Yesterday we made a number of interesting discoveries that have left a few dangling threads hanging out there that ought to be tugged just a bit before we continue.
First of all, there is the question about the death of Dr. David Kelly, the biological warfare weapons specialist who had links to three other top microbiologists who are on the startlingly long list of microbiologists who have died mysteriously in the past few years.
Regular readers of the site here already know that I make unusual connections between things and this item certainly has been working on me. What it reminded me of was the movie V, where the aliens began to target scientists for destruction because they were the only ones capable of figuring out the genetics of the invaders and what might be used as a weapon against them. I know that is a strange connection, but when you try to figure out a reason for the deaths of so many microbiologists in so short a period of time, considering what is happening on the global political stage, you have to start somewhere.
Of course, it wasn’t until the death of David Kelly that the clue about Ethnic Specific Weapons turned up and then it all began to make a sick sort of sense.
The news bytes tell us that Kelly was involved with ultra secret work at Israel’s Institute for Biological Research. We are also told that there have been “persistent reports” that the institute is engaged in DNA sequencing research. This last seems to be founded on the fact that a former member of the Knesset, Dedi Zucker, claimed in the Israeli Parliament that the institute was “trying to create an ethnic specific weapon” in which Arabs could be targeted by Israeli weapons.
What does NOT fit in this little scenario is the fact that it was Israeli sources making the claim that Kelly met Israeli institute scientists several times in London in the past two years, from which, it seems, the inference was made that Kelly was involved with ultra secret work FOR Israel.
As I have already written, the problem that captured my attention – assuming that Dedi Zucker was letting the cat out of the bag when he said that Israel was “trying to create an ethnic specific weapon in which Arabs could be targeted” – was what kind of “marker” would they use to include or exclude based on ETHNICITY?
There are two points to keep in mind here. First, studies done from the perspective of the Y chromosome, or the male genetic line, show similarities between Ashkenazic Jews, Sephardic Jews, Israeli Arabs/Palestinian, and Lebanese populations as well as limited genetic connections to European populations.
Second, in most European and Near Eastern populations, the highest frequency mtDNA type is the HVS-1 Cambridge Reference Sequence (CRS). This type occurs at 16%, on average, in Europe, and at 6%, on average, in the Near East. All of the seven European and Near Eastern non-Jewish populations have the CRS as their modal haplotype.
At that point in time, what was revealed by the genetic studies available to me, suggested that any biochemical weapon specifically designed to take out Palestinians would also take out most of today’s Jewry, AND a large number of Europeans and their descendants, such as many Americans.
Looking at it from the point of view of mtDNA wasn’t entirely satisfactory either. Remember the remark: two of the nine Jewish populations had the CRS as their modal haplotype, including the largest group of modern Jews, Ashkenazi:
The pattern in Ashkenazic Jews is of particular interest. Despite the common opinion that this population has undergone a strong founder event, it has a modal haplotype with a frequency similar to that of its host population (9.0% vs. 6.9%), providing little evidence of a strong founder event on the female side.
That meant that the mtDNA as an “excluder” would only work for less than 30 percent of modern Jews – Separdic Jews – and the remaining 70 percent would be as susceptible to an Ethnic Specific agent as Palestinians. That didn’t make a whole lot of sense. Since most of the Zionist Jews are Ashkenazi, why would they create a weapon that would guarantee their own destruction? I kept thinking about Larsen’s explication of the possibility of “engineered biological pathogens which would affect only those races which historically have no natural defense against certain “enzyme inhibitors.”
Of course, I realized that there must surely be a lot more to this issue than was available to the public. Who knows what kind of research goes on in the Enclaves of the National Security State?
So there the problem rested as I continued to dig for clues.
Now, let’s take a moment to answer the question: what is mtDNA and what, precisely, does it do?
Mitochondria are tiny structures that exist within every cell, though not in the cell nucleus along with the chromosomes. The mitochondria help the cell use oxygen to produce energy. The more active a cell is, the more energy it needs and the more mitochondria it contains. Active cells such as those that make up muscles and neurons can contain as many as a thousand mitochondria.
