps and broths are second. Trying to power through and carry on with usual activities just makes a sickness linger on more than it needs to and possibly go deeper and cause a secondary issue. Though I understand if someone has to try to power through for various reasons, the power of sleep in healing the body cannot be understated.

When I have been sick -- and I had what I considered the mildest flu I've ever had a month or so ago -- my body has an uncanny ability of coming down with the flu on the weekend. I'll start feeling something coming on on a Friday, sleep the whole day on Saturday and through the night and by Sunday I'm on the mend. Monday is like I was never sick. This has happened every time I can remember, at least as an adult (except for that time I powered through a flu and ended up with a lingering bronchitis). Even this last time, now that I don't usually work on Fridays, I started feeling under the weather on Thursday afternoon! What's up with that? :lol: With all that sleeping I only had the time, interest and energy to take one dose of liposomal vitamin C and one FIR sauna session.
Gaby said:
Odyssey said:
Rest and sleep. Rest and sleep. Then rest and sleep some more. IMO, rest and sleep during a cold and flu come first and all the supps and broths are second.
I agree. I've seen people who had the flu in december and powered through it, now they're coming back with a relapse. Some don't have bacterial infection complications, but nevertheless, they're having up to 39.5 C of high fever. This flu season is particularly bad. Young people have been hospitalized and the elderly too due to complications. Most people that I've seen in the clinic had that in common, they're were just powering through and demanding that they need to work ASAP.

Last time I got sick was back in September-October. I slept for at least two entire days. Now I'm still holding up, but I'll implement the above plan if I get sick again.
 

Thebull

Dagobah Resident
FOTCM Member
Nienna said:
I've used Vitamin C to help me with a cold (or flu) and it has helped me every time. I take about 2 grams every hour until I feel like I am getting close to bowel tolerance. And I do it for how ever long is needed - usually, for me, only a couple of days. But I do rest, too.

Even though you may be getting some rest, I just want to post what Gaby and Odyssey both said about how rest is important for them to get better. It's in one of the threads Persej linked to, but I'll copy/paste them here:

Odyssey said:
Rest and sleep. Rest and sleep. Then rest and sleep some more. IMO, rest and sleep during a cold and flu come first and all the supps and broths are second. Trying to power through and carry on with usual activities just makes a sickness linger on more than it needs to and possibly go deeper and cause a secondary issue. Though I understand if someone has to try to power through for various reasons, the power of sleep in healing the body cannot be understated.

When I have been sick -- and I had what I considered the mildest flu I've ever had a month or so ago -- my body has an uncanny ability of coming down with the flu on the weekend. I'll start feeling something coming on on a Friday, sleep the whole day on Saturday and through the night and by Sunday I'm on the mend. Monday is like I was never sick. This has happened every time I can remember, at least as an adult (except for that time I powered through a flu and ended up with a lingering bronchitis). Even this last time, now that I don't usually work on Fridays, I started feeling under the weather on Thursday afternoon! What's up with that? :lol: With all that sleeping I only had the time, interest and energy to take one dose of liposomal vitamin C and one FIR sauna session.
Gaby said:
Odyssey said:
Rest and sleep. Rest and sleep. Then rest and sleep some more. IMO, rest and sleep during a cold and flu come first and all the supps and broths are second.
I agree. I've seen people who had the flu in december and powered through it, now they're coming back with a relapse. Some don't have bacterial infection complications, but nevertheless, they're having up to 39.5 C of high fever. This flu season is particularly bad. Young people have been hospitalized and the elderly too due to complications. Most people that I've seen in the clinic had that in common, they're were just powering through and demanding that they need to work ASAP.

Last time I got sick was back in September-October. I slept for at least two entire days. Now I'm still holding up, but I'll implement the above plan if I get sick again.
Do you know what I am tired. I've not been sleeping well and have been holding on to a lot of stress. I will hit the sack early tonight and might spend the day in bed tomorrow. If I'm honest I've been struggling lately and I'm having difficulty snapping out of it.

Would you call a level teAspoon a gram I haven't got scales?
 

nicklebleu

The Living Force
FOTCM Member
Thebull said:
I've done the cleanse this morning and saturation point was 50,000 mg 10 level teaspoons.
Sorry, Thebull, but I don't understand how much the total dose is that you are taking. 50'000 mg (50g) to reach bowel tolerance sounds like a supermassive dose ...

Whatever dose you were taking, I'd continue with about 2/3 of that total dose for the time being. You may find that as you get better, that this dose will produce symptoms of bowel tolerance again, in which case you decrease the dose again, etc.

As I'm sure you know, bowel tolerance is subject to change, especially with being sick (goes up), so when you get better, the bowel tolerance dose tends to go down too. To get the maximum dose consistently you might have to test the tolerance dose in regular intervals, although it stands to reason why you would want to have the maximum dosage once your acute illness has abated. A maintenance dose of maybe 4g/d may be more appropriate, but this of course depends on what you are trying to achieve and your overall health status.

My 2 cents.
 

Thebull

Dagobah Resident
FOTCM Member
nicklebleu said:
Thebull said:
I've done the cleanse this morning and saturation point was 50,000 mg 10 level teaspoons.
Sorry, Thebull, but I don't understand how much the total dose is that you are taking. 50'000 mg (50g) to reach bowel tolerance sounds like a supermassive dose ...

Whatever dose you were taking, I'd continue with about 2/3 of that total dose for the time being. You may find that as you get better, that this dose will produce symptoms of bowel tolerance again, in which case you decrease the dose again, etc.

As I'm sure you know, bowel tolerance is subject to change, especially with being sick (goes up), so when you get better, the bowel tolerance dose tends to go down too. To get the maximum dose consistently you might have to test the tolerance dose in regular intervals, although it stands to reason why you would want to have the maximum dosage once your acute illness has abated. A maintenance dose of maybe 4g/d may be more appropriate, but this of course depends on what you are trying to achieve and your overall health status.

My 2 cents.
I bought the absorbic acid last week as I wanted to start supplementing again as in general I felt like I'd had colds and been feeling run down for a number of months. It just so happened that Friday I fell ill so on Saturday so I thought I would dose to saturation point to see if the protocol worked for me. My dosage was 50 g when I reached bowel tolerance. I was surprised myself at the amount but I think it shows the level I'm at health wise currently.

I had worked on Sunday though I had about half that amount on Sunday evening and same again yesterday. fingers crossed I seem to of improved this morning so I will lower the dose accordingly or when I feel my stomach starts to feel uncomfortable. After Saturday I know that feeling well. My plan was to test the tolerance dose reguarly over a month or two so I'm taking the right amount. I do expect the dosage to go down considerably as I shake this infection. I've taking small steps to improve my diet currently as well and I started to increase the intensity of my exercise regime last week so all these factors could be partly why I've been hit with this infection.

My wife has just started with the same infection. I'm interested to see how she heals without the vit c as a comparison. Another note at this time of year I do start often get ill as we move towards spring. I appreciate your advise as I feel I'm on the right track even though the Saturday dose was Much higher than I would want. I will see how this drops over the month.
 

Nienna

SuperModerator
Moderator
FOTCM Member
Thebull said:
Do you know what I am tired. I've not been sleeping well and have been holding on to a lot of stress. I will hit the sack early tonight and might spend the day in bed tomorrow. If I'm honest I've been struggling lately and I'm having difficulty snapping out of it.
Have you tried taking melatonin? I take a time-released melatonin and that works for me.

Thebull said:
Would you call a level teAspoon a gram I haven't got scales?
Ah, NO! Your container for the Vitamin C should tell you how much a certain measure is. For instance, the container on the Vitamin C I use says that 1/4 teaspoon = 1,000mg (or 1 gram). Other manufacturers have different measures for 1 gram for their product as there are differences in weight between products.

If you cannot find anything on the container about this, I'd suggest to just use 1/4 teaspoon per dose and see how that goes.
 

Thebull

Dagobah Resident
FOTCM Member
Nienna said:
Thebull said:
Do you know what I am tired. I've not been sleeping well and have been holding on to a lot of stress. I will hit the sack early tonight and might spend the day in bed tomorrow. If I'm honest I've been struggling lately and I'm having difficulty snapping out of it.
Have you tried taking melatonin? I take a time-released melatonin and that works for me.

Thebull said:
Would you call a level teAspoon a gram I haven't got scales?
Ah, NO! Your container for the Vitamin C should tell you how much a certain measure is. For instance, the container on the Vitamin C I use says that 1/4 teaspoon = 1,000mg (or 1 gram). Other manufacturers have different measures for 1 gram for their product as there are differences in weight between products.

If you cannot find anything on the container about this, I'd suggest to just use 1/4 teaspoon per dose and see how that goes.
I contacted the manufacturer as there was no information on the packaging. They said a fifth to a quarter of a teaspoon is approx a gram. Geez I took some vit c on Saturday but tbh I just went to my tolerance level so I must be quite ill. I certainly need to be more careful. I am still on quite I dosage now.
 

Gawan

Ambassador
Ambassador
FOTCM Member
There are two papers released recently and as I could find, that high doses of vitamin C fight cancer cells, especially intravenous vitamin c

The newest release is from the magazine Cell in this case blood cancer in mice:

Summary

Loss-of-function mutations in TET2 occur frequently in patients with clonal hematopoiesis, myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and are associated with a DNA hypermethylation phenotype. To determine the role of TET2 deficiency in leukemia stem cell maintenance, we generated a reversible transgenic RNAi mouse to model restoration of endogenous Tet2 expression. Tet2 restoration reverses aberrant hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) self-renewal in vitro and in vivo. Treatment with vitamin C, a co-factor of Fe2+ and α-KG-dependent dioxygenases, mimics TET2 restoration by enhancing 5-hydroxymethylcytosine formation in Tet2-deficient mouse HSPCs and suppresses human leukemic colony formation and leukemia progression of primary human leukemia PDXs. Vitamin C also drives DNA hypomethylation and expression of a TET2-dependent gene signature in human leukemia cell lines. Furthermore, TET-mediated DNA oxidation induced by vitamin C treatment in leukemia cells enhances their sensitivity to PARP inhibition and could provide a safe and effective combination strategy to selectively target TET deficiency in cancer.
And another one about prostate cancer and from Functional Foods in Health & Disease

Introduction: Intravenously administered vitamin C (IVC) may have anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties. Many studies demonstrated evidence of a good safety profile of IVC treatments and improvement of the quality of life in cancer patients. IVC has been proposed as a treatment for cancer as an adjuvant in conjunction with other therapies. To investigate high dose ascorbic acid potential in treating prostate cancer, a retrospective study was conducted using clinical data from the Riordan Clinic database (1994-2015).

Methods: We collected data, when available, on the following patient characteristics at diagnosis and during the courses of IVC therapy: age, tumor stage, Gleason score, serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels, and location of metastases. In particular, PSA, ALP, and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels are analyzed in prostate cancer patients given IVC therapy during several years.

Results: We found that PSA, CRP, and ALP correlate with tumor staging as measured by Gleason scores. Moreover, peak plasma ascorbate levels attained during the patients first IVC infusions are reduced in patients with elevated PSA and CRP levels. Tracking the changes in PSA and ALP with time in patients for whom data are available indicates that the rate of increase in these variables over time can be reduced by incorporating IVC therapy and by increasing the frequency of IVC treatments.