Each mitochondria is in a little membranous sac which also contains enzymes for aerobic metabolism, or the burning of fuel that we take in as food. This “burning” takes place in a “sea of oxygen” which neither produces “flame” nor gives off light, but most definitely produces heat.
The main output of this process is a high-energy molecule called ATP which is needed by the body to run everything from the beating of the heart, to thinking with the cells of the brain.
Right in the middle of each of these little power cells is a tiny piece of DNA that is only sixteen and a half thousand base pairs in length. To compare, the bases in the chromosomes of the nucleus number three thousand million.
Mitochondrial DNA is composed of genetic codes for the oxygen-capturing enzymes that do the work in the mitochondria. Interestingly, many of the genes that control the workings of the mitochondria are found within the nuclear chromosomes. This, of course, reminds us of Larsen’s “enzyme inhibitors.” An inhibitor that affects “oxygen capturing enzymes?”
There is also something very bizarre about the mtDNA: Mitochondrial DNA forms a circle.As it happens, bacteria and other micro-organisms also have circular chromosomes.
Some experts think that mitochondria were once free-living bacteria that invaded more advanced cells hundreds of millions of years ago. The cells got a boost from being able to use oxygen – a cell can create much more high-energy ATP from the same amount of fuel using oxygen than it can without it – and the mitochondria may have found life within the cell more “comfortable” than outside. Yes, I know this is a really wild explanation, but it gets better. The experts theorize that, very slowly, over millions of years, some of the mitochondrial genes were transferred to the nucleus where they remain. This means mitochondria are trapped within cells and cannot return to the outside even if they wanted to.
This idea is based on the fact that the nuclear chromosomes are littered with broken fragments of mitochondrial genes that can’t do anything because they are not intact.
Of course, with the strange connections that pop up in my head, all of this reminded me of a number of remarks made by “Us in the Future” which I can’t resist including here in chronological order, though each excerpt came at different times, spread out over 8 years:
DNA core is as yet undiscovered enzyme relating to carbon. Light waves were used to cancel the first ten factors of DNA by burning them off. At that point, a number of physical changes took place…
Q: (L) Could you describe to me the true meaning of the Osirian cycle. What was the symbology of the killing of Osiris and the cutting up of the body?
A: Removal of knowledge centers.
Q: (L) Knowledge centers in what?
A: Your DNA.
Q: (L) So, the breaking up of Osiris’ body represents the breaking up of the DNA in our bodies?
A: Partly. Also means knowledge capacity reduction.
Time is an illusion that works for you because of your altered DNA state.
Q: (V) A few weeks ago several of us began to suffer from internal heat, insomnia, and other things. What was this?
A: Image. Deep conjunction of fibrous linkage in DNA structure.
Q: (L) Is there any possibility of regaining or restructuring this DNA?
A: Was there, will be again.
Q: (L) OK, we’ve got a whole bunch of DNA, in these funny- looking double strands. And, according to the book, only 2% is actually used, and the other 98% of it is what these ‘experts’ are pleased to call ‘junk.’ They call it junk. Now, I would like to know, is there any way to activate this other DNA?
A: Won’t it be activated on its own?
Q: Is bloodline something that is distinct or different from genetics or DNA?
A: Symbiotic relationship.
Q: Are these bloodlines carrying a specific codon that is designed to activate at a certain period of time or in response to a certain frequency?
A: Possibly, but why should not that apply to everyone?
Q: I have been having this sensation of an electrical charge building up in my legs and I would like to know what I can do to discharge this. All the muscles are hard and uncomfortable.
A: Molecular changes due to DNA evolving.
[Break. Group watches video: Riverdance.]
Q: Hi guys! Did you like the movie?… How close are these dances to the original Celtic dances?
Q: What about these dances would make them more original?
Q: But, why the stylized rigidity of the arms?
A; Has to do with sound through chemical enzyme based utilization for power purposes.
Q: How does the stiff-arm posture relate to sound?