Conclusion: There appeared to be a relation between the frequency of IVC treatments and the rate of PSA change, with PSA rate of growth decreasing as the frequency of IVC increases. Further research into the use of IVC in prostate cancer patients is warranted.
 

AzarHyun

The Force is Strong With This One
One new research on the subject - Is Vitamin C the Ultimate Quantum Interface?
To be honest, for me, this article represents a real challenge to understanding, both conceptually (linguistically) and scientifically (many biology, physics).
But I hope that some, with more knowledge, will understand this article more clearly and share the interpretation with us.
Electromagnetic Radiation and Quantum Decoherence: Is Vitamin C the Ultimate Quantum Interface?
Published on November 4, 2018

The human body is an exquisite specimen of an intricate, functioning quantum mechanism that has evolved successful interfaces to decode and utilize quantum inputs from the environment. But what happens when the primary interface is challenged by a sudden change in quantum inputs?

Vitamin C is probably one of the most well-known nutrients. Abundantly found in fruits and most vegetables, vitamin C confer myriads of health benefits, the most famous being its antioxidant, free radical scavenging attributes. Today, I will take you on a unique journey to discover the real role ascorbic acid plays in our bodies at the quantum level.

Ascorbate is Ubiquitous in all Eukaryotes
Ascorbate, also referred to as L-ascorbic acid or vitamin C, is essential for all eukaryotic algae, plants and animals, but not for prokaryotic bacteria. All photosynthetic plants synthesize ascorbate, while some animals, including primates, cannot synthesize ascorbate due to the loss of a terminal enzyme in the GULO pathway that is responsible for the conversion of ascorbate from glucose. [1]

In the beginning, all eukaryotes used the GULO (l-gulonolactone oxidase) pathway for ascorbate biosynthesis. As time passed, photosynthetic organisms whose biological activities are solely dependent upon light for the conversion of light energy into chemical energy, evolved a more efficient GLDH (l-galactonolactone dehydrogenase) pathway that uncoupled hydrogen peroxide generation during ascorbate biosynthesis. [2] Ascorbate auxotrophs, unable to synthesize ascorbic acid, must obtain this essential nutrient from their diet. Primates and guinea pigs get their ascorbate from land plants; bats’ sources are land plants, insects and blood; whereas marine animals like teleost fish and crustaceans obtain their ascorbate from zooplankton and phytoplanktons. [1]

There are many speculations as to why ascorbate auxotrophs lost the ability to synthesize ascorbate. Some believed the successful evolution of the GLDH pathway in photosynthetic plants provided ample and constant supply of ascorbate. Primates in the wild that are unable to synthesize ascorbates consume high amounts of ascorbate. For example, gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) consume 20-30 mg/kg/day, howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata) consume 88 mg/kg/day, and spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) consume 106 mg/kg/day. At that amount, it is equivalent to 8.46 g for a human weighing 80 kg! [27]. Others believed that a reduction in the "cost" of production, which is the generation of the reactive oxygen species, H2O2, balanced out the lost of production capability. [3] I believe there is another reason why a required nutrient in humans is not synthesized by our bodies because the role of ascorbate extends far beyond its redox capacities. It is also the same reason why prokaryotes do not synthesize ascorbate. Light.

Prokaryotes are Light Emitters

All living organisms release biophotons. Humans, animals and plants emit ultra-weak biophotons at intensities between 10 to 100 photons/cm2 /sec wavelengths between 200 nm and 800 nm. Prokaryotic bacteria emit over 1000 photons/cm2 /sec. The intensity is dramatically increased during their growth phase. It is well known that bacteria use quorum sensing communication signals to regulate their physiological activities, including symbiosis, virulence, conjugation, motility, sporulation, and biofilm formation. [4] One of these communication signals used by quorum sensing microbes is electromagnetic radiation in the visible (400–750 nm) and near-infrared (750–2500 nm) regions. [5] So what happens when you add ascorbate to quorum sensing bacteria like Escherichia coli or Klebsiella pneumoniae that uses light for cell to cell communication? Death is the result. [6] The ability of ascorbate to inhibit growth, sporulation and enterotoxin production is due to its anti-quorum sensing ability. [7] How does ascorbate disrupt quorum sensing?

Birefringence, Depolarization and Quantum Decoherence
Vitamin C, or ascorbate, is a birefringent molecule that is optically active.[7, 8] The word birefringence comes from the Latin ‘bi’ meaning ‘twice’, and ‘refringere’ meaning ‘to break up’. Birefringent and optically active materials are anisotropic, where the index of refraction varies with polarization direction. This quality is the exact opposite of isotropic materials like glass, liquids and amorphous mediums where direction of polarization does not matter. When a ray of light enters a birefringent material like calcium carbonate or ascorbate, it will be broken up into two rays going in different directions and velocities upon exit. That is why when you look through a birefringent crystal, you will see double. [9] After light passes through a birefringent medium, it will also be depolarized, meaning there is a reduction or even a complete loss of polarization. [10]

Can Light from the Sun be Depolarized?

We all know light from the sun is unpolarized. What exactly does the term ‘unpolarized’ mean?

The atoms on the surface of a heated surface generates light and these atoms act independently of one another. The electromagnetic waves emanating from the heated surface will each have its own polarization direction. The sum of these random orientations result in a wave whose direction of polarization changes rapidly and randomly. Such a wave is said to be unpolarized. Common sources of light, including the sun, incandescent, fluorescent lights, LEDs (Light Emitting Diodes), and flames, all produce unpolarized light. However, these unpolarized light often become partially polarized due to multiple scatterings and reflections. When sunlight passes through the Earth’s atmosphere, it is scattered by air molecules, rendering the light that reaches the ground partially linearly polarized. The reason the sky looks blue is because the blue spectrum being at a higher frequency, is scattered more by air molecules. [11] So one can say that due to the scattering effects, all light that passes through a birefringent medium will be depolarized upon exit to a certain extent.