A: Chemical transmitter flow.
Q: You mean that something flowed through their arms and out their hands to enhance levitation?
Q: Well, if you think about it, the Celtic floklore talks about the enormous heat of certain heros who had to be plunged into very cold water several times so that they could cool down enough to put clothes on. Add to that the fact that the Celts went into battle naked because they would go into the ‘furor’ and produce so much heat that they could not tolerate clothing. And, what about the heat of the ‘states’ [described by Ibn al-'Arabi] that I experience from time to time identified that as a ‘reflection’ of the connection to 4th density. That is a truly bizarre state because the heat is so intense it is almost unbearable, yet does not even show on a thermometer, and to anyone else who touches me, I am not hot. Yet the internal heat is unbelievable.
Q: (L) What would be the effect of cosmic rays emitted by a supernova that is in some proximity to the earth on the human body?
A: Genetic splice of strand.
Q: (L) How close would a supernova have to be to have this effect?
A: 2000 light years.
Q: You once said that the core of DNA is an as yet undiscovered enzyme related to carbon. Is that correct?
Q: Here in this book it says: “Evidence is accumulating that only a relatively small portion of the DNA sequence is for so-called structural genes. Structural genes lead to the production of protein. There are an estimated 50,000 structural genes with an average size of approximately 5,000 base pairs, which then accounts for only 250 million of the estimated 3 billion base pairs.
What is the rest of the DNA for?
Some of the DNA is so-called repetitive sequences, repeated thousands of times. The function is unknown. The ALU, repeat, for instance, contains over 300,000 copies of the same 300 base pair sequence. Certainly this DNA is not junk and plays some important role in the gene regulation chromosomal architecture or chromosomal replication.
Until 1977, it was thought that genes were single sequences of DNA that are coded into RNA and then into protein. However, further study has shown greater complexity. It is now known that there are pieces of DNA within a gene that are not translated into protein. These intervening sequences, or INTRONS, are somewhat of a mystery, but appear to be a very common phenomenon.”
Now, is this thing they are talking about, these INTRONS, are these the core that you were talking about?
A: In part.
Q: What about this ALU repeat with over 300,000 copies of the same base pair sequence. What is it?
A: Tribal unit.
Q: What is a tribal unit?
A: Sectionalized zone of significant marker compounds.
Q: What does this code for?
A: Physiological/spiritual union profile. …
Q: What does the rest of the DNA code for that is not coding for structural genes. What else can it be doing?
A: Truncated flow.
Q: Truncated flow of what?
A: Liquids. …
Q: (L) Does truncated flow mean a flow of liquid that has been stopped?
A: Yes. Because of design alteration!
Q: Is this liquid that has been truncated a chemical transmitter?
Q: And would this chemical transmitter, if it were allowed to flow, cause significant alterations in other segments of the DNA?
Q: So, there is a segment of code that is in there, that is deliberately inserted, to truncate this flow of liquid, which is a chemical transmitter, or neuropeptide, which would unlock significant portions of our DNA?
A: Close: Biogenetic engineering. …
Q: Okay, can you tell us what this specific liquid or transmitter was truncated?
A: Think of the most efficient conductor of chemical compounds for low wave frequency charge.
A: Closer. It is a naturally bonding combination.
Q: (L) Well, I’ll have to research it. The fact is, we’ve got 3 billion base pairs… do some of these so-called segments of “junk DNA,” if they were activated, would they instruct chromosomal replication to take place with more than 23 pairs as a result?
A: In part.
Q: Is there anything we can do in terms of activities or…
A: No. Biogenetic engineering.
Q: Was the thought that I had one night that, at some point in time something may happen that will turn genes on in our bodies that will cause us to physically transform, an accurate perception of what could happen?
A: For the most part, yes.
Q: Are there any limitations to what our physical bodies can transform to if instructed by the DNA? Could we literally grow taller, rejuvenate, change our physical appearance, capabilities, or whatever, if instructed by the DNA?
A: Receivership capability.
Q: What is receivership capability?