Photons & Quantum Decoherence

Photons carry information. How much information is carried depends on whether you believe in a holographic, fractal universe.

Quantum information is commonly encoded in the polarization of single photons. When light passes through birefringent mediums, the depolarization of the photons is equivalent to the decoherence of the quantum information they encode. Depolarization of such photons acts as quantum noise on the stored information. [12] Quantum decoherence has been proven to be equivalent to the classical depolarization experienced by light. [13] Decoherence is regarded as a loss of information into the environment, [14] and decoherence can also degrade or terminate entanglement. [15]

Is it becoming clearer to you why quorum sensing prokaryotic bacteria do not synthesize ascorbate? Ascorbate is birefringent. The light used by bacteria for cell to cell communication will be depolarized and rendered decoherent by ascorbate. That is how ascorbate disrupts quorum sensing in prokaryotic bacteria. [7] How important is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) depolarization in the human body? I believe EMR depolarization is critical for maintaining optimum health, especially when you consider the fact that 33% of all the protein in the human body is collagen, and collagen is also birefringent!

Birefringence & Depolarization are Tissue Health Indicators
As early as 1975, birefringence or the ability to depolarize light, was already used to differentiate the state of health of underlying tissues being examined. In general, healthy tissues are more birefringent, whereas diseased or necrotic tissues display little to no birefringence, depending on the nature and degree of damage. When tendons were stressed in forced training exercises, the birefringence and the resistance to tear were both decreased. As tendons became completely detached due to stress, birefringence was completely lost. [16] Tissue birefringence is dependent on collagen fiber organisation and orientation. In osteoarthritis, the loss of birefringence is linked with the early stages of cartilage degeneration. The greater degree of loss in birefringence, the greater the increase in cartilage degeneration. [37]

Today, information about tissue structure can be extracted from how light is depolarized as it passes through the tissue being examined. The pathology of a tissue is correlated to the decrease of birefringence in the tissue. For example, myocardial infarction results in a decrease in the birefringence signals generated in the area of infarction, due to disorganization of collagen fibers formed in scar tissues [17]. This decrease in birefringence in unhealthy, damaged tissues, and the subsequent reduction in depolarization of light, can also be detected as an increase in biophoton emissions. In plants, unhealthy or injured areas display higher biophoton emission than healthy, uninjured areas. [18] In humans, cancerous cells emitted higher intensity of photons than non-cancerous cells mostly in the ultraviolet and blue wavelengths (370 nm, 420 nm, 500 nm), whereas non-cancerous, healthy cells emitted more biophotons than cancer cells in the infrared range (620 nm, 950 nm). [19]

Collagen Birefringence and Infrared Light

Healthy non-cancerous cells emit more biophotons in the infrared frequencies, yet contrary to unhealthy, necrotic cells that displayed reduced birefringence, these healthy tissues still exhibit strong birefringence and large degrees of depolarization. Why do healthy cells emit infrared range biophotons and still remain birefringent? Because infrared light has been proven and demonstrated to induce birefringence [20], and higher birefringence is associated with healthy tissues. In the regeneration of third degree burns in the skin of mice, areas treated with 632.8 nm low intensity laser showed higher birefringence than non-treated control areas in the same subjects. [21] The degree of depolarization is also dependent upon frequency of wavelengths. Pig skin, similar to human skin, is strongly birefringent. The degree of depolarization is strongest at longer infrared wavelengths, and decreases as wavelength is shortened. When pig skin is damaged by gamma ray irradiation, the ability of the skin to depolarize light (tested at 450 nm to 675 nm) is further reduced. [22]

The triple helix structure of collagen makes makes it optically birefringent. This birefringence is ubiquitous in all biological tissues. [23] However, the ability to depolarize light is dependent upon various factors, the most important one being the depth or thickness of the tissue involved. [24]

Infrared wavelengths between 600 and 1500 nm can penetrate up to 5 mm on the human skin, which would be slightly below the dermis. Whereas light waves in the ultraviolet frequencies generally do not penetrate beyond the epidermis of, or under 1 mm in tissues. [22] The ability of collagen to depolarize light at shorter wavelengths is affected by how the collagen fibers are aligned and limited by the depth of the tissues probed. Due to this limitation, collagen on its own is not the ideal primary interface with quantum signals from our environment. But combined with ascorbate, or vitamin C, nature has created the perfect quantum interface for eukaryotes.

Collagen & Ascorbate, an Exquisite Entanglement
Collagen cannot be synthesized without ascorbate. Collagen requires ascorbate for hydroxylation, a process that allows the molecules to achieve the best configuration, rendering structural stability to the collagen fibers, making them stronger and less susceptible to damage. When human skin cultures are exposed to ascorbate, collagen synthesis is increased by eightfold with no increase in other proteins. In human skin, collagen accounts for up to 75% of the weight of the dermis which is below the epidermis where infrared frequencies can penetrate. [23] Even though the concentration of collagen is lower in the epidermis, this is the very layer of our skin where the highest concentration of ascorbate is found, and the epidermis is also where ultraviolet wavelengths can penetrate.

Normal skin contains high quantities of ascorbate, well above plasma levels and comparable to other body tissues. The concentration in the epidermis is between 2 to 5-fold higher than that found in the dermis. Ascorbate is found to be depleted in aged or photodamaged skin, and skin that has been exposed to pollution or irradiation. [26] Is this depletion of ascorbate in the epidermis cause or effect? To answer that question, first we need to understand why there is so much ascorbate in the epidermis.

Ascorbate is a Quantum Workhorse
The sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter 2, or SVCT2 for ascorbate is found in every cell of the human body, even in mitochondria. [74] This transporter is one of the most evolutionarily conserved molecules and no species lacks this key protein. [28] The SVCT2 transporter will pick up and transport ascorbate even when the concentration available is extremely low (high affinity), in contrast to the SVCT1 ascorbate transporter, which is high capacity, but low affinity. [74] Together, these two transporters with different capacities and affinities ensure adequate ascorbate levels in all cells in the body. The knockout of the SVCT2 high affinity transporter in mice is lethal on day 1 of life, and when the SVCT1 transporter is deleted, half of the mice without the SVCT1 transporter do not survive to weaning. [36] Most of the time cells have only one form of the transporters. In the epidermis, both forms of the transporters are expressed. [26] Why does nature want to make sure there is more than adequate ascorbate in the epidermis?

Science has been relentlessly uncovering the endless roles undertaken by the epidermis in critical biological functions. It is well established that the skin is the largest organ of the body, with neural, endocrine and immune functions that regulate local and global homeostasis of the various systems involved. [29] Just recently (October 2018), circadian clocks stronger than those in the blood have been identified in the human epidermis. [30]

Ascorbate, the Primary Quantum Interface

Ascorbate is birefringent. It will depolarize light and render the incoming photons decoherent. You can think of ascorbate as the first interface where incoming photon signals are being decoded before secondary interfaces receive and act upon those quantum signals. How does quantum biology interpret the properties of ascorbate? So far, ascorbate has been associated with three quantum properties. It is able to absorb UV-B photons and suppress fluorescence (or fluorescence quenching) of radiation below roughly 310 nm. The absorption maximum of ascorbate is below 270 nm, with some studies showing a peak at 220 nm. Ascorbate is also able to lower excitation signals and transform short UV-B wavelengths between 280 nm to 320 nm into longer UV-A radiation in the 320 nm to 400 nm range. With fluorescence quenching ascorbate is able to substantially reduces emission to the UV-A range of between 320 nm to 400 nm. These mechanisms effectively shift high-energy light waves into longer wavelengths emitting lower energies. [31] These quantum effects exert immeasurable influence on all aspects of essential biological functions, most of which begin in the epidermis of our skin.

Ascorbate and Vitamin D Synthesis
The epidermis is an active site for hormone synthesis, the most important and well known is that of Vitamin D. It is well established that upon exposure to UVB radiation, the sterol 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) is converted to pre-vitamin D3, which then is isomerized into vitamin D3. The biologically inert vitamin D3 then enters circulation and undergoes two successive hydroxylations in the liver and kidney to form the hormonally active metabolite calcitriol. [32]

The highest concentration of the sterol 7-DHC is found in the deepest two layers of the epidermis, the stratum spinosum and the stratum basale. These two layers also have the highest capacity for the conversion of 7-DHC into pre-vitamin D3. [33] The epidermis consists mostly of keratinocytes, and the bottom layer, stratum basale, is also where keratinocytes and melanocytes are formed. Ascorbate is highly concentrated in all layers of the epidermis. However, concentration of ascorbate has actually been found to increase with depth in the uppermost layer, the stratum corneum. [26] The stratum corneum is ABOVE the stratum spinosum and the stratum basale where 7-DHC is concentrated. So why is there such a high requirement for ascorbate in the epidermis that it expresses both forms of the SVCT transporters?

The sterol 7-DHC, precursor to vitamin D3, is extremely reactive to chain oxidation when exposed to exogenous radicals and oxygen. Oxysterols formed from the free radical chain oxidation of 7-DHC are cytotoxic. [33] Cholesterol and most oxysterols are excited by ultraviolet wavelengths below 200 nm. Ascorbate’s unique quantum ability to absorb UV-B and UV-C frequencies, and also to transform high energy short UV wavelengths into longer less energetic wavelengths is critical for metabolic processes in keratinocytes. [31] Why?

Keratinocytes Metabolize Calcitriol

Keratinocytes contain the entire metabolic pathway for the conversion of vitamin D3 to its active metabolite calcitriol, 1,25(OH)2D3, via the vitamin D-25 hydroxylase (CYP27A) and the 25OHD-1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1). These are the same genes found in the liver and kidney that are responsible for the hydroxylation of vitamin D3 and its conversion into the active form calcitriol. In fact, the expression of CYP27B1 is HIGHER in keratinocytes than in any other cell in the body, including the cells of the proximal renal tubule in the kidney. CYP27B1 expression is the highest in the stratum basale of the epidermis in vivo. [34] The conversion of the highly reactive 7-DHC to calcitriol in keratinocytes is only activated in the presence of ultraviolet radiation in the ranges of 285 nm to 315 nm. [35] It is therefore reasonable to assume that the presence of the ascorbate as quantum interface would ensure minimal reactive chain oxidation by 7-DHC during the conversion processes.

In addition to negative feedback loops in keratinocytes, ascorbate also controls the level of calcitriol that can enter into circulation when the production by the liver and kidney is intact. [34] Acorbate not only has the ability to modulate the differentiation of keratinocytes [26], it is able to control the level of calcitriol production in keratinocytes via its effects on melanin synthesis.