A: Change to broader receivership capability. ..
Q: (A) It means how good is your receiver.
Q: (L) What is your receiver? The physical body?
A: Mind through central nervous system connection to higher levels.
Q: So, that is the whole issue of gaining knowledge and developing control over your body. If your mind and CNS are tuned to higher levels of consciousness, that has significance in terms of your receivership capability?
All persons of Nordic heritage hold secret power centers, can be of darkness, or of light…
Suffering activates neuro-chemicals which turn on DNA receptors.
Coming back to our mtDNA, we realize that this is the powerhouse of the body, where oxygen capturing enzymes are coded. The mystery as to why parts of mtDNA are attached to nuclear DNA might be easily solve by theorizing that it was once part of the nuclear DNA. Again, a segment from our superluminal transmissions from Us in the Future comes to mind:
Q: During the time Neanderthal man was on the Earth, did he live alongside Modern man?
A: Yes. Except modern type man was different then.
Q: In what ways?
A: DNA and psycho/electrical frequencies.
Q: Does this mean that their physical appearance was different from what we consider to be modern man?
A: Radiance. …
Q: Oh, that’s interesting. Well, there are legends that the Northern people had “light” in their veins. Very ancient belief. Is this what you are referring to?
I don’t want to speculate too much further on the mtDNA at this point except to suggest that it might be the key to Ethnic Specific biochemical weapons when you consider that its configuration is similar to that of bacteria.
Now, as I mentioned, realizing that Ashkenazi Jews were different in some significant way from Separdic Jews, I decided to have a look at Koestler’s book which presents the theory that Eastern European Jews are descended from the ancient Khazars. Look again at the chart below to note the position of Ashkenazi Jews relative to other groups according to the male lineage analysis.
Jews are represented by triangles: Ashkenazim = Ash, Roman Jews = Rom, North African Jews = Naf; Near Eastern Jews = Nea; Kurdish Jews = Kur, Yemenite Jews = Yem; Ethiopian Jews = EtJ; non-Jewish Middle Easterners = Pal, non-Jewish Syrians = Syr, non-Jewish Lebanes = Leb, Israeli Druze = Dru, non-Jewish Saudi Arabians = Sar; Non-Jewish Europeans: Rus = Russians, Bri = British, Ger = Germans, Aus = Austrians, Ita = Italians, Spa = Spanish, Gre = Greeks, Tun = North Africans and Tunisians; Egy = Egyptians, Eth = Ethiopians, Gam = Gambians, Bia = Giaka, Bag = Bagandans, San = San, Zul = Zulu. Tur = non Jewish Turks, Lem = Lemba from south Africa.
Again we notice that the lower right corner of the graph is where Near Eastern Jews are positioned. One might therefore theorize that the Near Eastern Jews are, more or less, the most “Jewish” of the Jews in terms of many generations of “Jews” in their family lines. Looking around this cluster, we notice that there are several “families” that are very close, including Yemenite Jews, Druze, North African Jews, and Palestinians. On the other hand, the Ashkenazi Jews are not only much closer to Turks, Syrians and Roman Jews, they are quite distant from both the Near Eastern Jews and the Palestinians. I also noted with some considerable interest that Saudi Arabians are much closer to Europeans and even Ashkenazi Jews than to Palestinians.
Naturally, Zionist Jews – most of them Ashkenazi – do not like Koestler’s ideas – that the Eastern European Jews were originally Khazars, an Aryan tribe from Central Asia. The short version of one of the theories held to by the Ashkenazi themselves is that the Roman Jews are descended from a group of Jews that fled Israel at the time of the diaspora and that some of them migrated up into Eastern Europe, then going even further East and mixing with Turks, forming the Ashkenazi Jews. Another theory is that the Khazars included remnants of original Jews who fled Israel at the time of the Babylonian captivity. When they adopted Judaism in the 9th century, they were just “coming home” so to say. With either of these theories, they retain their “birthright” to Israel upon which the present occupation of Palestine is based.
I can only say I have read a lot of material on both sides of the question and I find Koestler’s research to be original and credible. What is more, there is nothing about the gene flow of the Eastern European Jews that cannot be explained far more completely with his theory than with the “out of Israel at some point” hypothesis. Koestler’s ideas explain the anomalies of the Khazar clans as well, when juxtaposed against the Sephardic Jews and their paternal kin, the Palestinians.
Hillel Halkin wrote in an article entitled: Wandering Jews and Their Genes:
Finally, published in last June’s Proceedings of the National Academy of Science were the results of a study conducted by an international team of scientists led by Michael Hammer of the University of Arizona and Batsheva Bonn-Tamir of Tel Aviv University…
Based on genetic samples from 1,371 males… its main conclusions are:
1. With the exception of Ethiopian Jews, all Jewish samples show a high genetic correlation…
3. In descending order after these Middle Easterners, Ashkenazi Jews correlate best with Greeks and Turks; then with Italians; then with Spaniards; then with Germans; then with Austrians; and least of all with Russians… And on the other hand again: whereas the traditional explanation of East European Jewish origins was that most Ashkenazi Jews reached Poland and Russia from… the Rhineland; Rhineland from northern France… this version has come under increasing challenge in recent years on both demographic and linguistic grounds.
Most Jews, the challengers maintain, must have arrived in Eastern Europe not from the west and southwest but from the south and east – that is, via northern Italy and the Balkans; Asia Minor and the Greek Byzantine empire; the Volga kingdom of the Khazars… or a combination of all three.
Now comes the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science report, which appears to bear out this newer version of events. Ashkenazi Jews, it informs us, have a more significant admixture of Italian, Greek, and Turkish genes than of Spanish, German, or even Austrian ones.
In other words, for the Jews to have traveled up through Italy to Eastern Europe, they would have had to mix with Germans or Austrians – but that isn’t the case.
Of course, things are not so simple. Even without questioning the study’s highly technical procedures, different interpretations could be put on them. It could be argued, for example, that the resemblance of Jewish to Greek and Italian Y chromosomes is traceable to proselytization in the Mediterranean world during the period of the Roman Empire…
What must also be remembered is that Y chromosomes tell us only about males. But we know that in most societies, women are more likely to convert to their husband’s religion than vice-versa… If true, this might also explain a number of differences between the Hammer/Bonn-Tamir study and earlier research on the geographical distribution of specific Jewish diseases, blood types, enzymes, and mitochondrial DNA…
This issue is actually so contentious that, after the paper on the Eight Founding Mothers of Judaism was published, Michael Hammer, himself of Ashkenazi heritage, and others, went back to the lab and produced their own “Founding Mother Event of Ashkenazi Jews” paper.
Published on January 14, 2004, just a couple of months ago, the paper, entitled MtDNA evidence for a genetic bottleneck in the early history of the Ashkenazi Jewish population tells us the following: (emphases, mine)
The term ‘Ashkenazi’ refers to Jewish people of recent European ancestry, with an historical separation from other major Jewish populations in North Africa and the Middle East. The contemporary Ashkenazi gene pool is thought to have originated from a founding deme that migrated from the Near East within the last two millennia. After moving through Italy and the Rhine Valley, the Ashkenazi population presumably experienced a complex demographic history characterized by numerous migrations and fluctuations in population size. During the past 500 years, there was a period of rapid growth culminating in an estimated population size of 8 million Ashkenazi Jews at the outbreak of the Second World War.
Notice that in this most recent research, Hammer is again trying to resurrect the “Up through Italy and the Rhine Valley” idea which is rather thoroughly contradicted by his own earlier research on the paternal ancestry as Hillel Halkin pointed out. One of the issues of Ashkenazi ancestry is the high frequency of more than 20 known recessive disease alleles. As any animal breeder knows, this often occurs with inbreeding. Koestler has pointed out that the Khazars – after their conversion – were more “Jewish than the Jews.” As converts, they were more zealous in following the “rules” of not marrying outside of their group. After the destruction of the Khazar kingdom, the population of Khazarian Jews was undoubtedly greatly reduced and this accounts not only for a bottleneck, but also for the conditions in which inbreeding would occur, leading to the expression of recessive disease alleles in the gene pool.