L-DOPA, Melanin & Ascorbate
Melanin are chromophores that inhibit the conversion of 7-DHC by competing for the absorption of UV-B photons. An increase in melanin in human skin will increase the time required for exposure to UV radiation in the formation of pre-vitamin D3. [32]

Melanin is produced by melanocytes in the stratum basale, the last layer of the epidermis. Melanin is synthesized from its precursor L-tyrosine, with the aid of enzymatic reactions by tyrosinase. [38] Human keratinocytes have been demonstrated to synthesize catecholamines from L-tyrosine, and the human epidermis actually has the capacity for TOTAL catecholamine biosynthesis.Scientists have identified in keratinocytes, all the key enzymes for catecholamine synthesis including tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate limiting enzyme in the conversion of tyrosine into L-DOPA which is the important precursor to neurotransmitters like dopamine and norepinephrine. [39, 40] When L-DOPA is oxidized, melanin is formed. [41]

Ascorbate controls the formation of melanin by inhibiting the oxidation of L-DOPA. The presence of ascorbate can also increase the amount of L-DOPAsynthesized by tyrosine in the presence or absence of UV-B irradiation. However, the amount of L-DOPA synthesized in the dark in the presence of ascorbate after exposure to ultraviolet is markedly higher than non-exposure to ultraviolet. Most importantly, ascorbate has the ability to reduce melanin. [42] The reduction of melanin is an area that is underexplored, but it has huge implications, considering fungi can use melanin to convert radiation into chemical energy.

Radiosynthesis & Ascorbate

Many eukaryotic fungal species produce melanin chromophores. These species have been found to be able to thrive in high-radiation environments, including the damaged nuclear reactor at Chernobyl. Melanin has the known capacity to absorb a wide spectrum of electromagnetic radiation and transduce these radiation into biologically useful energy. This phenomenon of radiation induced growth is called radiosynthesis. [43] The ability to transform radiation into electrical energy in fungi is substantially enhanced in the presence of ascorbate, or vitamin C. The oxidation of melanin as a result of irradiation produces electric current. The ability of ascorbate to reduce melanin through the transfer of electrons optimizes the redox capacity of melanin, resulting in enhanced electrical current synthesis. [44] Imagine a future world where humans have the capacity to turn electromagnetic radiation from natural and artificial sources into biologically useful energy by using our melanin biosynthetic pathways! But don’t get too excited over this prospect. Humans are ascorbate auxotrophs, meaning they are eukaryotes who have lost the ability to synthesize ascorbate. As such, our melanin biosynthetic pathways are different from that of fungi and far from perfect.

Melanoma, Melanin & Ascorbate

Melanoma is a dangerous form of skin cancer. The irradiation of melanin by ultraviolet rays has been shown to enhance free radical formation. Although melanin is protective at longer wavelengths, melanin enhances cell damage by radiation at shorter wavelengths. The induction of melanoma by ultraviolet A in the range between 320-400 nm requires the presence of melanin pigment, and is associated with oxidative DNA damage in melanocytes. On the other hand, no pigmentation is involved in the initiation of melanoma by ultraviolet B radiation in the range between 280-320 nm. This perhaps resolves the long standing conundrum why African albinos who have melanocytes but lack melanin, are highly susceptible to non-melanoma skin cancer, yet these same Africans are resistant to cutaneous malignant melanoma. [45] So how does the lack of ascorbate contribute to the melanoma-melanin equation? Why don’t we take a look at the difference between fish that can biosynthesize ascorbate and those that cannot.

Teleost are bony fish that have lost the ability to synthesize ascorbate. [46] Common examples of teleost are salmon, trout, cod, perch, herrings, catfish, carp, and minnows, to name a few. Teleosts produce melanin pigments and when exposed to high levels of ultraviolet radiation, these fish develop melanoma. The lesions on the skins of these fish with melanoma contained more melanin than in healthy cells. [47] Cartilaginous fish like hammerhead sharks, are able to biosynthesize ascorbate. [46] They too can ‘tan’ remarkably well under UV exposure. But unlike teleost fish, ascorbate producing sharks do not develop melanoma. “The juvenile shark's skin responded similarly to that observed in humans and other vertebrates in response to direct sunlight, turning from brown to black. Although a similar melanin response was seen in this study (i.e. increased melanin concentration), the sharks in this previous study showed no visible lesions or growths and were therefore not shown to contract melanomas or dermal carcinomas.” [47] The reduction of melanin by ascorbate in the skin of sharks could very well be the reason why sharks do not develop melanoma.

The epidermis is the first receptor of quantum signals from the environment. It makes perfect sense that ascorbate, the ultimate quantum interface, is found there in such high concentrations. The eye is the other important receptor for environmental quantum signals. How much birefringent ascorbate and collagen do you think can be found there?

Eye, Collagen and Ascorbate
The cornea has the highest concentration of ascorbate of all tissues in the body. As a primary quantum signal receptor for the body, the eye is where critical quantum entanglements are established. Quantum signals from light must be properly depolarized before they can be utilized by secondary biologic chromophore interfaces like melanopsin, melanin and hemoglobin. In humans, melanopsin is found in neurons in the retina, BEHIND the cornea. Before electromagnetic signals can reach chromophores and opsins like melanopsin, they are first depolarized by ascorbate and collagen in the cornea. The concentration of ascorbate in cornea is 14 times of that in the aqueous humor. The aqueous humor has 20 times the ascorbate in plasma. By this calculation, cornea would have about 300 times the amount of ascorbate when compared to plasma! The concentration of ascorbate in the corneal epithelium is perhaps the highest of any known and reported tissue in the human body. [48] It is interesting that of different animals examined, the highest concentration of ascorbate in the corneal epithelium are found in those diurnal species that encounter the highest environmental levels of ultraviolet radiation exposure. [48] And if this is not enough, don’t forget that collagen is also birefringent. The middle layer of the cornea is the stroma and accounts for nearly 90% of corneal thickness. The stroma is 71% collagen by dry weight, and contains three different types of collagen, [49] probably each with different birefringent qualities. How does the cornea get its ascorbate? Have you ever noticed that you may tear a lot when you are faced with strong sunlight? Tears also contain extremely high ascorbate, and it is believed that tears provide a continuous source of ascorbate for the corneal epithelium. [50]

It is without question that our high technology world is placing ever increasing demands on ascorbate availability. Humans can increase their ascorbate intake to keep up with demand, unlike plants and animals whose level of ascorbate biosynthesis may not keep pace with advances in technology.