Reading Hammer’s new paper is almost painful as his efforts to “repatriate” the Ashkenazi Jews are quite transparent. He refers, at the very beginning, to the “Eight Founding Mothers paper” which pretty much left the Ashkenazi out in the cold, Jewishly speaking.
In a recent study based on mtDNA sequence variation … the authors inferred separate maternal founding events for several Jewish populations, with limited subsequent gene flow from surrounding host populations. Interestingly, the Ashkenazi Jewish sample in this study appeared to be an exception to this pattern, showing no strong signal of a founding event …
To address the question of whether mtDNA from Ashkenazi populations exhibit signs of a genetic bottleneck, we perform a more extensive analysis of mtDNA genetic variation … in a sample of 565 Jews from 15 different Ashkenazi communities originating in western and eastern Europe, and compare these patterns of variation with those of neighboring non-Jewish populations.
In our analysis, we take advantage of the ability to infer evidence for maternal population bottlenecks on the basis of comparative estimates of mtDNA sequence diversity.
This last paragraph just tells us in Sciencespeak that they intend to “interpret” the data according to their bias; you know, “cook the data.”
The results presented here portray a pattern of highly reduced mtDNA diversity for the Ashkenazi population, an unusually large proportion ofmtDNA haplotypes that are unique to the Ashkenazi gene pool, and a reduction in frequency of rare haplotypes and singleton sites compared with Near Eastern populations.
For example, the three most frequent Ashkenazi haplo- types account for 27.8% of total mtDNA repertoire in our Ashkenazi sample. These Ashkenazi mtDNA haplotypes are virtually absent from surrounding non-Jewish populations and therefore provide a genetic signature of the Ashkenazi maternal gene pool, and bear witness to the strong effects of genetic drift acting on this population.
What Hammer is NOT addressing is the fact that maternal gene pool of the Ashkenazi is not related to the maternal gene pool of other Jews. As Koestler pointed out, the above also bears witness to the self-imposed isolation of Jewish groups among their host populations. They chose to live in walled Ghettos and keep their genes to themselves even if it meant extreme endogamy. In other words, what Hammer et al is describing is inbreeding. He acknowledges this below:
This contrasts with the situation in both Near Eastern and European non-Jewish populations, where only a single haplotype (CRS) was found at elevated frequencies (ie, above 5%).
There are several periods in the history of Jewish populations when bottlenecks may have occurred, for example: (1) in the Near East before the initial migration to Europe (eg, 41,500 years ago), (2) during the migrations of Jews from the Near East to Italy after the 1st century A.D., (3) upon establishment of small communities in the Rhine Valley in the 8th century A.D., and (4) in the 12th century A.D., when migrations took place from western to eastern Europe.
In addition, endogamy in combination with 4100-fold population growth in the last 500 years undoubtedly played a role in shaping patterns of variation in the Ashkenazi gene pool.
While several authors posited that the high frequency of genetic conditions, such as Tay-Sachs disease, is the result of heterozygote advantage, 5,28 – 30 others have argued for an important role of genetic drift. For example, Risch et al. proposed that founder effects resulting from the dynamics of population growth in the 16 – 19th centuries, especially in the northern Jewish Pale of Settlement (Lithuania and Belarus), explain most, if not all of the genetic diseases observed at high frequency in the Ashkenazi population today. This hypothesis was supported by the inference of a recent age of the single founder mutation ( B350 years) that causes early-onset idiopathic torsion dystonia.
The much older estimated age of the factor XI type II mutation ( B3000 years), which has a high frequency in both Ashkenazi and Iraqi Jewish populations, implies that its frequency is largely independent of the recent demographic upheavals particular to the Ashkenazi population. [...]
All of the above – and more – is covered rationally and plausibly by Koestler in his bookThe Thirteenth Tribe. Nevertheless, Hammer et al continue to beat the dead horse of a Near East origin for the Ashkenazi mtDNA gene pool.