Ascorbate in a 5G World
Human are unable to synthesize ascorbate. But our the ability to recycle certain amounts of ascorbate [51] combined with dietary intake allowed for optimal survival in environments that did not have excessive levels of artificial electromagnetic frequencies. Since the advent of technology, this ability to interface and depolarize ever-increasing electromagnetic frequencies began to decline exponentially in all eukaryotic plants and animals. For organisms that biosynthesize ascorbate, endogenous ascorbate production simply cannot keep up with the intensity of increasing radiation from man-made radio waves. For organisms that must obtain their ascorbate from diets, the decreased ascorbate levels in the food chain compounds the issue of deficiency.

A perfect example of this phenomena is the collapse of bee colonies as a result of increased electromagnetic frequencies. Increasing scientific evidence strongly support the theory of colony collapse disorder (CCD) among honey bees due to electromagnetic radiation from cell phones and cell towers. The massive amount of radiation produced by towers and mobile phones negatively affect honey bee behavior and biology. [52] Bee colonies are known to sustain a marked increase in loss rates during the winter as a result of decreased food sources that contain ascorbate. [53] Even though bees are able to biosynthesize ascorbate, the levels produced are obviously not enough to counter the effects of increased electromagnetic radiation that causes a significant reduction in endogenous antioxidants such as glutathione and catalase. The supplementation of ascorbate in diet of bees however, rescued colony loss rates during the winter by 33%, in parallel with increased antioxidant defense with elevated glutathione transferase and catalase activities. [54]

Birds on the other hand, appear to fare slightly better. Even though most birds do not synthesize ascorbate [46], breeding and migrating birds do not seem to be highly affected by electromagnetic radio waves.[55] Why? Feathers are made of keratin, and keratin is highly birefringent. [57] Feathers, therefore are able to depolarize electromagnetic radiation. The way birefringent feathers are arranged on the body of a bird is simply an exquisite display of nature at one of her better moments. [56]

How do plants protect themselves since they are exposed all the time to cosmic rays, irradiation from the sun and in the past half century, increased onslaught of electromagnetic frequencies in the form of artificial lights and Radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic radiation (EMR) from a wide spectrum of radio waves? Plants, if you remember, have evolved a successful ascorbate biosynthetic pathway that does not generate reactive oxygen species. When exposed to varying levels of light intensities, plants usually respond by adjusting their ascorbate concentrations. [58] But the question remains, is the endogenous ascorbate production enough to counter the effects of EMR from cell towers? Trees grown in the direct vicinities of mobile phone base stations were found to show signs of damage that included stunted growth, brown leaves, irregular growth, dead branches, and color changes. Damage was usually the highest in locations with high radiation exposure and starts on the sides facing the source of radiofrequency radiation. Over time, the damage was extended to the entire plant. [59] A review of an extensive number of studies on the damaging effects of weak radio frequencies on plants showed mostly inhibition or reduced growth rates, whereas some studies actually did not find any negative response upon electromagnetic radiation (EMR) exposure. [60] How does EMR exposure reduce or inhibit growth in plants?

Ascorbate, Solar Energy Photoinhibition & Depolarization of Electromagnetic Radiation

Plants suffer reduced growth rates under photoinhibition when exposed to excessive solar irradiation. [61] Ascorbate provides photoinhibition protection to photosystem II in eukaryotic algae, plants, and prokaryotic cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria do not use light for quorum sensing, instead they use acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) as chemical signals in quorum sensing [62]. I propose the damage suffered by plants when exposed to EMR is a manifestation of reactions that are similar to solar irradiation induced photoinhibition. Both EMR and solar irradiation are electromagnetic frequencies, and both have been found to reduce photosyntheticcapacities. Ascorbate attenuates photoinhibition by dissipating excess electrons and excitation energy via the water-water cycle in plants. [63] Ascorbate is now being viewed by science as indispensable for plant growth. [64] Ascorbate is birefringent. Birefringence causes depolarization. Electromagnetic radiation can be depolarized in the same way light is depolarized by birefringent mediums. When EMR undergoes depolarization, there is a redistribution of wave energy leading to a loss of the wave field energy. [65] Since radio waves can be depolarized, increased birefringence from ascorbate could very well protect plants that are affected by EMR exposure. Can ascorbate protect animals also?

Of Mice & Men, the Ascorbate Connection
In November 2018, the National Toxicology Program (NTP) released a report that demonstrated clear evidence that male rats exposed to high levels of radio frequency radiation (RFR) similar to that used in 2G and 3G cell phones developed cancerous heart tumors. The interesting part about this report is that although all rats received radiation across their entire bodies, female rats did NOT develop any tumor. In addition, longer lifespans were detected among MALE rats. [66] Are you intrigued? The explanation is really quite simple. It all has to do with how the birefringent, depolarizing ascorbate interfaces with the RFR on a quantum level in the male and female rats. In male rats, the level of ascorbate in heart muscle is low (5-10 mg per 100 g) when compared to the highest concentrations found in their adrenals (280-400 mg per 100g. If you will recall from the earlier section on birefringence and tissue health, lower birefringence equals less healthy tissues. In addition, the plasma content of ascorbate in male rats is an abysmal 1.6 mg per 100 g. At such low plasma ascorbate levels, very little ascorbate can be delivered to the epidermis to counter the high intensity radiation insults. [67] Female rats on the other hand, have extremely high levels of ascorbate in their plasma, ranging from 150 mg per 100 g to 165 mg per 100 g. [68] In comparison with ascorbate plasma level of male rats, that is a almost a 100-fold increase. With this level of circulating ascorbate in the plasma, the epidermis of the female rats should have more than adequate ascorbate to counter the effects of any amount of electromagnetic radiation. This is exactly what happened in the study. There was a complete absence of any tumor growth in the female rats treated with high intensity RFR. As for the inexplicable longevity observed in some male rats, the radiation exposure probably decreased ascorbate levels throughout the body. Decreased ascorbate is linked to the decrease in growth hormones [69 , 70], and a decrease in growth hormones has been linked to longevity [71].

The evidence for the birefringent ascorbate as the ultimate quantum interface certainly appears convincing. For those who may still be wondering, perhaps we should take a final look at how ascorbate relates to the one place where all quantum entanglements begin and end.

Mitochondria is an Ascorbate Hog
All eukaryotes have mitochondria. Mitochondria sustains life by providing energy. Being the final destination of all quantum interactions, it is no wonder ascorbate is found there in such high concentrations. However, judging by how mitochondria takes in ascorbate, it is perhaps reasonable to assume that mitochondria is the first and last place where one would find ascorbate.

The study of mitochondria ascorbate uptake, regeneration and recycling is still an ongoing effort, with new ascorbate transporters, like the orphan transporter SVCT3, are being discovered. [72] The general consensus to date is that the high affinity SVCT2 transporter is used by mitochondria for uptake of ascorbate across all cells, tissues and species. More recently, mitochondria was demonstrated in the U937 cell to take up exponential amounts of ascorbate at the expense of cytosolic uptake. A fifteen minute exposure of 3 micromolar extracellular ascorbate concentration leads to an increase in ascorbate concentration in the cytosol to 45 micromolar. However, the mitochondria matrix concentration of ascorbate is 5000 micromolar. This means that during uptake the increase in the cytosolic concentration of ascorbate is disrupted by a more efficient mitochondrial uptake via the high affinity SVCT2 transporter. [73] On top of that, the requirement for transport across the SVCT2 transporter is set to a bare minimum in mitochondria. Unlike SVCT2s in plasma membrane which require 2 sodium ions per ascorbate molecule, sodium ion requirement is 100 fold less in mitochondria SVCT2 transporters. Ascorbate SVCT2 transporters in plasma membrane also require the presence of calcium and magnesium for transport of ascorbate. Mitochondria SVCT2 can take up ascorbate in the ABSENCE of calcium and magnesium. [74]

In plants, ascorbate is found to be synthesized by mitochondria between Complex III and Complex IV. [75] Mitochondria is where all quantum entanglements begin and end. Since ascorbate is the ultimate quantum interface, mitochondria will never be found without ascorbate in any living organism, plant nor animal.

The overwhelming evidence on ascorbate I have presented to you today is but a microscopic fraction of the portion of the iceberg that is visible to us currently. This iceberg is without doubt an important piece of the puzzle that will help us understand how we are entangled with our environment, natural or artificial. I cannot say whether ascorbate will be ‘the’ answer for survival and adaptation in the modern high tech world man has created. Having a better understanding of how the birefringent quantum properties of ascorbate can affect our adaptation is an excellent start though. Thank you for joining me on this important and exciting discovery. It would assist me greatly if you will take a moment to leave your impression or comments so I can plan my next article on ascorbate for you.





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genero81

Dagobah Resident
FOTCM Member
"A perfect example of this phenomena is the collapse of bee colonies as a result of increased electromagnetic frequencies. Increasing scientific evidence strongly support the theory of colony collapse disorder (CCD) among honey bees due to electromagnetic radiation from cell phones and cell towers. The massive amount of radiation produced by towers and mobile phones negatively affect honey bee behavior and biology. [52] Bee colonies are known to sustain a marked increase in loss rates during the winter as a result of decreased food sources that contain ascorbate. [53] Even though bees are able to biosynthesize ascorbate, the levels produced are obviously not enough to counter the effects of increased electromagnetic radiation that causes a significant reduction in endogenous antioxidants such as glutathione and catalase. The supplementation of ascorbate in diet of bees however, rescued colony loss rates during the winter by 33%, in parallel with increased antioxidant defense with elevated glutathione transferase and catalase activities. [54]

Birds on the other hand, appear to fare slightly better. Even though most birds do not synthesize ascorbate [46], breeding and migrating birds do not seem to be highly affected by electromagnetic radio waves.[55] Why? Feathers are made of keratin, and keratin is highly birefringent. [57] Feathers, therefore are able to depolarize electromagnetic radiation. The way birefringent feathers are arranged on the body of a bird is simply an exquisite display of nature at one of her better moments. [56]

How do plants protect themselves since they are exposed all the time to cosmic rays, irradiation from the sun and in the past half century, increased onslaught of electromagnetic frequencies in the form of artificial lights and Radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic radiation (EMR) from a wide spectrum of radio waves? Plants, if you remember, have evolved a successful ascorbate biosynthetic pathway that does not generate reactive oxygen species. When exposed to varying levels of light intensities, plants usually respond by adjusting their ascorbate concentrations. [58] But the question remains, is the endogenous ascorbate production enough to counter the effects of EMR from cell towers? Trees grown in the direct vicinities of mobile phone base stations were found to show signs of damage that included stunted growth, brown leaves, irregular growth, dead branches, and color changes. Damage was usually the highest in locations with high radiation exposure and starts on the sides facing the source of radiofrequency radiation. Over time, the damage was extended to the entire plant. [59] A review of an extensive number of studies on the damaging effects of weak radio frequencies on plants showed mostly inhibition or reduced growth rates, whereas some studies actually did not find any negative response upon electromagnetic radiation (EMR) exposure. [60] How does EMR exposure reduce or inhibit growth in plants?"

Most of the article is hard to fully grasp by the lay person. But the article towards the end has some interesting things to say about the possible protection effect of Vitamin C from man made radiation.
 
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