The observed mutational frequency peak for the Ashkenazi and Near Eastern non-Jewish populations is similar and consistent with the age of the Pleistocene expansion, which is older than that inferred from the mutational frequency peak for European non-Jews. This is consistent with a Near East origin for a major portion of the Ashkenazi Jewish mtDNA pool.
If the Jewish population bottleneck did begin in the Near East, other Jewish populations from around the world are predicted to harbor similar values of f 0 and f 1 in their mismatch distributions. To test this prediction, we examined the mismatch distributions resulting from the data of Thomas et al., which includes samples of the Bukharan, Georgian, Indian, Iranian, Iraqi, Moroccan, and Yemenite Jewish communities. All HVS-1 sequence datasets showed a significantly elevated f 0 (only Sephardic Jews showed an increase in f 1 ) relative to Near Eastern non-Jewish populations… This result implies that global Jewish communities suffered a common bottleneck in the Near East, or independent founder events during the Jewish Diaspora. [...]
Notice in the above that the Sephardic Jews, did not fulfull the prediction of the “mismatch theory” above. Also note that this prediction was not tested against anything other than Jewish populations. What if other populations show similar mismatch distributions? But Hammer presses on bravely in his attempt to explain why Ashkenazi aren’t like other Jews in the maternal ancestry:
This suggests the possibility that contemporary Ashkenazi mtDNA diversitymay derive, in part, from a small and subdivided ancestral mtDNA gene pool, and is consistent with the hypothesis that some high frequency disease alleles originated before the separation of Jewish communities in the Near East. Indeed, estimates of the age of mutations causing Ashkenazi genetic diseases range from recent times (ie, during demographic upheavals within Europe in the past 500 years), to times when ancestral Ashkenazi populations were first migrating to and within Europe, to times before Jewish populations migrated out of the Near East. [...]
The combined mtDNA and disease mutation data suggest that Ashkenazi Jewish populations experienced a long period of accentuated genetic drift marked by an early bottleneck, perhaps beginning in the Near East. Prolonged periods of low effective population size can lead to the accumulation of slightly deleterious mutations throughout the genome. Small founder populations derived from large ancestral populations are not always capable of purging these deleterious mutations. This may be the ultimate cause of the segregation of disease mutations in Ashkenazi Jews. However, this explanation does not preclude more proximal causes for the increase in frequency of disease mutations, such as those hypothesized by Risch et al., 7 unequal contribution of a particular segment of the Ashkenazi Jewish community to the explosive population growth occurring in the Pale of Settlement approximately 25 generations ago. Low effective size may have enabled deleterious mutations to become established in the Jewish population, while the recent growth of affected segments of the community amplified these mutations to frequencies sufficiently high to form homozygotes.
In other words, he has described the results of the exact scenario that Koestler has hypothesized – inbreeding of a small, surviving population of Khazars and ghetto-ization of fanatical converts – and still has not managed to provide a single convincing bit of evidence of the origin of the Ashkenazi in the Near East.
The short of it is that Koestler’s theory, despite many attempts to deconstruct it, still provides the best answers for the origins of the Ashkenazi Jews: they were Khazars who, for political reasons, converted to Judaism. The interested reader is invited to click HERE and read Koestler’s book with its original research and clear exposition of the links between the Khazars and the Eastern European Jews.
The big question now is: Who were the Khazars? Koestler was only able to go so far with answering this question. In my own search, I think I may have gotten a bit closer to it than he did and, at the same time, maybe I have discovered the clue as to why Nostradamus and Edgar Cayce said what they did:
In the year 1999 and seven months
From the sky will come the Great King of Terror,
Raising again the great king of the Mongols,
Before and after Mars (war) reigns at his pleasure. X.72
Edgar Cayce’s mention of Mongols was as follows:
If there is not the acceptance in America of the closer brotherhood of man, the love of the neighbor as self, civilization must wend its way westward – and again must Mongolism, must a hated people be raised.